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Commercial geography 

Albert Perry Brigham 

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The object of this text is the exposition of the principles of 
commercial geography as based on a knowledge of its more im- 
portant facts. It is regarded as necessary and advantageous to 
treat products and regions in a single volume, if perspective is 
observed and if both products and regions are made contributory 
to the unfolding of principles. To this end minor commodities 
and regions must surrender their place to facts of larger meaning. 

Part I offers an inductive approach to principles which are 
formally stated in Chapter VI. The author holds it wise to avoid 
an introductory statement of abstract relations, and has therefore 
chosen five products or staples of world-wide interest, treating 
them broadly as world products and as typical of all others in 
the geographic principles involved. No materials of commerce 
are more significant in themselves, or in their relations, than 
wheat, cotton, cattle, iron, and coal. 

Part II relates to the United States and opens with a brief 
review of physical features. To the usual account of plant, 
animal, and mineral substances, a chapter on water is added. 
This is amply justified by the importance which water has now 
assumed as a part of our natural resources. The chapters on 
concentration of industry, centers of general industry, transpor- 
tation, communication, and government relations afford a return 
to vital principles, unfolding them more fully than was possible 
in Chapter VI, and offering considerations which are of uni- 
versal application, though here developed in special reference 
to our own country. 

Part III deals with foreign countries. Canada is taken first, 
owing to its close geographic and commercial relations to the 
United States. It is followed by the chapters on the great in- 
dustrial and trading nations of western Europe. Grouping the 


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minor with the greater countries, southern and eastern Europe 
follow, and a single chapter is given to each of the remaining 
continents. For an elementary text to be used in American 
schools it is believed that this allotment of space is wise. The 
closing chapter summarizes the history of commerce and sug- 
gests some of its larger aspects. 

It has been sought to place orderly and cumulative emphasis 
on general principles ; to concentrate, so far as possible, the 
treatment of each topic ; to use sparingly statistics of temporary 
value ; to give little attention to industrial processes except as 
they have geographic meaning; and to present industry and 
commerce as organic, evolutionary, and world-embracing, re- 
sponding to natural conditions and to the spirit of discovery and 
invention, and closely interwoven with the higher life of man. 

The illustrations consist of views, diagrams, and maps. 
These stand in close relation to the text, and the maps are so 
planned that each may exhibit one or a few things in a legible 
and simple manner. 

The thanks of the author are due to Mr. Chester M. Grover 
of the High School of Commerce, Boston, who has read the 
proofs and made many welcome suggestions ; and to Mr. R. J. H. 
Deloach, Professor of Cotton Industry in the Georgia State 
College of Agriculture, who has performed a similar service for 
the chapter dealing with cotton. Obligation is acknowledged 
also to Professor G. G. Chisholm of the University of Edin- 
burgh, whose "Handbook of Commercial Geography" and 
whose numerous special papers are useful to every worker in 
this field. 

Among those who have aided in the illustration of the vol- 
ume, thanks are given to The University of Chicago Press for 
permission to use several maps from the series of base maps 
prepared by Professor J. Paul Goode ; to Professor J. McFar- 
lane of the Victoria University of Manchester ; Mr. George L. 
Buck, Chicago ; Mr. James Warbasse, Gloversville, New York ; 
Dr. Charles F. McClumpha, Amsterdam, New York ; Dr. L. A. 
Bauer, Director of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 

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Carnegie Institution ; and Professor Ralph S. Tarr of Cornell 
University. To Messrs. Gregory, Keller, and Bishop of Yale 
University the author is indebted for permission to use, in 
slightly modified form, several maps from their " Physical and 
Commercial Geography " ; these are, Physiographic Regions of 
the United States, New York Harbor and its Approaches, and 
the maps showing the ocean routes of the world and the routes 
and centers of ancient commerce. Many government bureaus 
and the officers of several agricultural experiment stations have 
rendered generous assistance. 


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I. Wheat i 

II. Cotton 22 

III. Cattle Industries 40 

IV. Iron 58 

V. Coal 79 

VI. The Principles of Commercial Geography .... 92 



VII. Physical Features of the United States 111 

VIII. Plant Products of the United States 120 

IX. Animal Industries of the United States 145 

X. Mineral Industries of the United States .... 160 

XI. Water Resources of the United States 180 

XII. The Concentration of Industries 202 

XIII. Centers of General Industry . . . * 217 

XIV. Transportation 229 

XV. Communication 247 

XVI. Government and Commerce 256 

XVII. Foreign Commerce of the United States 271 


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XVIII. Canada 287 

XIX. United Kingdom 303 

XX. France and Belgium 321 

XXI. The German Empire and the North Sea Coun- 
tries .... 335 

XXII. Southern Europe 353 

XXIII. Eastern Europe 369 

XXIV. Asia ...... 384 

XXV. Australia and New Zealand ........ 402 

XXVll Africa 412 

XXVII. Latin America 422 

XXVIII. The World's Commerce 440 

INDEX 449 

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Plowing for wheat in Manitoba 2 

Annual production of wheat, United States, 1 899- 1 908 3 

Spring wheat grown at Sitka, Alaska 4 

Movement of the center of wheat production*, United States 5 

Wheat harvest in Manitoba 6 

Wheat in the shock on the prairies 7 

Threshing on the prairies 8 

Flour mills of Minneapolis 10 

Village elevators in the Northwest n 

Wheat production and price, United States 13 

The " wheat pit," Chicago 14 

Map of world's wheat production 16 

Proportion of lands under wheat in Russia 18 

Cotton bolls, unopened and opened 22 

Cotton fibers, attached to seed 23 

Map of cotton production, United States 24 

Percentage of cotton grown in each state 25 

World's average cotton production, 1903- 1907 26 

Mill supply of cotton by countries contributing 27 

Areas reporting sea-island cotton, 1909 28 

Cotton picking 29 

Fulton bag and cotton mills, Atlanta 30 

Cotton levee, New Orleans 31 

Spinning room of Lancashire cotton mill 32 

Consumption of cotton by manufacturing countries 34 

Cotton production, United States, 1 790-1909 35 

Relative importance of six textile fibers 38 

Cattle other than milch cows, United States, 1899- 1908 41 

Roping calves for branding on the western plains 42 

The stockyards, Chicago 44 

World's cattle, including dairy cows 48 

Sources of the milk supply of New York City 50 

Sources of the milk supply of Boston 52 

City inspection of milk 53 


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Bacteriological laboratory, State Dairy School, Ames, Iowa 54 

Decrease in death rate of children, District of Columbia 55 

Furnaces near Pittsburg 60 

Distribution of iron deposits, United States 62 

Duluth, Mesaba, and Northern ore docks 64 

Ore unloader at work, Buffalo 65 

Sources, routes, and destination of Lake Superior iron ores 66 

Birmingham iron district, Alabama 67 

Ore boat below the " Soo," returning empty 68 

Plant of Lackawanna Steel Company, Buffalo 69 

Bessemer converter in action 70 

Open hearth mill, Lackawanna Steel Company 71 

Iron and steel products of leading states in 1905 72 

Production of iron ore, pig iron, and steel, United States 73 

Truesdale coal breaker, Scranton, Pennsylvania 80 

Delaware and Hudson coal storage, Delanson, New York 82 

Coal barges at Pittsburg 86 

Coal fields of Great Britain 87 

Production of coal, United States, 1846- 1907 89 

Distribution of population, United States, 1 790 93 

Distribution of population, United States, 1850 94 

Distribution of population, United States, 1900 96 

Density of population, United States, 1910 98 

Westward migration of centers of population, etc 102 

Population in agricultural pursuits, United States 103 

Hand and machine labor compared 104-105 

Percentage of improved land, United States 108 

Relief and drainage of eastern United States 112 

Prairie and woodland, original distribution in Illinois 115 

Distribution of chief agricultural products, United States 121 

Annual production of corn, United States 123 

Rice production, United States, 1870 124 

Rice production, United States, 1904-1908 124 

Harvesting rice, Louisiana 125 

Date palms, Tempe, Arizona 126 

Apple production, United States, 1899 127 

Digging potatoes near Greeley, Colorado 129 

Potato cellar near Greeley, Colorado 130 

Production of cane sugar, United States 131 

Production of beet sugar, United States 132 

Sugar factory ; sugar beets at Blissfield, Michigan 133 

Tea bush, Summerville, South Carolina 134 

Tea factory, Summerville, South Carolina 134 

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Annual production of tobacco, United States 135 

Harvesting alfalfa, Port Conway, Virginia 136 

Flax at harvest time, Pigeon, Minnesota, 1909 137 

Hemp at harvest time, Lexington, Kentucky, 1907 138 

Distribution of forests in the United States 139 

Wasteful logging, Tyler County, Texas 141 

Relative lumber production in ten states, 1880, 1907 142 

Lumber cut by states in 1907 143 

Average annual number of sheep, United States, 1899- 1908 146 

Average annual number of swine, United States, 1899- 1908 147 

States and provinces prohibiting export of game, 1905 149 

Principal fishing grounds of the Atlantic coast region 1 50 

Salmon waters of Pacific coast region 152 

Oyster bed near Brunswick, Georgia 1 53 

Gloucester harbor and fishing vessels 1 54 

Average annual number of horses on farms and ranges, United States, 

1899-1908 158 

Number of horses, all countries 1 59 

Decline of New York and Pennsylvania oil production 162 

Annual production of petroleum, United States, 18 59- 1907 163 

Salt works near Ithaca, New York 166 

Portland cement plants, United States 170 

Portland and natural cement production, United States, 1890- 1908 . . 171 

Production of gold; the world and principal countries, 1 800-1 906 ... 175 

Mean annual rainfall in the United States 181 

Humid, semiarid, and arid regions of the United States 182 

Diagram illustrating the principle of the artesian well 184 

Death rates from typhoid fever in seventy-three cities, grouped according 

to sources of drinking water 186 

Mohawk and Hudson cities and towns in relation to Hudson River ice . 187 

Basins affording water supply for New York City 188 

Zones of natural and manufactured ice in the United States 190 

Hydraulic laboratory of Cornell University 191 

Falls of the Passaic River, Paterson, New Jersey 192 

Transmission lines, Niagara Falls Power Company 193 

Hydroelectric plant, Puyallup River, Washington 194 

Diversion dam, Truckee-Carson irrigation project, Nevada 195 

Location of chief government irrigation projects 196 

Swamp and overflowed lands east of the Rocky Mountains 198 

Traction ditching machine, experimental farm, Cornell University . . 199 

Gauging river flow, West Carson River, California 200 

Distribution of cotton manufacture, United States 204 

Distribution of slaughtering and meat packing, United States .... 205 

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Operatives in knitting mill, Amsterdam, New York 207 

Centers of collars, cuffs, and knit goods in eastern New York .... 208 

Preparation of skins, Gloversville, New York 209 

Cutting room of glove factory, Gloversville, New York 210 

Distribution of manufacture of boots and shoes, United States . . . . 211 

Distribution of manufacture of agricultural implements, United States . 214 

New York harbor and its approaches 216 

Chicago and vicinity 220 

Philadelphia and Baltimore, with hinterland 224 

The Mauretania in New York bay 230 

Railway net of the United States 233 

Increase in railway mileage, United States, 1832-1908 234 

Principal routes of interior navigation, United States 235 

The Barge-Canal route of New York 236 

Cross sections of well-known canals 238 

Electric railways about Cleveland, Ohio 239 

Electric (interurban) railways of Indiana 240 

Two animals drawing one bale of cotton on a bad road 241 

Two horses drawing twelve bales of cotton on a good road 241 

Gross tonnage of vessels owned in the United States . 243 

Steamships in the locks at the " Soo " 244 

Gross tonnage of vessels, United States, 1889 and 1906 245 

Principal transportation routes of the world 246 

Interior of Southern Pacific steel postal car 249 

Rural free-delivery carrier and mail wagon 250 

Increase in rural free-delivery routes, 1897-1909 251 

Wireless-telegraph station, Glace Bay, Nova Scotia 253 

Standard-time belts in the United States 257 

The nonmagnetic ship, Carnegie 263 

Agricultural experiment stations, United States 266 

Samples of grain, Alaska experiment station 267 

Growth of foreign commerce, United States, 1860-1909 272 

New Orleans and Mississippi delta 274 

Galveston and its harbor 275 

Ports of Puget Sound region 276 

Foreign trade of Cuba for fiscal year, 1908-1909 278 

San Francisco and San Francisco Bay 280 

Commerce of United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom ... 281 

Exports of United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom .... 282 

Imports of United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom .... 283 

Douglas firs, British Columbia 289 

Salmon catch, Fraser River, British Columbia 291 

Canada ; isotherms for the year 293 

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Halifax harbor 295 

Montreal harbor 296 

Canadian Pacific Railway station and docks, Vancouver 297 

Sealing fleet, Victoria harbor, British Columbia 298 

Winnipeg, looking west along Portage Avenue 300 

Snow sheds, Selkirk Mountains 301 

Eddystone lighthouse, English Channel 304 

Card room, Lancashire cotton mill 307 

Picker room, Lancashire cotton mill 308 

English centers of cotton and woolen manufacture 309 

Landing stage, Liverpool 311 

Chief British railways, ports, and sea routes 313 

Industrial map of the Scottish Lowlands 315 

Chief wine-producing areas of France 323 

Lyons, showing junction of Rhone and Saone 324 

Railways, sea routes, and industrial centers of France 326 

Interior waterways of France 328 

Marseilles and harbor 330 

Exchange and wharves of Bordeaux 331 

Havre and the mouth of the Seine 332 

Shipping in the harbor of Antwerp 333 

Production of rye, all countries, average, 1 903- 1 907 337 

Production of potatoes, all countries 338 

Sugar-beet map of central Europe 339 

Production of beet sugar, all countries 340 

Production of beet and cane sugar compared 341 

Harbor of Hamburg 342 

Water routes and commercial centers of Germany 344 

Harbor of Rotterdam 348 

Harbor and fish market of Bergen 350 

Chief railways and certain industries of Sweden 351 

Montreux and vineyards, Lake Geneva 354 

Spiral tunnels of St. Gothard Railway 355 

Chief routes, centers, and industries of Italy 356 

Southern entrance to Simplon Tunnel 357 

Drying macaroni, Amalfi, Italy 358 

Production of raw silk, all countries 359 

Genoa and its harbor 360 

Chief routes, centers, and industries of Spain 362 

Harbor of Barcelona 364 

Wharves at Oporto 365 

Wharf and shipping of Piraeus 366 

The Corinthian Canal 367 

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Water routes and industrial centers of Austria-Hungary 370 

Harbor of Trieste 372 

The Danube Canal, Vienna 373 

Budapest 374 

Harbor of Fiume 375 

Principal routes, centers, and industries of Russia 377 

Flax fiber; production, 1903- 1907 378 

Flaxseed ; production, 1905- 1907 379 

Harbor of Odessa 380 

Smyrna and its harbor 386 

Routes and commercial centers of southwestern Asia 387 

Bombay harbor with mail boat arriving 390 

Railways, irrigation canals, and agricultural products of India .... 392 

Harbor of Calcutta 393 

Singapore, Collyer Quay 394 

Eastern Asia 396 

Harbor of Hongkong 397 

Vladivostok, — harbor and terminus of Siberian Railway 401 

Annual rainfall of Australia 403 

Railways and ocean routes of Australasia 406 

Number of sheep, all countries 408 

Harbor of Sydney 409 

Nile dam at Assuan 415 

Port Said and the entrance to the Suez Canal 416 

Sorting diamond gravels, Kimberley 419 

Building of Pan-American Union, Washington, District of Columbia . . 423 

World's average annual production of coffee, 1904-1905 to 1908-1909 . 424 

Coffee and rubber regions of South America 424 

Exports of Brazil, 1909 425 

Imports of Brazil, 1909 425 

Rainfall, railways, and wheat region of Argentina 426 

Exports of Argentina, 1908 428 

Imports of Argentina, 1908 429 

Distribution of population in South America 430 

Exports of Latin America, 1909 431 

Imports of Latin America, 1909 432 

Drying coffee, Costa Rica 435 

Products of Mexico, Central America, and West Indies 436 

Products of Mexico in an average year 438 

Modern shipping in the harbor of Venice 442 

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Panama Canal Frontispiece 

Coal Fields of the United States 82 

Physiographic Regions of the United States 116 

Petroleum and Natural-Gas Fields in the United States . . 160 

Chief Submarine Cables of the World 252 

Progress of Geologic Surveys in the United States to 1909 . 258 

Hydrographic Surveys of the Coasts of the World, 1904 . . 260 

Lighthouse Map of the Chesapeake Region 262 

Lines of Magnetic Declination 264 

Resources of Canada 290 

Sunshine in Summer Months in Canada 292 

Transcontinental Railway Systems of Canada 302 

Territories of Great Britain, United States, and Germany . 318 

Africa 414 

Intercontinental Railway, North and South America . . . 422 

Routes and Centers of Ancient Mediterranean Commerce . . 440 

Venetian and Hanseatic Routes and Centers of Trade . . . 444 

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If one should follow a handful of wheat from the yellow field, 
by wagon and freight car or ship, to the flouring mill, the pro- 
vision merchant, the bake oven, and the loaf of bread, he would 
understand one of the chief themes and acquire many of the 
principles of commercial geography. Food is the first need of 
man, and wheat, which has been called the " international 
grain," is perhaps the most important of foods. We therefore 
study wheat for itself and for its general illustration of the laws 
of production and exchange. 

1. History of wheat. Wheat, like other cereals, belongs to 
the order of grasses. It has been modified from some wild 
grass, but the time when this improvement took place is beyond 
the memory of man, and the wheat plant as we know it has 
never been found growing in a wild state. Some scholars think 
it had its beginning in western Asia and spread eastward to 
China and westward to Egypt and the countries of Europe. 
The Swiss lake dwellers raised wheat before the days of writ- 
ten history, and it grew in the valley of the Nile from ancient 
times to the classic days when " corn " ships sailed from Alex- 
andria to Rome. Wheat growing has now spread over Europe 
wherever the climate permits, and the grain was brought in 
the sixteenth century to North America. As new lands have 

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been subdued by civilized man, wheat has moved into the tem- 
perate regions of the southern hemisphere and is now an im- 
portant crop in South America, South Africa, and Australia. 
The wheat map of the world (fig. 1 2) shows two irregular belts 
of wheat countries in the temperate latitudes on both sides of 
the equator. 

2. Varieties of wheat. In the earliest times all wheats may 
have been alike, but differences of soil, climate, and culture tend 
to make kinds of wheat with distinct qualities, each breeding 
true for a long period. Thus there are red and white, bearded 
and bald, winter and spring wheats. After wheat became very 

Fig. 1 . Plowing for wheat in Manitoba 

important, men began to breed varieties by crossing good sorts 
in the hope of producing something better. Wheats were better 
if they were suited to a wider range of climate, if they gave 
larger yield, could resist disease and pests, or had higher value 
for food. 

In Germany new varieties of beet have increased the amount 
of sugar that can be obtained from a field. In California, Luther 
Burbank has bred remarkable fruits and flowers. In the Minne- 
sota Agricultural Experiment Station and other similar stations 
new wheats are raised and samples of seed sent out to farmers 
for testing. The Canadian government has a farm at Ottawa, 
on which special effort is made to breed wheats that will mature 

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in a short season, in order to extend the Canadian wheat belt as 
far north as possible. The Department of Agriculture at Wash- 
ington sends " agricultural explorers " to all lands to seek new 
and useful plants. They send home wheats that thrive and yield 
well in lands of small rainfall in the Cordilleran region. 

3. Climates and soils suited to wheat. This grain does not 
thrive in very hot or very cold regions. It needs a cool and 
moist period for germination and early growth, but it matures 
best in bright and comparatively dry weather. We can thus 


Fig. 2. Average annual production of wheat in millions of bushels, 
i 899- i 908 

understand why Egyptian and American wheats are bright, 
plump, and valuable. A cover of snow is favorable to a good 
crop of winter wheat, while an open winter, with exposure of 
the roots to severe changes, is harmful. The soil should be 
neither too light (sandy) nor too heavy (clayey), but loamy and 
well drained, with a surface suited to modern plowing and reap- 
ing machines. Such conditions are best met on the great plains 
of temperate latitudes, as on the prairies of the United States, 
the plains of Canada, the pampas of Argentina, and the plains 
of southern Russia. Wheat requires warmer summers than rye, 

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barley, or oats, and hence is not found as far from the equator 
as these grains. It does not need as much heat as Indian corn, 

Fig. 3. Spring wheat grown at the United States Experiment Station, 
Sitka, Alaska, latitude 57 degrees 

and thus the center of the corn belt is further to the south than 
that of wheat. 

In North America wheat reaches from southern Mexico to 
Alaska and to Fort Simpson on the Mackenzie River (62 
degrees), but the bulk of the crop lies between 35 degrees 
(Chattanooga, Memphis, Little Rock) and 55 degrees (central 

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Saskatchewan and Alberta). In the Old World wheat extends 
to Trondhjem, Norway, latitude 63 degrees, and in Russia to 60 
or 62 degrees. On the south it crosses the Mediterranean to 
Algiers, about 36 degrees. In India wheat grows south of the 
tropic of Cancer to about 21 degrees. The high slopes and 
plateaus of India carry wheat in that country almost as far south 
as the city of Mexico, and give this cereal a latitude range of 
over 40 degrees in Eurasia. 

The traveler need not fail to find a ripened field of wheat in 
any month of the year. He may start in November in South 
Africa, proceed in December and January to Australia, cross 
the sea to India in February and March, and go on to Egypt 
in March or April. In 
May he can visit Al- 
giers, in June Italy and 
Spain, in July and Au- 
gust central Europe, 
and in September and 
October he will discover 
the harvest in Scotland, 
Scandinavia, and Fin- 
land. Even in North America the harvest lasts from April, in 
Mexico, to August in eastern Canada. 

4. Progress of wheat culture in North America. In early days 
wheat was raised only on the Atlantic seaboard, to supply the 
scattered colonists. After the Revolution, settlers pressed into 
western New York, and upon the completion of the Erie Canal 
the " Genesee country " became the wheat center of the United 
States. As the population grew to the westward, wheat fields 
covered more and more of Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan, and 
extended over the prairies of Illinois and southern Wisconsin. 
In 1880 wheat growing had passed across the Mississippi River 
as far as central Kansas and Nebraska, and occupied a narrow 
strip of Dakota along the Red River of the North. In 1900 
the center of the wheat areas of the United States was in Iowa, 
seventy miles west of Des Moines, and North Dakota had become 

Fig. 4. Movement of the center of wheat pro- 
duction in the United States, 18 50- 1909 

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one of the greatest producers of wheat, ranking with Minnesota 
and Kansas as one of the three greatest in the Union. For 
many years also large crops have been raised in the three states 
of the Pacific coast. 

Meantime the older states, like Pennsylvania and Ohio, still 
raise much wheat, and the center of the wheat lands moves to 
the northwest only because such vast crops are raised in that 
section of the country. As population grows, more land is re- 
quired for pasture, forage, and garden crops, and the largest 
wheat-growing seeks new lands. For this reason many Ameri- 
can farmers are passing into Canada, and there, with other im- 
migrants, on the great plains of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and 

Fig. 5. Wheat harvest in Manitoba 

Alberta, they may develop the greatest wheat center of North 
America. The wheat crop of the United States in 1906 was 
735,000,000 bushels. Forty years before, in 1866, the crop 
was 232,000,000 bushels. This increase was needed partly to 
feed our own greater population and partly for export to other na- 
tions, which, like England, can raise but a part of their own bread. 
5. Wheat on the farm. In the earliest days the methods of 
the farmer were rude and simple. He dug the ground with a 
pointed stick or a mattock, sowed the wheat " broadcast " out of 
a sack, and covered it by means of a harrow. He harvested it 
with a sickle and threshed it by the hoofs of beasts or with a 
flail. These primitive ways had not been greatly improved by 

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the middle of the last century, except by the introduction of the 
plow for tillage and the cradle for harvesting. Then threshing 
machines, run by the treading of a pair of horses, gave way to 
machines of 10 horse power, turning out 500 bushels in a day. 
Reaping machines came in, and four or five men followed 
each bout to bind the sheaves. Then followed "self-binders," 
and drills for sowing, by which a single team could sow sev- 
eral acres in a day, covering the seed to even depths in mel- 
low soil. 

As wheat spread across the prairies to the Great Plains and the 
valley of California, whole plantations were devoted to wheat, — 

Fig. 6. Wheat in the shock on the prairies 

" bonanza" farms of thousands of acres. Broad plains, free from 
stone, made yet larger machinery possible. Gang plows make 
swift work of turning the soil. The harrow that fits the soil for 
the seed may be 25 feet wide. The drill, drawn by four horses, 
is 12 feet wide. The harvester may cut a swath of 20, 30, or 
even 50 feet. In some cases the harvester is a thresher as well. 
In front of the machine the wheat is standing ; behind, it lies 
on the ground in sacks ready for market. " The enormous size 
of the machine ; the team itself, — twenty large mules driven 
in two ranks, ten abreast ; the separator towering high above the 
standing grain ; the loud hum of the monster as it sweeps over 
the plain ; the cloud of dust floating away on the breeze ; the 

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broad swath and the sacks of grain gliding from its side and 
strewed along the way, made it, all in all, the most impressive 
piece of machinery I have ever seen at work." x 

Western wheat is not all raised and harvested on a giant 
scale, for there are many farms, even in such a state as Kansas, 
of not more than three hundred acres, on which the owner, with 
a few helpers and smaller machines, raises his crop. On great 
frontier farms wheat is raised every year on the same fields ; 
but this exhausts the soil, and in older regions rotation of crops 
must be practiced, fertilizer must be used, and wheat raised less 
frequently. In small fields in the East broadcast sowing and 

Fig. 7. Threshing on the prairies 

the cradle are still in use, and on many small plots in parts of 
Italy and elsewhere in the older countries the soil is still pre- 
pared by hand and the grain is reaped with a sickle. 

6. Flour milling. Wheat would form a nourishing food if 
threshed in the hand, winnowed with the breath, and ground 
without the aid of machinery. The wheat of modern times, 
however, forms food for nations through elaborate processes 
of manufacture by which a few skilled workers make it ready 
for the many. The story of the past shows a natural series of 
milling methods. In early days, as among rude peoples now, 
there was grinding by hand between two stones. The gristmill 
by the stream sends the grain between dressed millstones and 
" bolts" the flour, separating the middlings and the bran. The 

1 Writer in United States Census of 1880. 

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great merchant mill, however, crushes the wheat between rollers 
of iron or porcelain, and sends it in fact through several series of 
rollers, with an intermediate sifting or winnowing between suc- 
cessive grindings. Thus the best flour and the most of it is made 
by effectively separating the inner parts of the grain from the 
outer shell or covering. Hence we have the roller-process flour 
in brands which are known throughout the United States, and 
indeed in all lands where wheat serves as food. In the older 
process the "middlings" were discarded, but now are utilized to 
make the strongest and the distinctly high-grade or "patent " flour. 

7. Milling centers. In the Old World the highest fame and 
skill in the making of flour have been reached by Hungarian 
millers at Budapest, the capital of Hungary. On the Danube, 
at the head of the great plains of Hungary, this was a natural 
place of manufacture for wheat products. There the roller proc- 
ess was used before 1840, and thence carried to other lands. 
The municipality whose greatest industry is milling has built 
on the Danube quay a great elevator in order to exhibit modern 
methods of handling grain. 

In the first half of the last century Rochester, at the lower 
falls of the Genesee River, became the chief seat of the flour- 
ing industry of the United States. The wheat lands of western 
New York surrounded it, the falls furnished ample power for 
the mills, and the Erie Canal, on its opening in 1825, gave the 
needful carriage to the markets of the East. 

Budapest sprang from a Roman camp, but the city of Minne- 
apolis stands on ground where seventy years ago the Indian and 
the buffalo were roaming. In 1850 the few settlers sent their 
wheat three hundred miles to have it made into flour, but in that 
year a small feed and flour mill was built. In 1867 the town 
was made a city, and men who had grown rich in handling 
lumber were turning their attention to wheat. Both were prod- 
ucts of the Northwest, and both found ready approach to Min- 
neapolis. Arriving there, the power of the Mississippi River in 
the falls of St. Anthony was available for sawing and grinding. 
The first merchant flour mill was erected in 1854, and the 

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bran was fed to the fishes of the river. After 1859 the industry 
grew, and the Hungarian processes were introduced in 1871. 
The Pillsbury mills are said to have enlarged their success by 
putting the keener American workmen to the use of the Euro- 
pean methods. In 1901 the capacity of Minneapolis mills was 
80,000 barrels per day, and one mill could turn out 15,000 
barrels. Here again, on a larger scale than at Rochester, we 
have three essential things, — raw product, plentiful power, and 
ample transportation from the field or to the market by many 
lines of railway. Lumber and flour have created an industry in 

Fig. 8. Flour mills of Minneapolis, St. Anthony Falls, and viaduct of the 
Great Northern Railway 

barrels and boxes, and most naturally also the manufacture of 
breakfast cereals has grown to large proportions. 

8. Domestic trade in wheat and flour. In 1886 Massachu- 
setts raised 160,000 bushels of wheat. This would feed but a 
small part of her people at that time. In 1887 her product was 
16,000 bushels, and for the past twenty years it has been too 
small to be reported. Much the same is true in all of New 
England. This means that nearly all the flour consumed by 
almost 6,000,000 people is brought from other states. New 
York in 1906 raised 9,350,000 bushels. As this state has 
about 9,000,000 people, and the annual consumption is five or 
six bushels to each person, it is apparent that most of the bread 

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must come from the West. In early days each farmer tilled his 
field of wheat and had the grain made into flour at the grist- 
mill. Now if he raises wheat, he often sells it and buys patent 
flour from the great mills. Thus each part of the country is 
doing its special task, and exchanging its products with other 
sections. This is made possible through improved transporta- 
tion, and thus has grown up a vast volume of internal commerce 
among states and cities. 

We will take an example of such trade and follow the move- 
ments of a bushel of wheat, grown perhaps in the Red River 
valley. The farmer's wagon delivers it at the nearest railway 

jn^i-B'^.v^ J*-^ 


Fig. 9. A group of village elevators in the Northwest 

station, where it is loaded on a car or is hoisted into a local 
grain elevator. It may pass by rail to Minneapolis, where it be- 
comes flour. It may then be shipped by rail via Chicago to 
New York, Boston, or Baltimore, or it may pass by rail to 
Duluth, and by steamer to Buffalo, and thence by the Erie Canal 
or by rail to eastern centers. Again, the wheat may be shipped 
from the field in North Dakota, or Winnipeg to Duluth, and 
thence in a " whaleback " steamship to Buffalo and to local 
milling centers in the East, whence the flour is distributed 
to wholesale houses in the cities and to retailers everywhere. 
Great baking industries consume large consignments of flour, 
and the finished product, ready for the table, is in like man- 
ner carried by the railways and passed over to the wholesale 
and retail trade. 

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In the modern wheat industry the grain and flour are almost 
always handled by mechanical means. This is illustrated in the 
drill, the harvesting thresher, the railway, the steamship, and the 
grain elevator. The first grain elevator in the world was erected 
in Buffalo in 1843. Such buildings are conspicuous in all cities 
that handle grain. Endless chains hoist the grain from wagon, 
car, or steamship to any height, and drop it into bins according 
to kind or grade. Modern elevators are often built of steel and 
have facilities for drying or scouring the grain. Loading and 
reshipment are accomplished easily and speedily, and the trans- 
fer is made at small cost. A single " whaleback " may carry a 
quarter of a million bushels, and some elevators will store ten 
times that amount. 

9. Financial importance of wheat. A product which is grown 
in large quantities and which hundreds of millions of people 
regard as a necessity has great and immediate value. This fact 
is important to the farmer who raises little but wheat, for with 
the season's returns he will pay off his mortgage, build a new 
home, or increase his equipment or his surplus. The local mer- 
chant in the nearest town instantly feels the result of a short 
crop or the advantage of a large yield or high price. The great 
city merchant in turn soon experiences the favorable or unfavor- 
able effect on his business. Large shipments mean prosperity 
for railway and ship owners, for millers, employees, car and 
ship builders, coopers, lumbermen, rolling mills, machine shops 
and mines. There is money for the banks, and hence for enter- 
prises of every character. The money required to " move " a 
single crop of wheat finds its way through many channels and 
affects an entire people. We thus can understand the interest 
with which crop reports are read in the growing season. 

We understand also why wheat is in some respects the most 
important of commercial crops in the United States. The bulk 
of wheat is raised for immediate sale, in this respect differing 
from corn. Dondlinger * goes so far as to say that " directly or 

1 The Book of Wheat, p. 215. 

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indirectly it is the chief 
feature in our commercial 
relations." A strong for- 
eign demand may increase 
the product and at the 
same time raise the price 
of bread at home. 

Wheat, having long 
been a large export crop, 
tends to increase imports 
of gold, and thus to en- 
large the holdings of the 
banks and promote home 
enterprises. Hence fluc- 
tuations in the size or 
price of a large export 
crop would have an im- 
portant effect on home 

It has been shown 1 
that wheat is in a direct 
way more important in 
American commerce than 
corn or cotton, although 
these products may show 
larger total values. Corn 
is fed to stock and only 
a small part of it goes into 
export trade, as grain, 
though much of it finally 
does so as meat. Cotton 
exports are much heavier 

1 Andrews, Influence of 
Crops on Business in America, 
Quar. Jour. Econ., Vol. XX, 
(1906), p. 323. 





Fig. 10. Wheat production, United States, in 

millions of bushels, 1870-1909 (below); price 

per bushel, 1870-1908 (above) 

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than those of wheat, but cotton is not therefore the chief factor 
in our foreign trade balance. About two thirds of the crop is 
exported, with little variation, for the United States produces 
about three fourths of the world's cotton and is therefore little 
affected by the competition of other regions. The price is 
mainly controlled by the American supply. We grow, on the 
other hand, less than one fourth of the world's wheat crop. A 
large crop at home coinciding with a small crop abroad raises 

Copyright, Kaufmann, Weimer and Fabry Company 

Fig. ii. The u wheat pit," Chicago 

prices, promotes export trade, and thus affects the international 
balance in an important way. A small crop at home with large 
crops abroad would, on the other hand, greatly reduce exports. 
Cotton also is raised near the Atlantic seaboard, to which 
much of it goes on its way to market. Wheat is raised in the 
interior, and the railways have the advantage of long hauls. 
Hence Andrews concludes that the wheat crop is of " primary 
significance " to foreign trade, to the bank reserves of financial 
centers, and to the railway and shipping interests. 

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WHEAT " 15 

Large institutions like the Chicago Board of Trade furnish a 
center for the grain market of the country and serve a useful 
purpose, despite the speculation which goes with the volume of 
honest trade. The condition of wheat in any wheat land of the 
world is at once reflected on the local market. There is thus, 
in a sense, no local market for a grain of world-wide importance. 
The following paragraph gives a group of sample telegrams 
which might affect the price of wheat on the floor of a grain 
exchange. 1 

" The weather forecast promises rain in Kansas. The mon- 
soon in India is overdue. Roads are bad in the Red River 
valley, preventing grain deliveries. The London Times has a 
cable that locusts have appeared in Argentina. A big mill in 
Minneapolis will shut down next week because the flour trade is 
dull. Navigation on the Danube will open unusually early. St. 
Louis has received fewer cars of wheat than on the correspond- 
ing day last year. Australasian grain, to arrive, is freely offered 
in Liverpool. There are rumors of strained relations between 
England and Russia in the Far East." 

Thus wheat, by reason of easy shipment, swift communication, 
and the needs of many nations, becomes a major article of trade 
and is a commodity of the first order in the world of food and 
of commerce. 

10. Wheat growing in Europe. The average wheat produc- 
tion of all Europe in the years 1901-1905 was 1,840,000,000 
bushels. This is more than any other continent as yet pro- 
duces, but when we remember that Europe contains about 400,- 
000,000 people we shall see why, in those years, an average of 
250,000,000 bushels was brought in from other lands. 

Some European countries raise little wheat and import much, 
while others raise a surplus. The reasons have to do with soil, 
climate, and with the density of population and the occupations 
of the people. 

In the seven northwestern or Teutonic countries production 
is usually small and the amount brought in is large. This group 

1 Article in Century Magazine, 1903. 

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includes Great Britain, Germany, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, 
and the countries of Scandinavia. In the years 1901-1905 
British farmers supplied but 21 per cent of the wheat needed 
in the United Kingdom. Fifteen years earlier they furnished 
35 per cent. The reason for the change is that manufacturing 
developed and crops other than wheat were required by a grow- 
ing population. At the same time new lands were opened in 
other parts of the world where wheat could be raised, and from 
which it could be transported more cheaply than it could be 




Fig. 12. Average annual production of wheat in millions of bushels, 
1904-1908. New Zealand not shown, 7,000,000 bushels 

grown at home. The chief British supplies were drawn from 
the United States, Russia, and from the British dependencies, 
Canada, India, and Australia. 

Germany raises more of her breadstuffs, including much rye, 
but, like the United Kingdom, and for similar reasons, imports 
much more wheat than she did twenty years ago. Belgium in 
1901-1905 produced but 23 per cent of her wheat, importing 
nearly 68,000,000 bushels. Norway raises but 10 per cent of 
her wheat. She is too far north and too rugged, and her small 
amount of arable land is required for other crops. 

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Southwestern Europe presents a different shovving. Here are 
the Latin countries, France, Spain, Portugal, and Italy. Of these 
it may be said that they raise most of their wheat, but import a 
small percentage. The population is dense, but the climate is 
favorable, tillage is thorough, and labor is cheap. In the years 
1 901 -1 905 Latin Europe raised an average of 615,000,000 
bushels, which was 91 per cent of the amount needed. All to- 
gether these countries imported 60,000,000 bushels annually, or 
about what Minnesota or North Dakota might produce in one 
crop. France alone, of about twice the area of Colorado, raised 
336,000,000 bushels, or 97 per cent of her needs. Italy pro- 
duces 84 per cent of her consumption. She imports consider- 
able amounts of hard wheat for the making of macaroni and 
semolina, and some of these is in turn exported. 

Eastern Europe has a more scattered population and wider 
areas of suitable land, and hence produces a surplus. Among 
these countries, chiefly Slav, are Russia, Hungary, Roumania, 
Bulgaria, and Servia. The plains of the Danube in Hungary 
are prime ground for wheat, but most of the surplus goes to 
Austria and hence is retained within the empire. The great 
exporting country is Russia, which sent out in the years 1901- 
1905 an average of 141,000,000 bushels. 

Russia is one of the great countries of the world's wheat in- 
dustry. Wheat will grow almost anywhere south of the latitude 
of St. Petersburg, but it is raised chiefly in the "black soil" 
belt, which is in southern Russia, toward the Black Sea and 
along the lower Volga. To the north lies the industrial region 
about Moscow, whose winter climate is too severe for favorable 
growth. The dark soil is from a few inches to three or four 
feet deep, is, as its color would suggest, full of organic matter, 
and covers more than one fifth of European Russia, or 192,000,- 
000 acres. Nearly three fourths of the cereals of Russia are 
raised in this belt. The yield per acre is low, but the farmers 
have had little opportunity to learn modern ways, and transpor- 
tation is poor. Thus Russia has not yet taken its full place in 
the competition of the world. 

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Some Russian wheat goes across central Europe to Baltic 
ports. Siberian wheat largely seeks Archangel, and much goes 
to the Moscow industrial region for domestic consumption. The 

Fig. 13. Proportion of cultivated land under wheat in the several 
governments of Russia in 1904 

most important wheat lines, however, reach the Black Sea. The 
run of most Russian wheats to the seaports is shorter than in 
the United States. Odessa is one of the great ports, and Ta- 
ganrog, on the Sea of Azov, is the largest port in the world for 

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the export of macaroni wheat. There is much inland transport 
by rivers and canals. 

11. Wheat in other continents. This grain is raised in Sibe- 
ria, in China, and particularly in India. Some provinces of India, 
although lying in a low latitude, have, by reason of their elevation, 
a climate resembling the summer in temperate latitudes. Wheat 
is raised on small farms and sometimes with the aid of irrigation. 
As in our own Northwest, the growth of wheat production has 
depended on means of carrying away the crop. These were 
provided by the Suez Canal and by the railroads which bring 
much of the grain to Bombay for export shipment. Great 
Britain alone in 1906 received 23,000,000 bushels of wheat 
from India. Much less would have gone to this market if ships 
had still to round the Cape of Good Hope. 

In north Africa, Egypt and Algiers are important for wheat, 
and the latter, being a French colony, supplies to the governing 
land much wheat suited for macaroni and similar products. 

If we follow the temperate zone in the southern hemisphere, 
we find three continental areas suited to wheat, — Argentina, 
South Africa, and Australia. Great Britain in 1906 received 
nearly 36,000,000 bushels from Argentina, almost as much as 
from the United States. Trade was so great, notwithstanding 
the long distance and the cost of transportation. If grain ships 
could be sure of return cargoes from Europe, freight rates would 
go down and Argentina would hamper the United States in the 
grain market of the Old World. A temperate climate and the 
wide plains between the Andes and the Atlantic favor grain pro- 
duction. Like Canada and Australia, Argentina is a country young 
in settlement and tillage, and is far from its limit of production. 

In Australia, tillage is secondary to stock raising, rainfall is 
limited, and the yield per acre low. The quality of the wheat, 
however, is high, and in 1906 Great Britain received nearly 
1 5,000,000 bushels of wheat from this source. South Australia 
and Victoria are the states in which it is raised. 

12. Wheat exports of the United States. In 1850 the United 
States raised four and one-third bushels of wheat for each 

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inhabitant. In 1900 the amount was 8.66 bushels per person. 
Allowing 6 bushels each for home use, there was a large sur- 
plus for export. In 1906 our product was 735,000,000 bushels, 
and our population was probably about 88,000,000. Allowing 6 
bushels each, we still have a large amount available for export, 
and during the last half of that year and the first half of 1907 
there was sent out of the country 76,000,000 bushels of wheat 
and 15,000,000 barrels of flour. 

As the country fills up, more land must be used for varied agri- 
culture. There are also more persons to feed. Hence it has been 
urged that the United States may, at no distant time, raise no 
more wheat than will be needed at home, and that newer lands, 
like Canada, Argentina, and Australia, must supply the deficient 
countries. But the capacity of such a country as France, with 
intensive tillage, warrants the belief that the day of shortage is 
far in the future, and that exports will continue for many years. 

13. General view of the world's wheat. We are now pre- 
pared to review in their order the stages through which this 
grain passes ; namely, production, manufacture, transportation, 
and consumption. 

14. Production. Wheat is a product of temperate latitudes, 
and this gives it a fairly definite geographic distribution, which 
man may slightly modify, as by irrigation and by breeding new 
varieties suited to shorter seasons or less rainfall. Plains are 
more suited to handling the crop than are hills and mountains, 
and have favored the invention of modern machinery, which 
in turn has made it more difficult to raise wheat with profit on 
lands with rugged surface or unsuitable climate. 

15. Manufacture. Millstones have largely given way to roller 
processes and the small mill is replaced by the large. The in- 
dustry is therefore concentrated in convenient places, such as 
Minneapolis, Budapest, or Bombay, and is conducted with special 
skill and on a large scale. At the same time the range of man- 
ufacture has widened from the making of various grades of flour, 
to include the alimentary pastes of Italy, France, and Switzerland, 
and the breakfast foods and biscuits of the United States. 

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WHEAT 2 1 

16. Transportation. Movement of the product occurs between 
production and manufacture as well as between manufacture and 
consumption. Kansas wheat may be milled at Kansas City, St. 
Louis, or Baltimore ; or it may cross the Atlantic to Liverpool, 
London, Rotterdam, or Hamburg, and be ground in foreign mills. 
It has recently been urged that we cannot afford to export whole 
wheat, because we lose labor, food for stock, fertilizer, and the 
special advantage of the American brand placed on flour made 
in this country. The transportation companies, however, favor 
the whole wheat by lower rates, because it is handled by elevator 
methods and thus more cheaply than flour. 

The development of long-distance carriage deeply affects the 
areas of production, the price of the product, and the occupations 
of peoples. The railways of the Northwest and the steamships 
of the Great Lakes make possible the wheat harvests of that 
region. The profits give a wide range of desirable things to the 
grower, and the cheap transportation gives wheat bread to many 
among the poor of Europe to whom it was once an unavailable 
luxury. We have already seen how transportation made wheat 
a profitable crop in India. New facilities will increase its amount 
and importance in Russia, Canada, and Australia. The wheat 
lands of Argentina and Russia are nearer the sea than those of 
the United States, and this will favor them as competing grain 
producers. England is enabled to devote her energies to manu- 
facture and commerce because transportation makes it possible 
to buy bread from remote fields. Thus specialization among 
nations is favored. 

17. Consumption. Through this long series of processes the 
consumer is at last reached. He receives better bread, won at 
less cost to himself than in the former days when he raised his 
own wheat and prepared it for food by primitive methods. He 
is free to do other things, and the true aim of industry is reached, 
— the well-being of the individual. Meantime, like ends have 
been achieved by the many who have been instrumental in feed- 
ing him. 

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18. The cotton plant. The usual height of the cotton plant is 
from three to five feet. It is perennial in regions which are free 
from frost, but in ordinary culture is treated as an annual, the 

Fig. 14. Cotton bolls, unopened and opened 

seed being planted each year and the crop gathered at the end 
of the season. The important part of the plant is the fruit or 
" boll," which follows the showy blossoms and is a pear-shaped 
seed vessel, which opens along several lines as it ripens, display- 
ing a mass of fibers surrounding the seeds. 

19. Varieties of cotton. There are many botanical species 
and these have developed varieties in great numbers, but for 
practical uses it is enough to note the chief cottons of commerce. 
These are the ordinary, or American upland cotton; the sea 
island, with longer, finer, and silkier fibers ; the Egyptian ; and 

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the Peruvian, which differs in texture from other cottons and is 
often mixed with wool. 

20. Climate and distribution. Cotton is regarded as a tropi- 
cal growth, but the most important production is in subtropical 
regions intermediate between the more heated and the temperate 
zones. It requires at least six months without frost to mature 
its fruit, and this places a latitude limit, which, however, is very 

Fig. 1 5. Cotton fibers, attached to the seed 

variable. Nearly all the cotton is raised between 40 degrees north 
latitude and 20 degrees south latitude. In the longitude of 
Europe it extends from the region about the Mediterranean to 
the Cape of Good Hope. In the Orient it reaches from Japan 
to northern Australia. In the western hemisphere we may place 
its limit in Virginia on the north and at Buenos Aires on the 
south. It requires a moderate amount of moisture during the 
months of germination and growth, and needs abundant sunshine 
during the stages of maturity and ripening. 

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21. Enemies of the cotton plant. This crop, like others, is 
subject to losses by unfavorable weather, as drought in the grow- 
ing time, or rains in the maturing season ; but we here refer 
especially to pests, such as cutworms, which destroy the young 
shoots, and, in recent years, the boll weevil, which has been con- 
siderably destructive in parts of Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, and 
Oklahoma. Here, as with many other crops, the United States 
Department of Agriculture has investigated methods of selec- 
tion and of culture which aid in checking the evil, and thus this 



Fig. i 6. Cotton, — average annual production in thousands 
of bales, 1899- 1908 

branch of the national service becomes an important factor in 
the geography of commercial products. 

22. Cotton production in the United States. Cotton was first 
grown here in Delaware and in Virginia. Only Virginia and the 
Carolinas raised cotton to any extent in the eighteenth century. 
In the latter half of that period interest grew because cotton 
machinery was invented in England, and production reached 
southward and westward. In 1850 the American cotton center 
was near Birmingham, Alabama. It has moved steadily westward 
since that time, and in 1899 Texas raised one fourth of the 
national crop. For one year (1906) more cotton was raised west 
than east of the Mississippi River. This was especially due to 
increase in Texas and Oklahoma. 

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Cotton is grown northward to a line reaching from Old Point 
Comfort, in Virginia, to Cairo, at the mouth of the Ohio River. 
Early settlers north of the Ohio River raised some cotton for 
home use, but ceased when railways made exchange possible, 
affording an illustration of the tendency to specialize in agricul- 
ture as a region matures. Since 1850 the South has had more 
land in corn than in cotton, but the ratio changed as railways 
began to bring corn from the prairies. The end of the last cen- 
tury brought in a diversified agriculture, and corn has now greatly 
increased in acreage, though cotton remains the great money crop. 

The cotton crop of 1904 was one 
of the largest to the present date, 
consisting of nearly 7,000,000,000 
pounds. The value of the crop in 
1907 was #700,000,000 and the acre- 
age was equivalent to nearly 49,000 
square miles, — an area of actual cot- 
ton fields five sixths as large as all 
England. For the years 1899- 1907 
the relative rank of the great cotton 
states was as follows : Texas was 
first every year; Georgia and Missis- 
sippi were rivals for the second place ; Alabama came next, — all 
of these being Gulf States. South Carolina surpassed Louisiana, 
and the remaining Gulf state, Florida, stood eleventh. Virginia, 
one of the original cotton states, had dropped to thirteenth, and 
Oklahoma ranged from sixth to tenth in position. 

23. Cotton in other countries. Cotton is believed to have been 
raised in India longer than in any other land. Records tell of 
its use several centuries before the Christian era, — two thou- 
sand years before it became an article of trade in Europe. He- 
rodotus refers to it as " tree wool," while in modern times 
Columbus found the plant in the West Indies, and Cortes dis- 
covered it in Mexico. Manchester cotton buyers are said to 
have been in the Levant about 1640, and manufactured cotton 
was sent from Bombay to Great Britain in 1666. India is still 

Fig. 17. Percentage of United 

States cotton grown in each 

state, 1909 

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one of the important exporting countries, but considering the 
great population and the demand on the land for other crops, it 
is thought that her export of cotton may not be greatly increased. 
China raises much cotton, but it is largely used in the homes 
of the people, and the residue which enters commercial channels 
is not an important part of the world's supply. The Russian 
possessions of Turkestan and Transcaucasia rank next among 
Asiatic countries. Here production has grown through the 
extension of railways, and has been encouraged by the Russian 




Fig. 18. Cotton, — average production in thousands of bales, 1903-1907 

government by means of duties on imported cotton and in other 
ways. Small amounts are raised in Turkey, Persia, Korea, and 
Japan. In Africa, Egypt is the greatest cotton producer, and 
the country ranks third as regards the world's factory supply. 
There is no danger from frost, the growing period is long, and 
the country is free from disastrous storms. There is abundant 
water when the plant needs it, and labor is cheap. Here, as in 
the Southern states of America, it is the money crop, and has 
been called the " backbone " of Egyptian agriculture. The fiber 
grown along the Nile is second only to the sea-island product in 
fineness, silkiness, and length, and these qualities create a strong 
foreign demand. 

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Of South American countries Brazil and Peru require notice. 
For more than a century Brazil has exported cotton, especially 
to Great Britain, but the amount has decreased in recent years 
and the production is more important for home supply than for 
export. The culture is of long standing in Peru, where cotton 
fabrics have been found in ancient tombs. It is grown by aid of 
irrigation in the coast valleys, and is known as " rough Peruvian," 
by reason of a woolly character which fits it for mixing with wool, 
a fact which creates a steady demand for it in the United States. 
In a small way cotton production reaches over into Argentina. 

In 1786 the West Indies produced 
70 per cent of the British supply of 
cotton while the United States and 
India combined furnished less than 1 
per cent. Cotton is not now an impor- 
tant crop in the West Indies. The 
United States, India, and Egypt are 
the three great commercial countries 
in this product, the first named having, 

in 1907, grown 66 per cent of the Fig. 19. Percentage of world's 

commercial cotton of all lands. Wheat mill supply of cotton contrib- 

. uted by each country, 1909 

was an important international com- 
modity many centuries before this became true of cotton. In 
both cases the centers of production have shifted rapidly as new 
lands have opened or old lands have come under enlightened 
administration. Thus we mark a progressive adjustment to en- 
vironment, while the supply keeps pace with growing population 
and with the more elaborate requirements of recent times. 

24. Distribution influenced by special conditions. In 1869, 
encouraged by the high prices then paid, farmers in southern 
Illinois raised 200,000 pounds of cotton, and smaller amounts 
were grown in other states north of the cotton belt. On the 
decline in price these farmers went back to other crops. The 
American Civil War (1 861-1865) nearly cut off the supply from 
the southern states and promoted cotton culture in other coun- 
tries. Egypt and India were among the regions which profited, 

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but Egypt is the only land which did not fall back to its old 
status when American cotton resumed its place in the world's 
market. Russia has promoted cotton culture in her Asiatic prov- 
inces, and the republic of Colombia is paying a bounty on na- 
tive cotton, hoping to establish the industry in suitable territory 
as large as the state of New York. In like manner the British 
Cotton-Growing Association is promoting culture in Africa, 
Sind, and the West Indies. 

In 1900 our direct imports of cotton from Egypt were valued at 
$16,000,000. The sea-island product does not give us enough of 

the fine, long-staple 
cotton for our home 
use. The Bureau of 
Plant Industry of 
the Department of 
Agriculture is grow- 
ing Egyptian cot- 
ton in the region of 
the lower Colorado 
River in Arizona 
and California. The 
summers are dry and 
long, the soil is allu- 
vial ^nd deep, and 
irrigation is prac- 
ticed. These are 
conditions close to 
those of Egypt. About 600,000 acres will soon be "under the 
ditch," and it is believed that one fifth of this area would raise 
as much of this long-staple fiber as we must now get from Egypt. 
Thus the- interest of nations or of particular groups of men aids 
in extending or changing the distribution of a product of the 
soil. The conditions of transportation also have their bearing. 
For example, along the lower Colorado the available market and 
the cost of carriage must be factors in the problem, as well as 
the scarcity and high price of labor. 







GEORGIA ^v ^11 J^ 





Fig. 20. Areas reporting sea-island cotton, 1909 

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25. Cotton from the seed to the bale. In the cotton states the 
seed is usually planted in April. This was done by hand until 
planting machines were invented. Much attention is paid by 
progressive growers to the selection of the seed, so that the 
greatest yield, or highest quality of "lint," may be produced. 
After a period of careful cultivation the picking begins, usually 
in August, and lasts through the autumn. This is the one re- 
maining process which is still accomplished by hand, and it is 

Fig. 21. Cotton picking 

therefore costly. Pickers go over the field at intervals, gathering 
the bolls which are ripe. 

The lint is separated from the seeds by the process of ginning, 
and the great development of cotton in the United States dates 
from 1793, when Eli Whitney, an American, invented the saw 
gin. It has been said by a famous English writer that Whitney 
thus advanced the United States in as high degree as did Peter 
the Great the empire of Russia. The gin made it possible for 
more people to use cotton, and profitable for more farmers to 
grow it. Hence we have here a labor-saving machine which 

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has affected the industry and the customs of wide areas of the 
globe, and which illustrates an important aspect of geography. 
There are about 30,000 ginneries in the United States, and the 
tendency is to abandon the smaller private plants and concen- 
trate in large public ginneries. After ginning, the cotton is 
pressed into bales of about 500 pounds each, and is then ready 
for transportation and manufacture. 

26. Cotton manufacture in the United States. The cotton of 
the South goes to local mills, to those of the North and West, or 

Fig. 22. Fulton bag and cotton mills, Atlanta 

is sent abroad. New England has been the historic center of 
manufacture in the United States, partly by reason of her ample 
water power, and partly because of the enterprise and skill of 
her people. The cotton states were in early times almost wholly 
agricultural. During the past thirty years, however, there has 
been an industrial awakening in the South, and much of the 
cotton is now manufactured within short distances of the fields 
in which it has grown. This is favored by the abundance of 
water power and coal found in the region of the southern 
Appalachians. New England, on the other hand, has gone 
beyond the limits of her water power at some of her mill cen- 
ters, such as Fall River and Lowell, and must haul coal. These 

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geographic conditions tend to restrict cotton manufacture in 
the one region and favor it in the other. 

In 1907 North Carolina led all other states in the number 
of cotton mills, having 276, while Massachusetts had 204. 
Massachusetts, however, had mills of larger capacity and con- 
sumed nearly twice as much cotton as her Southern rival. 

Fig. 23. Cotton levee, New Orleans 

Georgia followed, with 149 mills, and then came South Caro- 
lina, Pennsylvania, and New York. Comparing the cotton 
states and all New England, in 1880 the former consumed but 
one sixth as much as the latter. After thirty years, in 19 10, the 
cotton-growing states used 2,292,000 bales, and New England 
2,016,000 bales. New England, however, continues to operate 
many more spindles than the cotton states, and has more capital 
invested in cotton manufacture. The finer grades of cotton are 
still in large part made in the Northern mills. 

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It seems clear that the United States, with its proven indus- 
trial capacity, should not be content to export so large a share of 
its raw cotton. This ought rather to be manufactured in Ameri- 
can mills and the finished goods sold directly in foreign markets, 
giving full advantage to American labor and capital. 

27. Export and import trade. The first export of cotton from 
this country was by Virginia, from which eight bags were sent 
in 1784. In 1790 England received less than one sixth of 
one per cent of her cotton from the United States. In recent 
years the United States has supplied about two thirds of the 
cotton imported by all nations. Considering the disposition of 
a single crop, — that of 1907, — we find that 33 per cent was 
consumed at home, 57 per cent was exported, and 10 per cent 
was left over at the end of the year. 

In a single recent year only 14 per cent of our export cotton 
left the country by ports outside the cotton states. The three 
chief ports, in the order given, were Galveston, New Orleans, 
and Savannah. The first exported more than the two others 
combined. The destination of our export cotton shows interest- 
ing changes. In 1880 Great Britain took two thirds of it, France 
one tenth, and Germany one twelfth. In 1906 Great Britain 
received four ninths, Germany one fourth, and France one ninth. 
Liverpool and Bremen are the largest ports of entry for our 
cotton, while considerable goes to Genoa and other Mediterra- 
nean ports. The skill of American manufacture has also made 
itself felt in foreign trade, and in China, for example, American 
shirtings are said to have displaced in large degree the native 
fabrics. The United States imports raw cotton chiefly from 
Egypt and Peru, to secure fibers of special kinds not sufficiently 
produced at home. 

28. Foreign manufacture of cotton. In the latter half of the 
eighteenth century a series of important inventions gave a strong 
impulse to the spinning and weaving of cotton in Great Britain. 
Inventive genius and capacity for business combined to give pri- 
macy in this industry to the British people. The central posi- 
tion and good harbors of the kingdom favored the expansion 

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of trade, and large supplies of coal and iron were at hand. 
These gave power for mills, locomotives, and steamships, and 
the material for mill machinery, railways, and modern ocean 
craft. Growing population made labor plentiful and cheap, and 
the raw material came readily to the doors from expanding 
American plantations. Ample markets were found near at hand 
on the continent, and among almost all nations across the seas. 
In 1909 there were in the world 133,000,000 cotton spindles. 
Of these the United Kingdom had 53,000,000, the United 
States 28,000,000, Germany 10,000,000, Russia 8,000,000, 
and France 7,000,000. The number of spindles, however, 

does not show the relative amounts 
of raw cotton consumed, for in 1 898 
the United States passed the United 
Kingdom in this regard, and in the 
year 1906 -1907 used over 5,000,000 
bales, as compared with a little over 
3,500,000 consumed by the rival na- 
tion. Cotton spinning has consider- 
able importance in India, thus limiting 
Fig. 25. Relative consumption the British market somewhat in the 
of the world's cotton by manu- East. The advance of cotton milling 

facturingcountriesforyearend- Qn ^ continent curtails the market 
ing August 31, 1909 

there, and some of the more modern 
machinery permits certain grades of work to be done by the less 
skilled and cheaper labor of Asia and of the southern states. 
We are thus able to see that the growth and stability of an in- 
dustry depend on many factors, some of which are geographic. 
Among the conditions are business sense ; inventive skill ; avail- 
ability of raw material, either in the field of production or by 
favorable transportation ; the supply of labor, of motive power, 
and structural material ; and a market which cannot be seized 
by those having greater advantages. To this last might be added 
government regulation of trade and general commercial and 
financial conditions, such as the supply of capital and the state 
of trade at home and abroad. 

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29. Cotton-seed products. The cotton plant is primarily 
grown for its fiber. The seed has been adequately used only dur- 
ing the past generation. Before that time it was sometimes em- 
ployed as a fertilizer, but often went to waste and in a manner 
that menaced health. The seed now forms the basis of a vast 
business, and may be taken as a good type of the by-product 
in modern industry. The making of oil from the seeds be- 
gan in England and became commercially important in the 
United States following the year 1870. In 1890 there were in 

Fig. 26. Cotton production of the United States in millions of five-hundred- 
pound bales, 1 790- 1 909 

this country 119 mills, and in 1907 the number had grown to 
786. In 1899 the total value of the cotton seed was almost 
$50,000,000, about one eighth of the value of the entire cotton 
crop ; and in 1905 the value of all cotton-seed products was 

One ton of seed produces 40 gallons of oil and 700 pounds 
of oil cake. The oil has largely displaced olive oil in southern 
Europe, being used both under its own name and as an adul- 
terant. It is used in making substitutes for lard and butter, and 
in the manufacture of soap, and is to a small extent employed 

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as a lubricant. The oil cake serves for fertilizing, and is said to 
be as useful for this purpose as if the oil had not been removed. 
Its return to the soil, either directly or through serving as food 
for stock, is important, because one crop of seed exhausts the 
soil as much as ten crops of fiber. The oil cake and meal are 
bought for Danish and German dairies. When one buys the 
famous Danish butter in an English city, he is still, therefore, 
depending in a measure on the agricultural resources of the 
United States, tracing the butter to the same source from 
which the loaf of bread may also have come. 

The leading foreign customers for the oil in recent years have 
been France, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, 
and Mexico. Hull, on the eastern coast of England, has nearly 
twenty mills, and is still the largest crushing center, bringing 
most of the seed from Egypt and a small amount from the 
United States. Memphis is the rival of Hull in this industry. 

The hulls of the seeds are also valuable, both as food for 
stock and for the making of paper, — a phase of the paper in- 
dustry for which several mills have been established. In like 
manner the stalks may be cut and used as a fertilizer, they may 
be fed to stock, or the fiber may be used for bagging. We see 
strongly emphasized here the tendency, everywhere present in 
modern industry, to let nothing go to waste. This end is pro- 
moted primarily by the desire for increased profits. It is made 
possible through greater technical skill, especially in chemistry 
and in mechanical invention, and it results in a more complete 
use of the resources of the earth and in improved conditions 
of living. 

30. Uses and relations of the cotton plant. Some plants, such 
as the coconut palm, or an animal like the reindeer, may fur- 
nish almost the entire round of necessities to the people among 
whom they are found. This could not be true of any product 
among advanced nations having varied wants, but the cotton 
plant nevertheless offers an impressive variety of uses. These 
uses are exhibited diagrammatically in Bulletin 95 of the Twelfth 
Census, and the census table is reproduced on page 37. 

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It should be explained that " linters " are short fibers remain- 
ing after ginning, and recovered from the seed before the oil is 
pressed out. A study of the table shows the following uses of 
cotton : clothing, various fabrics, surgery, medicine, explosives, 
paper, food for man, food for stock, lubricating oils, fertilizers, 
soaps, fuel ; and we may add the cylinders of phonographs, made 
from the residue in the refining of oil. 

Fiber -| Batting 
Absorbent cotton 
Gun cotton 

f Batting 
Linters -I Yarns 
[ Felt 

f Feed 

\ Paper stock 

f Feed 
\ Fertilizer 

The cotton plant - 


Hulls - 

Cake and meal - 


f Lard component 
m I Oleomargarine 
1 Salad oil 
[ Lubricating oil 


Paper stock 

f Medicinal purposes 
Root J Fuel 

[ Fertilizer 

We may now observe that all the processes required by cotton 
planting, cultivating, ginning, transportation, milling, and market- 
ing make demands on the forest and the mine, and establish 
great communities. These communities in turn make correspond- 
ing demands upon the fields near and far, upon the mine, quarry, 
and forest, and thus actions and reactions are set up throughout 

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the commercial world. The plantation, the mill, the wholesale 
and retail store, and the consumer are linked together by lines 
of communication which reach all nations that have risen above 
the primitive stage. 

31. Use of cotton in comparison with wool and flax. The 
statements in this and the following section are taken in sub- 
stance from a paper on the future demand for American cotton, 
in the " Yearbook of the Department of Agriculture " for 190 1 . 
In 1800 wool and flax were in nearly equal use in Great Britain, 
flax being a little in the lead. The amount of cotton consumed 
was less than half the amount of either. Sixty years later, at the 

time of the American Civil War, wool 
was somewhat in excess of flax, and 
cotton was more used than wool and 
flax combined. In 1900 wool was two 
and a half times as important as flax, 
and cotton exceeded both the others 
twofold. In a century flax doubled, 
wool was multiplied by five, and cot- 
ton increased thirty-nine fold. An 
Fig. 27. Relative importance Irish journal a few years ago discussed 

in quantity of the world's six ^ ascendency of cotton in an artide 
leading textile fibers J 

on the " Decline and Fall of the Linen 
Shirt." Cotton also has become much used as a substitute for 
woolen, and in cotton and wool mixtures. Even silk has met 
competition, for many purposes, in mercerized cottons. Some 
silks of foreign manufacture are said to be heavily weighted and 
so mixed with mercerized cotton that it is sometimes difficult 
to find the silk. It is possible, in a great variety of so-called 
silk fabrics, to replace the silk in part with cotton, as in dra- 
peries, hangings, linings, and even in neckwear and hosiery. 
The two factors which have cheapened clothing for the world 
are the invention of cotton machinery and the opening of the 
cotton fields of the United States. 

32. The future of cotton. The population of the world is 
estimated at 1,500,000,000. Of these about one third are fully 

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clothed, one half rank as partly clothed, and the remainder are 
nearly without clothing. With the expansion of civilization it 
may be expected that all human beings will ultimately require 
clothing, and this applies not only to the existing population 
but to such increase as the coming generations promise. As 
cotton is the cheapest of the great textiles and the most suited 
to the vast populations of warm climates, it will be in growing 
demand. There is little prospect of effective or large compe- 
tition with the United States in growing cotton. It is believed 
that the Southern and Southwestern States can largely meet 
future requirements ; that Texas alone could raise 10,000,000 
bales, an amount nearly equal to our entire present crop ; and 
that our total capacity may not fall below 25,000,000 bales. 
Whether or not cotton be " king," its commercial importance 
seems assured to coming generations. 

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33. General growth in the United States. If we go back two 
or three generations, we find each farmer keeping a few cattle, 
milking his cows, and fattening an occasional steer for home use. 
If near a town, the farmer might vend the milk from door to 
door, and the local butcher would purchase his surplus animals, 
which not uncommonly were cows no longer profitable for milk. 
Butter and cheese were made in primitive ways for domestic 
use, and the products of cattle raising could hardly be called 

The cattle of those days were descended from ancestors that 
had been brought by the first settlers from England, Holland, 
Denmark, or other countries of northwestern Europe. At 
the same time the progenitors of Texas cattle had come over 
from Mexico, whither the breed had been carried by the 
Spaniard. These so-called native cattle began nearly one hun- 
dred years ago to be improved by crossing with pure breeds im- 
ported from the best modern herds of Europe. This advance 
has been marked since the middle of the last century, and at 
the same time beef, milk, butter, and cheese have taken their 
places among the articles of home and foreign commerce. The 
ends gained by higher breeding have been prolonged flow of 
milk, more of it, and higher quality. One cow often produces 
more than three or four animals of sixty years ago, with great 
saving in food, housing, and labor. 

34. Distribution of cattle in the United States. The general 
farmer in the East still keeps one or more cows for home sup- 
ply, and may slaughter a fattened animal for home packing and 
for fresh beef in the cold months. But in some sections, as 
southern and central New York, dairying is the chief industry 


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of the farm, and herds of improved breeds are kept with a pre- 
cise care and skill unknown a half century ago. Fresh pasturage, 
the silo, and corn from the Central States form the food, and 
the herds are kept for milk and its products, while fattening for 
beef is a minor element. 

On the prairies and throughout the corn belt of the Missis- 
sippi Valley both the dairy and the beef trade have grown to 
large proportions and respond to Eastern markets and the foreign 

Fig. 28. Cattle other than milch cows ; average annual number in 
thousands, 1899- 1908 

demand. Beyond the corn belt are the Great Plains and Cor- 
dilleran plateaus, whose cattle industry will be described in the 
next section. 

Cattle raising is extending into the Gulf States and is locat- 
ing in the neighborhood of the cotton-seed industry. This meets 
the double need of food for the cattle and fertilizer for the land, 
and is a good example of the causal relations which industries 
sustain toward each other. Dairying is extending on the Pacific 
coast, to supply the increasing population, and in the expectation 
of shipping products to the Orient, in which beginnings have 
been made. The Canadian government has promoted the dairy 

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interests of the Dominion by a guaranty, to Pacific steamship 
lines, of payment for the use of ship refrigerators to full capacity, 
even though present exports fail to fill them. Apart from the 
milk supply for the cities of the East, the cattle region of the 
United States is the plain between the Appalachians and the Rocky 
Mountains, belonging chiefly to the basin of the Mississippi River. 
As we should expect, this industry is more independent of lati- 
tude lines than is wheat or cotton. 

35. Ranges and ranches of the Great Plains and Cordilleras. 
Cattle raising is the foremost industry of the Southwest, a region 
including much of Colorado, over half of Texas, and nearly all 

Fig. 29. Roping calves for branding on the western plains 

of New Mexico and Arizona. The cattle region extends north- 
ward through Kansas and Nebraska, into the Dakotas, Wyoming, 
and Montana. These states of the Northwest are as good for 
grass as the more southern district, but the severe winters offer 
some hindrance to the cattle industry, particularly in raising the 
calves. In some regions, as in New Mexico and Arizona, there is 
much " free range," or open government land, occupied at will 
by herd owners, with their cowboys and horses, and the occasional 
roundups for branding the calves and securing the steers for 

In Texas much of the land is leased from the state and fenced. 
In one case a single pasture fence runs 200 miles in one direc- 
tion. On government ranges fencing is illegal, though the law 

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is often violated. From 15 to 25 acres of the thin pasturage of 
the plains is required for each head of cattle. Overgrazing leads 
to the destruction of the grasses and the washing of the soil ; 
hence leaseholders and owners of definite tracts are likely, for 
self-protection, to restrict the size of their herds. Free ranging 
is also narrowed by the progress of settlement. The best lands 
are taken up for tillage or as private ranches for the raising 
of cattle. 

Thus cattle raising on the plains is becoming a settled busi- 
ness, conducted upon newer and more conservative methods. 
As an example of the scale on which the industry is carried 
on, a single ranch in the Southwest covers 5000 square miles 
and has 125,000 cattle, which are attended by 125 men and 
1600 horses. Ten trains may be loaded for market from a 
single ranch. Improvement in breeds is now sought on the ranch 
as well as in the select herds in the Central and Eastern States. 
Irrigation is practiced, and dry-land crops, such as alfalfa, Kafir 
corn, and millet, are raised for the # stock. It is now customary 
to " finish off " the ranch steers with a few months of corn 
feeding. Thus only can beef be produced which meets the 
demand of the best markets. About 75 bushels of corn must 
be fed to a single animal to bring him to prime condition. Ranch 
or range cattle are often sold to stockmen in the corn belt for 
this final stage of their preparation for market. 

The grazing of cattle is permitted in all the government forest 
reserves without charge, but only by a permit which limits the 
number of animals and also the time. The herdsmen are required 
to be careful of fires, not to bed beyond a certain time in one 
place, nor within 500 yards of a stream or spring. The herds 
return to the prairie ranges in the winter, somewhat as Swiss 
or Norwegian cattle come down to the valleys at the end of 
each summer. 

The cattle industry thrives for different reasons in various 
sections. In the East the chief reason is the presence of great 
cities, which need dairy supplies. In the Central States corn is 
the leading factor. On the plains, grasslands of great extent, 

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secured free or at small cost, offer the principal encouragement. 
In the East again the dairy is the most important ; in the West 
beef is the object; and in the intermediate region both beef 
and dairy interests are large. 

36. Centers of the packing industry. The chief western 
markets for live cattle are Kansas City, St. Joseph, Omaha, 
Sioux City, St. Paul, East St. Louis, and Chicago. The majority 
of the great packing establishments are in these cities. The 
work would naturally be carried on in cities of some size, to 
secure ample transportation for gathering the animals and dis- 
tributing the product. These particular cities are suitable because 
they are in the corn belt, where stock interests are large, and 
because they are on the way from the ranges of the West to 
the markets of the East and of Europe. Minneapolis shows the 
same conditions in relation to wheat and lumber. 

The Chicago Union Stockyards were organized in 1865, and 
the packing business grew strong because the refrigerator car 
was soon invented and began to move on the railroads. Packing 
could not be profitable if carried on only during four cold months 
of our Northern winter. Processes of refrigeration and other 
means of preservation have made the packer independent of 
changes of season or of latitude, and have given fresh meats to 
people who are far from the sources of supply. 

The following facts about packing apply to other animals than 
cattle, chiefly sheep and hogs. The growth of the industry may 
be seen by comparing the whole value of the products in 1850 
($12,000,000) with the total in 1905 ($913,000,000). The 
business increased threefold in the twenty-five years following 
1880. Of the total for 1905, more than half, or $505,000,000, 
belongs to the Central States, and chiefly to the cities named 
above. Packing is, however, growing in the southern states, 
where it increased 118 per cent from 1900 to 1905. This is a 
case of increasing diversity of agriculture in the older parts of 
the country as the stock areas of the newer West are narrowed. 

In the year 1905 the state of Illinois made meat products to 
the value of over $300,000,000, or one third of the total for the; 

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entire country. Kansas stood second among the states and New 
York third, followed by Nebraska and Missouri. The single city 
of Chicago turned out products to the value of $269,000,000. 
In order of cities, Kansas City (Kansas) was second, Omaha 
third, the Manhattan and Bronx boroughs of New York fourth, 
and St. Joseph fifth. 

The products from hogs somewhat exceed those from cattle, 
but fresh beef showed the largest percentage of increase from 
1900 to 1905 of any of the chief meat products. The number 
of cattle slaughtered in the United States in the year 1905 was 
over 7,000,000. 

37. Transportation ; methods of preservation. The refrigera- 
tor car was invented in 1868, and is now a familiar object on 
all leading lines of railway. The car, combined with depots for 
cold storage in the chief towns, affords a complete system for 
transferring meats from the place of slaughter to the market 
and the consumer. Thus Eastern cities need no longer ship 
beef "on the hoof," which often meant deterioration in quality. 
The transfer of live animals, however, is now carried on suc- 
cessfully even from the interior to the ports of Europe, the 
animals being well fed, regularly watered, and their well-being 
safeguarded by the law. 

Refrigeration is effective through the country by reason of 
the new industry of manufacturing ice. This has grown greatly 
since 1870, and in 1905 there were more than 1300 plants, 
not including those in breweries and cold-storage warehouses. 
In the thirty-five years of the period named, ice declined from 
$20 or $30 per ton to a little more than $3 for the same 
amount. Ice making is not confined to warm climates, but is 
carried on in many of our Northern states as well, — Pennsyl- 
vania, New York, and Ohio being among the first. The ice 
has also been essential to the shipping of Southern fruits, and 
ice-making plants are often installed on ocean steamships. Here 
is a factor, absolutely essential to the meat industry, which has 
no place in the marketing of the commodities already described, 
wheat and cotton. 

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Meats are often fitted for keeping and carriage by being 
cooked and hermetically sealed. This method was first practiced 
in 1879, an( i canned meats figure largely in general trade, in 
army supplies, and in equipping expeditions of various kinds. 
Salting, smoking, and drying are other and familiar means of 
preserving flesh. 

38. By-products of packing. In earlier times cattle were 
slaughtered almost wholly for the meat, the hides, and the 
tallow. Now, however, every part of the animal is used, the 
refuse being turned into fertilizers. The following objects have 
been named as a small part of the by-products of a Chicago 
packing house x : glycerin, neat's-foot oil, buttons, felt, bristles, 
soap, glue, pipestems, chessmen, knife handles, fertilizer, meat 
meal for poultry, brewer's isinglass, curled hair, gelatin, glycerol 
rennet. The horns serve not only for buttons, but for brush backs, 
combs, hairpins, and druggists' scoops. The shin bone, which is 
hard and strong, serves for the handles of toothbrushes, knives, 
and razors. Several obscure glands of cattle and other animals are 
made into medical preparations, but even with all these the list 
is far from complete. Meat packing is an example of industries 
in which modern invention has evolved a large number of by- 
products of great total value, furnishing often the major element 
in the profits. In lesser degree this is true of cotton, and another 
conspicuous example is petroleum. 

39. Beef exports of the United States. Most of the live cattle 
exported from the United States are taken by Great Britain, 
which also is the best market for dressed beef, and buys large 
amounts of the canned meats. To avoid the propagation of dis- 
ease, Great Britain requires all live cattle from the United States 
to be slaughtered upon their arrival. France and Germany are 
the next best customers for American meats. Japan is also a 
large importer of our canned beef. Most beef for foreign ship- 
ment goes by the port of New York. 

Soon after 1880 there was municipal inspection of animals 
and meat at Chicago and Cincinnati, and in 1890 federal 

1 See Century Magazine, Vol. LXV (1902), pp. 148-158. 

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4 8 


inspection was inaugurated by law. This law was enacted primarily 
because European governments were placing restrictions upon 
our exported meats. Legislation has since been extended, and 
the law of 1906 has provided, from that date, for most strin- 
gent inspection for the protection of both domestic and foreign 
consumers. This, however, applies to the large packing-houses 
and to interstate commerce. There is still need of municipal 
inspection, and there is danger from diseased animals and 
unsanitary slaughtering where " home beef " is sold. 

40. Foreign producers of beef. Canada sends many live cattle 
to Great Britain, but has no considerable trade in dressed beef 

Fig. 31. Cattle, including dairy cows, in thousands 

and canned products. Cattle are raised mainly in the eastern 
provinces, but the industry may extend, as in the United States, 
to the great central and western plains. Argentina is the other 
large producer of beef in the western hemisphere. In much of 
that country the grass grows throughout the year and stock never 
needs shelter. Steers sometimes have dry feed, or hay in dry 
seasons, and the need of final fattening with corn is now recog- 
nized. On the whole, production is cheaper than in the United 
States, and the country is therefore a strong competitor in the mar- 
kets of Europe. There were about 28,000,000 cattle in Argen- 
tina in 1904, and the raising of blooded stock is now common. 

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Both frozen and chilled meats are exported, chiefly to England. 
Several freezing-plants with large capital have been established 
near Buenos Aires. There is effort at the present time to send out 
more chilled beef, since the frozen beef reaches the cheaper trade. 

Australia and New Zealand are large producers of beef. In 
both countries the frozen-beef trade is considerable, but is sur- 
passed by dairy products on the one hand and by the trade in 
mutton on the other. The state of Queensland is the Australian 
center of the cattle industry. 

As in the case of wheat, European countries raise many cattle 
and supply some of their own beef. They use oxen for draft 
animals to a degree unknown in America. Russia, Denmark, 
and some other countries of Europe export meat, but the United 
States, Canada, Argentina, Australia, and New Zealand are the 
countries whose surplus supplies the deficiencies of other lands. 

In the United States there is one milch cow to every four per- 
sons, and the yearly value of the products of dairying is about 
$500,000,000. The valuation has been increased more than 
fivefold within twenty-five years. At the same time the number 
of dairy plants and workers has about doubled, showing that the 
establishments are larger and that labor-saving machinery has 
aided in concentrating and handling the work. 

41. Milk supply of cities. Down to 1850 the railways were 
not used to carry milk. All cities and towns were supplied by 
suburban dairymen, who owned and milked the cows and brought 
the milk in carts to the doors of their patrons. This custom still 
prevails in the towns and smaller cities, but in cities of the first 
order a great and complicated industry has grown up. Under 
the old plan the agriculture of the region adjoining a city was 
affected only in a local way. Now the ground required for dairy 
herds may reach out hundreds of miles, making other agricul- 
tural pursuits secondary and affecting transportation in large 
measure. As many large cities are in the East, milk is the chief 
product of the dairy farms, and the butter and cheese indus- 
tries have been, to a considerable degree, driven westward to the 
Central States. 

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Fig. 32. Sources of the milk supply of New York City 


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New York illustrates the milk industry that is tributary to 
any great city. More than 1 ,000,000 quarts are consumed each 
day. If the cream used is included and added on the basis 
of the milk required to furnish it, the consumption rises to 
1,500,000 quarts daily. Eighty-seven per cent of this supply 
comes from the state of New York, and the remainder from 
the nearer parts of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, and 
Massachusetts. The map of the milk routes supplying the me- 
tropolis shows a network of railways reaching out chiefly to 
the northwest as far as Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence 
River. Thus the more distant sources of supply are three hun- 
dred to four hundred miles away. The New York Central, the 
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western, the Ontario and Western, 
the Erie and Lehigh Valley railways offer the chief means of 
transportation. Milk is received from creameries at many sta- 
tions not used for passengers or general freight. The stations 
receiving milk are more than 500 in number. 

The milk is brought to the creamery by the farmer or by a 
neighborhood collector, and here it is cooled and made ready 
for shipment. The cars, cooled with ice, are attached to local 
passenger trains, or in many cases the milk train carries a single 
passenger coach. At suitable points the milk cars are made up 
into exclusive milk trains, which are said to make the fastest 
time on the various railways. The great cities of modern times 
could not exist without transportation which is regular and swift. 
The vast population of London or New York could not live upon 
the products of their own limited neighborhoods. Milk, fish, 
fruits, and vegetables are all perishable, and must be used soon 
after their production. 

It should also be noted that sanitation is more and more made 
a matter of public and private requirement. This applies to the 
health of the herd, the condition of stables, the character of the 
food, and the cleanliness of all vessels used in transportation. The 
state agricultural departments and the city boards of health have 
jurisdiction, and many of the milk-handling companies enforce 
rules which tend to secure milk and cream in perfect condition. 

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42. Butter. In the first half of the last century butter was 
made on the farm, in simple ways, by the members of the 
farmer's family. There were well-known producing regions, 

Fig. 33. Sources of the milk supply in Boston 

and " Franklin County," " Orange County," or " Goshen" 
butter was recognized as the best, in New York and Boston. 
In 1 86 1 a creamery was established in Orange County, New 
York, and the factory plan, growing rapidly, became known in 
Other countries as the " American system of associated diarying." 

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There was great progress in inventive appliances during the cen- 
tury. For seventy years the United States Patent Office issued 
a patent for a new churn on the average every ten or twelve days. 
A most important invention is the mechanical separator, by which 
the cream is removed from the rest of the milk soon after the 
milk is drawn from the cow. It is thus more sanitary than if 
left to " rise " in the primitive way, and saves the large expense 

Fig. 34. City inspection of milk 

of hauling the milk. The residue is left at home, and is serv- 
iceable as food for swine. 

Another invention of the first order is an appliance for test- 
ing the amount of butter fat contained in milk, which thus 
enables the farmer to sell his product at its real value for butter 
making, and to realize any advantage which he may deserve 
from the high quality of his herd. In selling cream to the fac- 
tory the farmer supplies the raw material of manufacture as 
truly as if he were selling wheat to the miller or bales of cotton 
to the spinner and weaver. 

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As in cotton production the picking is the only process in which 
little advance has as yet seemed possible, so in the dairy the 
milking is still left to hand work. In all other respects there is me- 
chanical aid and the business is highly organized. In most states 
there are dairy associations, and the experiment stations and the 
national Department of Agriculture are ceaselessly active. There 
is thus much incentive to produce the best herds and to use the 
most advanced methods in all processes. Many journals give 

Fig. 35. Bacteriological laboratory, State Dairy School, Ames, Iowa 

useful information of appliances and markets, and dairy schools 
give suitable training to farmers and factory superintendents. 

Among the states Iowa is the greatest producer of butter, 
having about 800 creameries and turning out one tenth of the 
national output. New York is next in rank, notwithstanding 
the inroads of the milk trade upon her dairy capacity. That 
capacity has been enlarged by surrendering other crops, as, for 
example, by substituting herds for hops in the counties of central 
New York, where indeed the soils of the sandstone plateau and 
the severity of the climate make grass a more suitable crop than 
grain or fruit. 

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Butter making, like many other forms of manufacture, has 
its by-products, such as sugar, albumen, and casein. The last 
is used for food purposes, as a basis for paint, or is solidified 
for buttons, comb handles, electrical insulators, and for various 
other uses. 

43. Cheese. The people of the United States consume more 
butter per capita than any other nation. They are, however, 
small users of cheese as compared with most peoples of Europe, 

g 1880 to 1884 « 1885 to 1889 g 1890 to 1894 g 1895 to 1899 § 1900 to 1904 g 1905 to 1909 







^ 160 

^ 1.50 

s§ 140 


3 120 

















































Fig. 36. Decrease in death rate of children in the District of Columbia follow- 
ing the enactment of the milk law of 1895. Dotted lines show averages for 
five-year periods (four years from 1905 to 1909) 

and the making of cheese has been elaborated in that continent 
to a degree unknown in this country. A recent bulletin of the 
Department of Agriculture gives descriptions of two hundred 
forty-two varieties of cheese, made in various countries, chiefly 
in Europe. On the other hand, before 1900 the United States 
Census made no attempt to classify the brands of domestic 
cheese, most of which was known simply as American cheese. 
As with butter, the making of cheese began to be organized 
about fifty years ago, and the first factory was built in 1851 in 

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Oneida County, New York. Canada now greatly outranks the 
United States as a producer and exporter. In fact, there has 
been a serious decline in exports of American cheese, believed 
to be largely due to loss of confidence abroad, by reason of 
skim-milk products and cheeses in which other oils were sub- 
stituted for butter fat. In late years also America has faced 
strong competition in cheese brought from Australia and New 
Zealand to Europe. New York, Wisconsin, Ohio, Michigan, 
and Pennsylvania are the chief producers, and various brands 
of fancy cheese are now made to a considerable extent. 

44. Dairy products of the United States at the Paris Exposi- 
tion of 1900. The United States was the only country which 
attempted a continuous exhibition of fresh dairy products during 
that season. This was made possible by having a large display 
refrigerator, and also by a system of portable refrigerators packed 
in New York, shipped in cold compartments to Southampton, 
and thence via Havre to Paris. No other country provided such 
facilities. Milk was kept by no other means than cleanliness 
and cold, and was sweet from fourteen to twenty days after 
being drawn. Much skepticism was created until convincing 
proofs were given, for all French milk was soured by the second 
or third day, and the American samples had come from three 
thousand to four thousand miles. 

Russia and Denmark were conspicuous, with the United 
States, in exhibits of butter; the great cheese displays were 
by Holland, France, Switzerland, and Italy ; while the United 
States gave proof of its inventiveness in industry by showing a 
series of by-products and by offering representations of cream- 
eries and cheese factories in Iowa and New York. 

45. General view. In both production and distribution com- 
parison may be made between wheat on the one hand, and beef 
and dairy products on the other. In both cases the most of the 
world's international supply is produced on the great plains of 
temperate latitudes, though cattle often extend far beyond the 
margin of wheat into land too dry for that crop. So also the 
industrial nations of Europe, such as the United Kingdom and 

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Germany, with large populations and small territory, offer the 
best markets. Northwestern or Teutonic Europe produces 
much more of its own meat, butter, and cheese than of its own 
bread. Denmark, for example, imports its wheat, but sends out 
large exports of dairy produce. Norway, in like manner, buys 
its breadstuff but has its own herds and dairies. Cheap trans- 
portation is equally important in all cases, but swift transporta- 
tion is more essential with meat, butter, and milk, though even 
here the invention of cooling appliances increases the allowance 
of time. 

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46. Iron a representative mineral product. Wheat and cot- 
ton are produced directly from the soil by the aid of the processes 
of plant life. Cattle arise from the soil, but must have the sub- 
stances of plants for their food. These and many others are 
living or organic products. We now take an example of the 
mineral substances which are useful to man, and which form 
much of the material of commerce. 

About one twentieth of the earth's crust is iron. If it were 
all available, man could use but a small part of it. Most of the 
iron, however, is finely scattered among the rocks and soils, 
often giving them their color, or it is found in ores of such low 
value as to forbid profitable working. Iron seldom occurs in a 
free or metallic state, but is usually in composition with other 
minerals, forming an "ore," which is a raw material and must 
pass through processes of manufacture. The ore occurs in veins, 
sheets, or irregular masses at various depths below the surface, 
and is generally won by underground but sometimes by surface 

Special works give detailed information about iron ores. It is 
enough here to name the principal kinds, such as the red hema- 
tites, which are the most abundant ; the brown hematites, other- 
wise known as limonites and bog ores ; magnetite, an ore which 
is magnetic and contains a high percentage of the metal ; and 
the carbonates. 

47. Uses of iron. These are well known and need not be 
given in detail. We notice only certain great classes of uses 
to which this most important of all mineral substances is put. 
We include tools and utensils for almost all domestic uses and 
handicrafts ; nearly all weapons used in warfare and in hunting ; 


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IRON 59 

building materials, from the frames of modern structures to the 
11 hardware " used abundantly in all buildings. Further, iron is 
fundamental in modern transportation, whether we consider 
tracks, bridges, locomotives, cars, ships, wires and cables, or all 
kinds of road vehicles, such as carriages, wagons, motors, and 
bicycles. As the iron thus used is now in the form of steel, it 
is tough and strong, and the size of engines and cars can be 
increased several fold. These changes mean increased loads, 
greater speed, and cheaper rates, with a larger range of objects 
available to the user. Iron is a central theme in the geography 
of commerce. Modern machinery in its wonderful variety and 
effectiveness is made of iron. We have machines of iron for 
developing power, such as steam engines ; for transmitting power, 
as the wires and towers used in conveying electrical energy ; and 
for applying power, such as looms, lathes, printing presses, and 
the appliances of rolling mills. 

48. Iron a measure of civilization and progress. The chief 
things belonging to progress are done with the aid of this metal. 
This is true not only of material advancement but also of intel- 
lectual and moral progress, through our present diffusion of 
knowledge and easy communication among individuals and na- 
tions. It has been truly said that the standing of an industrial 
people is exactly registered by the amount of iron it uses, and it 
is true that the present is the " iron age." According to a recent 
writer the steel industry is the " most important and accurate of 
all gages of the position of a people in the scale of civilization." 
The making and consumption of iron for each individual in the 
United States amounted in 1820 to about 40 pounds. This rose 
to 175 pounds in 1870, and to nearly or quite 400 pounds per 
capita in 1900. Some European nations even, to say nothing of 
more remote peoples, use less than 50 pounds of iron per capita. 

49. Three periods of the making of iron in the United States. 
Charcoal was the chief fuel used in iron reduction and manufac- 
ture down to about 1850. This was possible because forests were 
then abundant, and the wood thus used must otherwise have 
been burned to remove it. The present high prices of timber 

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are prohibitive of this process except in a few localities. In the 
second period, from 1840 to i860, anthracite coal was largely 
used. This led to the first large production of iron in America. 
As the anthracite coal was confined to eastern Pennsylvania, so 
the iron interest centered there, — in the Lehigh, Schuylkill, 
and Susquehanna valleys, — and Philadelphia was the central 

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Fig. 37. Furnaces near Pittsburg 

market. But this coal was an "obdurate" fuel, and has now 
lost its place in iron making, partly also because it commands 
a high price for household uses. 

The era of bituminous coal and coke came in strongly about 
1875, and extends to the present time. This change of fuel 
caused a shifting of the iron center from eastern to western 
Pennsylvania, in and around Pittsburg, where the soft coal is 
abundant and cheap. For the same reason the industry has 
stretched out along the whole course of the Appalachians, 

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IRON 6 1 

especially as both iron ores and bituminous coals are available 
at many points. 

50. Deposits of iron ore in the United States. New York in 
1889 mined 1,247,000 tons of ore, but in 1902 little more than 
500,000 tons. This was due not to the working out of deposits 
but to the competition of Lake Superior ores, which are more 
easily and cheaply secured. Iron is mined in western and central 
New York, but more largely in the Adirondack region, particu- 
larly about Port Henry on Lake Champlain. Pennsylvania in 
1880 produced more ore than any other state, but dropped to 
sixth place in 1902. It must not be forgotten, however, that 
while losing rank in iron mining this state keeps its primacy 
in iron making, having produced nearly one half the pig iron 
made in the United States in 1905. The Cornwall deposit in 
Lebanon County, a magnetite, is the chief center for the ore in 

Virginia and West Virginia produced nearly 1,000,000 tons 
of ore in 1902, and Tennessee in the same year mined 874,000 
tons. Alabama is the chief iron producer in the Appalachian 
belt, both for mining and manufacturing. The center of the 
industry is Birmingham. Most of the ores are red hematites, 
and 3,574,000 tons were mined in Alabama in 1902. 

The largest production of ore in the United States is in the 
Lake Superior region, chiefly in Minnesota and the northern 
peninsula of Michigan. These two states in 1902 produced 
more than three fourths of all the iron ore mined in the United 
States, while in that year the single state of Minnesota mined 
more iron than the entire United States in 1889. 

The five great "ranges" or ore belts in the Lake Superior 
region are as follows : the Marquette and Menominee ranges 
in northern Michigan ; the Gogebic range, reaching from 
Michigan across the border into Wisconsin ; the Mesabi and 
Vermilion ranges in northern Minnesota. The Michigan ranges 
have been worked for half a century, the first shipment of ore 
having been made, it is believed, in 1856. The Vermilion 
range has yielded ore since 1884, and the greatest producer of 

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all, the Mesabi, was not opened by a railway until 1892. In 
1902 the five ranges had produced 221,000,000 tons of ore, 
of which 54,000,000 came from the Mesabi range in the short 
period of ten years. No foreign country has produced as much 
ore in one year as these five ranges about Lake Superior. 

The iron here occurs in large bodies, which in some cases are 
so near the surface that the ore is mined in open pits. Such 

Fig. 38. Distribution of iron deposits in the United States 

Minor areas in the east are omitted; Cordilleran localities are shown by conven- 
tional signs. The size of areas does not indicate importance or the amount of 
production. The numerals indicate the number of stacks of blast furnaces in the 
various states. (After Harder) 

excavations in the Mesabi range are so large that a network of 
railway tracks reaches to the ore banks, and the ore, loosened 
by a moderate amount of blasting, is loaded upon the cars by 
powerful steam shovels. Not above two or three minutes is the 
time needed to load a single car, and this fact greatly cheapens 
the production of the ore. In fact, in the Superior district in 
1902, 1 1 56 tons of ore were won for each wage earner employed. 
The cost of mining on the Mesabi range is from twenty to thirty 

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IRON 63 

cents per ton, and this single group of mines may be considered 
as largely responsible for our great advance in the world's steel 

There are considerable deposits of iron in many other states, 
and they may become of more importance as the greater ore 
bodies of the Lake Superior region are worked out. Ohio and 
Kentucky are among these states, also Missouri, Arkansas, and 
Texas. Most of the Cordilleran states also contain iron, in de- 
posits which are but partially developed on account of the 
newness of the region. 

51. Transportation of iron. In the industries already noted 
we have seen the importance of transportation, and it is a no less 
significant element in the study of iron. Much ore in the Su- 
perior region is lifted from its native position by steam shovels 
and deposited in railway cars. It is then transferred to docks on 
Lake Superior and dumped into bins. These bins in turn dis- 
charge the ore by gravity into the holds of large lake steamships. 
One of these ships may take in tow two barges, also laden with 
ore, so that a minimum expenditure of power carries the cargoes 
down the Lakes, chiefly to Lake Erie ports. There it is lifted, 
often by " automatic unloaders," and much of it is transferred 
to cars and shipped to the furnaces of Pittsburg. As it is then 
handled by mechanical means in its passage through the blast 
furnace and the steel mill, it will be seen that the ore may not 
be lifted by a human hand in its entire course from its original 
resting place until it comes out a finished piece of steel, ready 
to be laid down in a railway track or raised into the framework 
of a building. 

Transportation is, of course, not complete until the manufac- 
tured product has been distributed to the purchaser and user. 
This often involves carriage to a seaport, and thence by ocean 
steamship to foreign markets. It involves also the movement 
of pig iron to many mills for the making of machinery, agri- 
cultural implements, and all forms of builders' hardware, and 
these processes are in turn followed by another series of move- 
ments to myriads of final destinations. 

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6 4 

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The distance from many of the Superior mines to Pittsburg 
is about one thousand miles. The carriage is cheap because of 
effective transfer at the ports and the immense traffic on rail- 
way lines especially designed arid exclusively used for ore. It 
is also to be observed that the long haul of the ore permits a 
short haul of the fuel, and that Pittsburg, Cleveland, and Buf- 
falo are on the way to the great markets of the East and of 

Fig. 40. Ore unloader at work, with bucket open. Lackawanna Steel 
Company's plant, Buffalo 

foreign lands. The Lake ports from which the ore is shipped 
are Marquette, Ashland, Duluth, and Two Harbors on Lake 
Superior, and Escanaba on Lake Michigan. Among receiving 
ports are Chicago and Gary on Lake Michigan, and on Lake 
Erie, Toledo, Huron, Lorain, Cleveland, Ashtabula, Conneaut, 
Erie, and Buffalo. Return cars from Pittsburg do not neces- 
sarily run empty, but carry coal to the Lake ports, and may 
even bring back finished steel for shipment down the St. 
Lawrence and to Europe. 

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It should be further observed that lake transportation is 
cheaper than ocean carriage because the needed coal bunkers 
are small and the cargoes correspondingly greater. Contracts 
have been made at fifty cents per ton for transfer from Lake 
Superior to Lake Erie ports. Thus a ton of ore may be carried 
twenty miles for a single cent, a cost which is almost nominal. 




5,000,000 long tons 
1,000,000 long tons 
Leu than one million long tons 

Fig. 41. Sources, routes, and destination of Lake Superior iron ores 

Lines show amounts in long tons for one year. Lake Erie ports which bear no name 

on the map are as follows, from Erie westward: Conneaut, Ashtabula, Fairport, 

Cleveland, Lorain, Huron 

In the Appalachian fields the ore, the fuel, and the limestone 
used as flux are all near together. The larger item of trans- 
portation is in the marketing of the product, much of which 
must be carried to the Northern and Western states. 

52. American centers of smelting and steel making. Pitts- 
burg is the chief of these, and the general conditions which 
have favored its development have been already set forth. By 
Pittsburg we mean the region having this city as its center 
and extending out from fifty to one hundred miles and even 

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6 7 

embracing the adjoining portions of the state of Ohio. Of every 
five tons of iron ore mined about Lake Superior, three come to 
this region. Allegheny County, to which Pittsburg belongs, 
produces one fourth of the pig iron of the entire country and 
even a larger part of our steel. 

Most of the Lake ports which receive ore also smelt it and 
make steel. South Chicago and Joliet, in Illinois, afford an 
example of long transfer both of ore and coke, the former com- 
ing from Lake Su- 
perior and the latter 
from Pennsylvania. 
There is, however, 
the compensating 
advantage that the 
product is near to 
the markets of the 
Mississippi Valley 
and the upper Lake 

In the southern 
Appalachian region 
Birmingham is the 
iron center. Among 
the products are 
steel rails, rods, 
nails, all kinds of wire fencing, plows, cast-iron pipe, sugar-house 
machinery, bridges, engines, boilers, and stoves. In lesser de- 
gree, but with similar advantages, the iron industry has estab- 
lished itself in Chattanooga and Knoxville in eastern Tennessee. 
It should be observed that many iron centers in Alabama, Ten- 
nessee, Virginia, and Pennsylvania lie in the Appalachian valley. 

53. Processes and products in the iron industry. The essen- 
tial part of a blast furnace is a lofty structure which receives 
" charges " of ore, coke, and limestone at the top, and from 
which flows, at the bottom, the molten iron and the waste or 
slag. Iron ore may contain 40 to 70 per cent of metal, and 

Fig. 42. Birmingham district, Alabama, showing 
relation of iron ore, limestone, and coal 

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this must be separated from the other minerals combined with 
it. For this purpose great heat is needed, and limestone, which 
serves as flux, combining with the nonmetallic materials and 
flowing out with them. The air fed to the furnace is first 
raised to a high temperature, the furnace itself being lined with 
fire brick. At certain intervals the iron is drawn off and may be 
run into molds, forming " pigs." In modern processes, how- 
ever, most iron is carried in a molten state to the " converter," 
where it is turned into steel. Even thus, however, it is common 
to call it pig iron, as if it had been molded. A great saving is 

effected because the iron need 
not be remelted for the making 
of steel. 

Pig iron is brittle, being 
neither ductile (capable of being 
drawn) nor malleable (capable 
of being hammered into various 
shapes). Cast iron is brittle and 
is used for some purposes, as 
stoves. Wrought iron is so 
treated as to contain little car- 

Fig. 43. Ore boat below the " Soo," 
returning empty 

bon, and is both malleable and ductile. Steel contains more carbon 
than wrought iron and less carbon than cast iron. It can be 
made into any desired form when hot, and when cold is in- 
tensely hard, flexible, and strong. It has taken the place of 
other forms of iron for most uses, and is made in a variety of 
alloys, according to the purposes for which it is intended. Thus 
a soft steel would be used for making nails, and a steel of 
11 invincible " temper for making tools. 

In early days steel was made by surrounding iron with fine 
charcoal and heating it for several days. This was an expen- 
sive process, and the product could not be used for many pur- 
poses. Sheffield steel sold for #250 per ton, and at that center 
fifty years ago 50,000 tons were made in a year. At the present 
time many million tons of iron are annually made into steel, 
and the product may be sold as low as $25 per ton. This 

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revolution became possible through the invention of the Besse- 
mer process, by Sir Henry Bessemer, an Englishman. The mol- 
ten iron goes directly to a large receptacle called the converter. 
There it is still more intensely heated, and " spiegel " is added, — 
a compound containing the proper amounts of carbon and man- 
ganese. The newly made steel is molded into large blocks or 
ingots, and then, still intensely hot, may be sent at once to a 
rolling mill, to come out as steel rails. Thus there is no break 

Fig. 44. General view of plant, Lackawanna Steel Company. Ore docks and 
blast furnaces are on the right 

in the process, and there is no cooling between the conditions 
of crude ore and finished steel. A more recent method, now 
extensively used, is known as the open-hearth process. 

Ores are often termed Bessemer and non-Bessemer, accord- 
ing as they are or are not suitable for steel. Any but the small- 
est percentages of* sulphur or phosphorus are not allowable in 
the production of steel. The modern processes have led to an 
enormous growth of iron industries in all advanced countries, 
and in particular have given to the United States the leadership 
in this field. "American primacy" has been ascribed to three 
special advantages : first, the great supply of ores and of coking 

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coal ; second, superior industrial organization ; and third, a 
large home market, which gives uniform conditions to the 
trade, relieving it from close dependence on the tariffs of foreign 
countries. Under the head of organization is to be counted the 

Fig. 45. Bessemer converter in action, Lackawanna Steel Company 

consolidation of the various departments of the industry under 
single great corporations. Thus a single corporation may own 
or lease mines in Minnesota, and own the Lake steamships, the 
railways at either end of the water journey, and the furnaces in 
western Pennsylvania. 

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54. Reserves of iron ore in the United States. At a confer- 
ence of governors and experts held at the White House in 
May, 1908, the conservation of mineral deposits was discussed 
by Mr. Andrew Carnegie. Several statements are here taken 
from his address. In 1907 there were mined in the United 
States alone 53,000,000 tons of iron ore, or more than 1200 
pounds for every person included in our population. It is 

Fig. 46. View on pouring side of open-hearth mill, Lackawanna 
Steel Company 

estimated that 1,500,000,000 tons of ore then remained in the 
Lake Superior district, and 2,500,000,000 in the Southern dis- 
trict, including Alabama, Tennessee, Georgia, and Virginia. The 
estimate for the rest of the country was from 5,000,000,000 
to 7,000,000,000, giving a total reserve supply of about 
10,000,000,000 tons. It was shown that at the present rate of 
use the Superior supply would be exhausted before 1940, or in 
one generation. About one thirteenth of the estimated original 
supply has been mined. With probable increase of use, the 

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7 2 


present supply of workable ores will be gone long before the 
end of the present century. 

An example of such exhaustion is found in the case of Iron 
Mountain in Missouri, whose ores were once thought to afford 
a permanent supply, but have now been worked out. Mr. Car- 
negie urges that the demand on iron must be lessened, particu- 
larly by substituting water carriage, where possible, for railways. 
Railways, with their tracks and rolling stock, call for much more 
iron than steamships, for transporting the same amount of 
freight. Buildings and bridges also may be made of concrete 
Irather than of iron, and the raw materials of the former are inex- 
haustible. Other metals and new alloys of iron may also be used. 

9 40 














120 160 200 

860 400 440 480 

Fig. 47. Value of iron and steel products of leading states in 1905 in millions of 
dollars. The figures for West Virginia, Maryland, and Tennessee are for 1900 

Mineral deposits are fixed in quantity. If used up, no more 
'can be produced. Thus they differ from the materials of vege- 
table or animal industries, in which, with reasonable care to pre- 
serve and manage the soil, production is unlimited and may serve 
the needs of the human race for an indefinite time to come. 
With minerals the supply is fixed, and we must depend on 
economy, on finding new deposits now unknown, and on the 
invention of new applications and combinations. 

55. Foreign iron trade of the United States. The iron 
products exported from the United States increased in value 
from $14,000,000 in 1880 to $181,000,000 in 1907. An ex- 
ample is found in steel nails, of which we send out 25,000,000 
pounds annually. The change in price from Bessemer's day 
(10 cents) to ours (2 cents) illustrates the cheapening of many use- 
ful things through the development of work in iron. American 

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typewriters are found in every nation of the world. Locomotives 
are another important item in our foreign trade in steel, as are 
bridges and machinery of all kinds. Agricultural machinery 
was sent out to the value of nearly $27,000,000 in 1907, mark- 
ing a fivefold increase from 1 897. 

Our growth in steel making not only permits of exports of 
steel products, but is at the foundation of general success in 
manufactures. We 

1870 1875 1880 1885 1890 

1895 1900 1905 1910 

make more than one 
third of the manufac- 
tured products of all 
nations, and thus, 
through the medium 
of effective machinery 
and transportation, all s 6 - 000 * 000 
our exports are largely 
increased by Ameri- 
can success in iron. 
In 1 870 Great Britain 
made four times as 
much pig iron as the 15 ^ 000 
United States, but 
our country passed 
Great Britain as a 
producer of iron in 
1890. Even in that 
year our exports were 
but $28,000,000 and 

our imports were $53,000,000. In 1900, however, the ratio was 
very different, and we exported iron products to the value of 
$121,000,000 and imported them to the value of $20,000,000. 
Thus in iron we have become nearly self-sustaining, and are 
supplying a growing surplus to other nations. 

56. Iron in Great Britain. In 1906 there were produced in 
the United Kingdom 10,109,000 tons of pig iron. The United 
States in the same year produced 25,307,000 tons. The iron 

Fig. 48. Production of iron ore, pig iron, and steel 
in the United States, 1870-1909, in long tons 

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ore mined in Great Britain in 1906 was 15,500,000 tons, and 
7,823,000 tons were imported. Of the imported ore much 
comes from the northwestern or Biscayan provinces of Spain, 
and in later years importations from Sweden have been on the 
increase. The British iron industry is able to rely so largely on 
imported raw material because the British coal supply has thus 
far been ample ; and this, added to British skill and to extensive 
plants already in operation, has offered reasonable growth even 
in the face of the dominance of the United States and the 
growing competition of Germany. Many of the British iron 
centers are on the coal fields, and in no case is the distance 
from coal so great as to be a serious handicap where transpor- 
tation both by land and water is so highly developed as in the 
United Kingdom. 

As in the United States, the early fuel was charcoal, and 
hence the blast furnaces were, as stated by Mackinder, in the 
Weald of Kent and Sussex in the southeast, in the forest of 
Dean in the west of England, not far from Gloucester, and near 
the present great center of iron, Birmingham, in the forest of 
Arden. According to the same author coal was first used largely 
in smelting, in the eighteenth century. As coal # was found 
near Birmingham, it naturally took the place of charcoal as 
the forests failed, and thus iron making continued in the 
same locality. Birmingham and Wolverhampton are centers of 
what is appropriately called the " Black Country," and turn out 
manufactured objects of iron in great variety. At Sheffield also 
the old iron industry grew into the new, and was favored by the 
presence of water power and even in larger degree by water 
carriage of Swedish iron, 1 which was suitable for making steel 
by the older methods, which in earlier days prevailed in that 
center for cutlery. Sheffield has now added work in armor plate 
and steel rails, and is unrivaled in making " high-speed " steel, — 
that is, steel used in tools which are operated with great rapidity 
and therefore must suffer heavy strain. The cause of Shef- 
field's superiority in steel of higher grades probably lies in 

1 Mackinder, Britain and British Seas, p. 325. 

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IRON 75 

accumulated experience and in the thorough care given to each 
process of production. 

The iron industry has flourished on a large scale about the 
lower courses of the Tyne, the Wear, and the Tees. Near the 
mouth of the last is Middlesbrough. This iron town is on 
the northern edge of Yorkshire, was founded in 1830, and is 
near the ore beds of the Cleveland district. English capital 
built a town of the same name in southeastern Kentucky, at the 
Cumberland Gap, in the hope that it would become a great 
center for iron. 

Newcastle and a chain of settlements along the estuary of 
the Tyne, close to extensive beds of coal, rival the Clyde near 
Glasgow in the vast shipbuilding operations of Great Britain, — 
and shipbuilding in modern days is chiefly a business in steel. 
The Clyde offers the greater shipbuilding industry not only of 
Great Britain but of all nations. Its artificial deepening has 
enabled Glasgow, the second city of the United Kingdom, to 
grow up upon it, and its iron and other industries have been 
favored by the presence of iron and coal in the neighboring 
central lowland of Scotland. The iron industry is strongly de- 
veloped in the towns of the South Wales coal field. Like the 
districts of the Clyde and the east coast, ocean transportation is 
available, while Birmingham, an interior town, is the center of 
a network of railways. 

57. Iron in Germany. The German Empire is the first in- 
dustrial nation on the continent of Europe, and the greatest 
rival of the United States and Great Britain in the field of 
manufacture. The largest item in German manufacture is iron, 
and here, as in other iron-making countries, there is a close 
relation among the three factors, iron ore, coal, and transporta- 
tion. By building canals and improving her rivers, Germany 
has made the most of her internal navigation. Her natural ad- 
vantages also have been used with energy and skill in a land 
where education of every kind, including technical training, has 
been brought to a high degree of perfection. The lower Rhine 
country, in western Prussia, is the greatest single seat of the 

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iron industry. A short distance north of Cologne, a small river, 
the Ruhr, enters the Rhine from the east. In its valley is a 
coal field, one of the greatest deposits of this mineral in Europe. 
Here also is Essen, best known as the home of the Krupp steel 
industries, founded and developed by men of this name during 
three generations. The works were originally begun to compete 
with the steel of Sheffield. Plants at several other places now 
belong to the same establishment, which has many mines in 
Germany, some in Spain, maintains wharves at Rotterdam, and 
owns railways, telegraphs, and proving grounds for its famous 
guns. It is thus like some of the vast corporations of the United 
States in its comprehensive ownership of all branches of the in- 
dustry, and its motto is said to be, "The establishment itself 
must furnish whatever it requires. ,, Among the more convenient 
sources of its ore are the Harz Mountains, not far to the south- 
east, and Alsace-Lorraine and the grand duchy of Luxemburg, 
from which the Rhine and its western tributary, the Moselle, 
offer a natural highway to the Essen district. 

Shipbuilding is one of the largest items in German iron manu- 
facture, and the rivalry between Germany and Great Britain in 
this field is well known. Among other seats of this industry is 
Stettin, in northern Prussia, on the Oder, and not far from the 
Baltic. The Oder is navigable, and through the aid of canals 
offers access to the basin of the Elbe and to much of northern 
Germany. We may compare this center with Essen near the 
Rhine, Newcastle upon Tyne, or Glasgow on the Clyde. Iron 
ores are found in several other parts of Germany, although in 
no case are they so important as those of the western border. 

58. The iron industry of other nations. Several other Euro- 
pean nations have important iron industries, depending in part 
on population and needs, and in part on their resources of iron 
ore and coal. Thus France produced in 1906 over 8,000,000 
tons of iron ore. Her largest home supply is from the basin 
of the Moselle on the east, a region adjacent to great German 
deposits and to those of the grand duchy of Luxemburg ; nor is 
it far from the iron and coal which have made southern Belgium 

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IRON 77 

so important in industrial pursuits. From these bordering dis- 
tricts, and from Spain, France supplements her home supply. 

Spain mined in the year 1905 over 9,000,000 metric tons 
of iron ore, much of which was exported to Great Britain, Ger- 
many, France, and other countries While the annals of mining 
in Spain go back to the Phoenicians of ancient days, she has 
not attained the industrial strength of nations like Belgium and 
France, which are less favored in mineral resources. Spain 
therefore shows that the spirit and genius of the people are of 
equal importance with natural resources ; otherwise she would 
not let her coal remain unused in its beds, and send out her 
iron as raw material to be smelted and converted into steel by 
her more progressive neighbors. 

The United States appears to be the one country in the world 
which at the same time has iron resources of the first order and 
is utilizing them to the highest degree. Great Britain, Ger- 
many, France, and Belgium exhibit skill and enterprise, are 
working their own deposits as fully as possible, and make up 
their home deficiencies by importation. Spain has a surplus 
because of her indifference. Italy is an example of countries 
having, as far as is known, insignificant supplies of ore ; and 
she must therefore, with her large population and her industrial 
awakening, import nearly her entire supply of iron and the 
products of iron manufacture. Sweden appears to be the one 
nation of Europe which has ample iron, is fully awake to the 
importance of its home manufacture, and at the same time is 
able to supply a surplus to the nations of western and central 
Europe. The abundant forests of that country enable the char- 
coal process to survive more fully there than in most other 
regions. The iron industry is growing in Russia and Austria- 
Hungary, and these countries have now become producers of 
the second order. Great nations like Russia or India may have 
extensive agriculture before gaining the skill and organization 
essential to work in metals. 

Three countries — the United States, Germany, and Great 
Britain — are the chief competitors in the iron trade, and are 

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likely so to remain for a considerable period in the future. This 
view is warranted by their resources, their skill, and by the hold 
already gained upon the market. 

The chief advantages of England are the proximity of ore, 
coal, and flux, and the nearness of the iron centers to the sea, 
which makes them accessible to all markets and makes it pos- 
sible to import ore at small cost. A home authority has re- 
cently expressed full confidence in British iron, urging that the 
coal supply is ample and that Spanish ore can be transported 
at half the cost of carrying Lake Superior ores to Pittsburg. 
Should the Spanish supplies be exhausted, ample reserves are 
found in Scandinavia, Lapland, Algeria, and many British 

Much of the German ore is of low grade, but is well used by 
modern methods. Germany has the largest coal fields of Eu- 
rope, but the coal is not so close to the iron as in England, 
where, according to a German authority, about 10 per cent of 
the cost of pig iron is to be charged to transportation of raw 
materials, as against 30 per cent in Germany. 

The United States has much larger reserves both of iron and 
coal, but the distances of transportation both for raw materials 
and finished products are usually greater. Ore, coal, and flux 
are close at hand in the southern Appalachian district, but the 
greater markets are remote. The development of the southern 
states, however, will open a large market, and trade may de- 
velop in Latin America, especially through the opening of the 
Panama Canal. 

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59. Coal in Pennsylvania. This state is first in the produc- 
tion of iron and steel, though not of iron ore. Its leadership in 
iron is, however, due to its primacy in coal, and hence we begin 
here our study of this most important of the fuels of the world. 
Pennsylvania affords by far the largest mineral output of any 
state in the Union, having produced from mines and quarries in 
1902 values amounting to #236,000,000, while the second in 
rank, Ohio, produced values of $57,000,000. The coal product 
of Pennsylvania in 1901 was about 150,000,000 tons. 

Eastern Pennsylvania contains the anthracite region of the 
United States. Outside of this state the hard coal is found in 
small amounts in Colorado and New Mexico, but this western 
product is not commercially important. Western Pennsylvania 
contains the northeastern parts of the bituminous fields of the 
Appalachians and the Mississippi Valley, and it is here that 
Pittsburg, the first coal and iron city of the world, has arisen. 
Bounding the anthracite field by well-known features, it is con- 
tained in a rude quadrangle having the Delaware and Susque- 
hanna rivers on the east and west, the north branch of the 
Susquehanna on the north, and the long ridge of Blue Moun- 
tain on the south. There is short and down-grade passage to 
New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and moderate distances 
include New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, 
and New Jersey, the five states of greatest density of population. 
Here also, partly because of accessible coal and partly for other 
reasons, are regions of the highest industrial activity. 

The anthracite lies in several geological troughs or downfolds 
of strata, often designated as the northern, middle, and southern 
basins. Important groups of towns have grown up in response 


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to the mining industry. In the northern basin are Scranton, Car- 
bondale, Pittston, Wilkes-Barre, and Nanticoke. In the middle 
basin are Hazleton and Shamokin, while the main center of the 
southern field is Pottsville. The area actually occupied by work- 
able coal measures is 484 square miles. The anthracite output 
of 1 90 1 was 67,000,000 tons. 

So far as is known the Pennsylvania anthracite was first used 
in 1769 by a blacksmith whose forge was near the place now 

Fig. 49. Truesdale coal breaker, Scranton, Pennsylvania 

occupied by Wilkes-Barre. From 1776 to 1780, in the time of 
the Revolution, anthracite was shipped to Carlisle, in southern 
Pennsylvania, for the manufacture of materials of war. In the 
early years of the nineteenth century this coal found its way in 
" ark " boats and wagons to Philadelphia, being used for gravel- 
ing walks, and then in grates and furnaces, but it is on record 
that most of one shipment was given away. In 1823 the first 
cargo of anthracite was sent around Cape Cod to Boston. These 
historical facts show how recently coal began to have importance 
as an article of commerce. 

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COAL 8 1 

About 1 5,000 square miles in western Pennsylvania are more 
or less underlain by beds of bituminous coal, which lies along 
the Monongahela and Ohio rivers, continuous with deposits in 
Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland. The first record of mining 
goes back to 1760, and the place was across the Monongahela 
River from the site of Pittsburg. The advent of steam soon 
caused a demand for coal, and by 1800 it was used to some ex- 
tent in local factories. Coal was first shipped from Pittsburg in 
1803. In 1902, or ninety-nine years later, there were more than 
1000 mines in the bituminous beds of Pennsylvania, and the 
output was nearly 100,000,000 tons, — more than one third of 
the bituminous coal production of the United States. The an- 
thracite coal belongs to a region of disturbed rocks in the moun- 
tainous part of the state, while the bituminous beds and the 
rock strata associated with them lie in their original horizontal 
position. Thus geological disturbances have given different 
qualities to coals of the same age, and have also led to differ- 
ences in the methods of mining in the two regions. 

60. The market for Pennsylvania coal. The icoal provides 
power at the pit's mouth for elevators and drills and the ma- 
chinery of the "breakers," by which the product is reduced to 
assorted sizes. It cooks the food of the miner and warms his 
home. It fires the locomotives which haul the fuel to Philadel- 
phia, to many towns of the state, and to innumerable points be- 
yond the boundaries. It feeds the furnaces of Pittsburg and of 
all the lesser centers of iron and steel from the Delaware River 
to Lake Erie. It furnishes the chief freight for the Pennsyl- 
vania, the Lehigh Valley, and other railway systems. 

The state of New York, with more than 9,000,000 people, 
and the city of New York are close at hand. The homes, fac- 
tories, and railways of the Empire State must have coal, and 
there is none within its boundaries. The Delaware and Hud- 
son, the Lackawanna, the Ontario and Western, the Lehigh, 
and the Pennsylvania railways all run from the heart of the coal 
regions far into New York, to Lake Champlain, to Utica and 
Watertown, to Syracuse and Oswego, to Rochester and Buffalo. 

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Piers on Lake Ontario and Lake Erie receive Pennsylvania coal, 
and transmit to much of southern Canada its chief supply of 
fuel. Within the United States, Pennsylvania coal is hauled as 
far west as the Missouri River and beyond the Great Lakes, both 
because the Mississippi Valley has no anthracite and because 
Pennsylvania soft coals are suitable for making coke. Trans- 
ported to New York City the coal brings heat and power for its 


* "Tt;"--] > / fl 

Fig. 50. Coal-storage plant of the Delaware and Hudson Company, 
Delanson, New York 

vast interests and fills the bunkers of steamships departing daily 
for all parts of the world. 

61. The Appalachian coal field. Pennsylvania coals lie in the 
northern parts of the Appalachian Mountains and the Appala- 
chian plateau, and thus belong to a succession of deposits which 
extend from eastern Pennsylvania to central Alabama. This field 
is about 850 miles long, lies in parts of nine states, and includes 
about 70,000 square miles. It covers a wide belt in eastern 
Ohio, West Virginia, and eastern Kentucky, with smaller but 
important areas in Maryland and Virginia. Its chief southern 

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Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

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COAL 83 

parts are in Tennessee and Alabama, with a slight development 
in the northwest corner of Georgia. 

The coal from this field has a wide market, as has been seen 
in part for the coal of Pennsylvania. West Virginia and Ohio 
coal reaches markets on the Ohio River, the Great Lakes, and 
along the lower Mississippi River. Several railways convey coal 
to the Atlantic seaboard, to ports extending from New York to 
Savannah. Alabama and Tennessee fields are well placed to sup- 
ply the Gulf States and to export to Central and South America. 

62. Interior coal fields. The northern interior field occupies 
about 7000 square miles in the central part of the southern 
peninsula of Michigan. This coal goes mainly to local markets. 
It cannot move south and east, being unable to compete with 
the better grades of Ohio and Pennsylvania. It does to some 
extent cross Lake Michigan to Wisconsin, and even to states 
beyond the Mississippi River, since westward freights are 
cheaper than eastern, owing to the greater amount of* bulky 
commodities moving toward the east. 

The eastern interior field is largely in Illinois, extending into 
southwestern Indiana and Kentucky, and includes 46,000 square 
miles. Its markets are chiefly local, being on the field or in 
adjacent territory. Naturally this field largely supplies Chicago 
and St. Louis, the most of Indiana, western Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, and some territory west of the Mississippi River. This 
coal competes with that from Pennsylvania. In the summer 
months soft coal comes by the Great Lakes from Pennsylvania 
to Chicago, and kills the Chicago trade from the home field, 
which revives again with the closing of navigation in the winter. 

The western interior field includes parts of Iowa, Nebraska, 
Missouri, and Kansas, and covers more than 60,000 square 
miles, about two thirds of the area being considered productive. 
This field continues, under the name of southwestern, into Okla- 
homa, Arkansas, and Texas. Here again the market is largely 
local, but tends to extend westward until stopped by compe- 
tition with the coal of the Rocky Mountain fields. The south- 
ern railways crossing the continent, and those of Texas, get 

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their supplies from the southwestern fields. The general tend- 
ency of movement is toward the west, and this is ascribed 1 to 
three causes : first, the eastern coals are better than the western ; 
second, freight rates are generally lower westward than eastward ; 
and third, water transportation favors westward carriage. This is 
particularly true of the Ohio River. 

63. Other coal fields in the United States. In Virginia and 
North Carolina are small areas of bituminous coal, known to the 
geologist as of Triassic age. The beds were opened and slightly 
worked in early days but are now unimportant. In the Gulf States, 
from Alabama to Texas, are belts of lignite, which the needs of 
the future may raise to commercial importance. All coal is 
modified from wood or other vegetable tissues. Anthracite is 
much changed, bituminous coal in less degree, while lignite, as 
the name implies, retains much of the original character of 
wood. Other coal fields (Cretaceous) are found along the Rocky 
Mountains, extending eastward on the Great Plains of Montana, 
the Dakotas, and Colorado, and south to the plateaus of Colo- 
rado, Utah, and New Mexico. The position of these deposits 
appears on the map (fig. 51). The important coal beds of the 
Pacific coast are found in the state of Washington, and there 
are small areas in Oregon and California. 
. 64. Coal the foundation of modern industry. The great use 
of coal belongs to the past one hundred years. This does not 
mean that this fuel was not in use before, for its value was known 
in a small way in ancient times among the Greeks and the 
Chinese. It is known also that the early Britons and the Roman 
invaders of their land used coal, and by 1 2 1 5 a.d. some trade 
had been established, making it an article of commerce. In the 
thirteenth century Newcastle coal was brought in ships to Lon- 
don, and soon the smoke of its burning aroused complaints be- 
cause the air was defiled with smells and dust. In the seventeenth 
century the European peoples made more use of coal, and at the 
end of the eighteenth century the newly invented steam engine 
led the way to the world-wide developments of to-day, in which 

1 C. W. Hayes, 22d An. Rep. U. S. G. S. f Part III, p. 24. 

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COAL 85 

coal propels the machinery of most factories and supplies the 
chief power for conveyances on land and sea. It has been influ- 
ential in locating the centers of manufacture and commerce, and 
Birmingham, Newcastle, and Pittsburg are conspicuous exam- 
ples. Other causes have helped, however; for New England 
industry was located by water power, even though most of her 
machinery is now run by steam. New York could not maintain 
its industry without coal, though other factors than the Penn- 
sylvania coal seams would have made New York America's 
metropolis. Coal makes transportation of raw materials and 
manufactured products easy, and hence tends to diffuse the cen- 
ters of industry or allows them to remain at considerable dis- 
tance from the coal, as is the case with Boston and many New 
England mill towns. The industrial importance of coal is no- 
where better seen than in the case of Great Britain, where, to 
quote H. R. Mill, " It is coal which makes it possible to pur- 
chase grain and other food materials ; not directly, . . . but in- 
directly, by supplying smelting furnaces for reducing iron and 
providing power for engineering works and factories." The 
United Kingdom may thus continue to be an industrial nation, 
even though she imports iron, so long as her coal holds out. 
A recent British writer computes that, at the present output, the 
British reserves of coal would last for six hundred and thirty- 
three years. 

65. The development of transportation dependent on coal. 
When the nineteenth century began, men of public spirit and 
enterprise were planning highways and canals. On the one were 
stages and freight wagons, and on the other were boats. Whether 
by road or canal, passengers and articles of commerce were 
moved by domestic animals. On the seas the only power was 
the fickle wind, which, mastered by the utmost skill of the 
sailor, required weeks for a voyage across the Atlantic and 
many months to sail around the world. 

The first half of the century saw the perfecting of the steam 
engine. The Mississippi and the Hudson were covered with 
boats, and lines of railway led from the Atlantic seaboard across 

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the Appalachians to the prairies. This was made possible by the 
use of coal. The second half of the nineteenth century saw a 
vast increase of steamships and of railways. The cutting of 
the forests made wood impossible as fuel, and thus this greater 
development depended still more closely on the beds of coal. 
For about seventy years steamship lines for regular service have 
been maintained across the Atlantic, and for forty years it has 
been possible to be moved from New York to San Francisco by 
the long-stored energy of the beds of coal. Swiftness, regularity, 

FlG. 52. Coal barges at Pittsburg ready to move down the 
Ohio River 

and low freight rates are the three factors upon which the 
volume and wide distribution of modern commerce depend, 
and these have all been secured by modern inventions, which 
brought into employment a fuel long known but little used. 

The sailings of battleships and of the merchant marine of all 
nations are largely conditioned by the coaling stations, which 
are now an essential part of the world's network of ocean traffic. 
Great Britain, in particular, maintains these depots in all lati- 
tudes and longitudes, — in the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, 
along the shores of India, Australia, and the islands and main- 
lands of the Pacific. A ship may fill its bunkers at Gibraltar or 

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Barcelona ; at Genoa, Naples, Trieste, or the Piraeus ; at Port 
Said, Colombo, Singapore, Manila, Yokohoma, Honolulu, or 
San Francisco, and thus move step by step around the world. 
For present generations, at least, the world's transportation is 
mainly based on coal. 

66. British coal fields and the centers of British industry. 
We take first the coal fields of England. These are six in 
number, as follows : 

1. Newcastle, a field on 
the lower Tyne, and supply- 
ing this center ; also the ex- 
port trade of the neighboring 
Sunderland and Hartlepool, 
and the iron works of Mid- 

2. West Riding, a field 
lying south, toward the cen- 
ter of England, supplying 
Sheffield, Leeds, Notting- 
ham, and other manufactur- 
ing towns, and adjacent to 
the seaport of Hull. Both 
the fields just described send 

much coal to London, and , , „ , , e „ ^ . . 

, . ,. . - , Fig. 53. Coal fields of Great Britain 

both he on the east of the 

Pennine chain, the great upland and backbone of northern 


3. The Midland basin, which includes a number of small 
fields on the plains of central England, lying between London 
and Liverpool, and supplying Birmingham and the other indus- 
trial towns in its vicinity. 

4. The Lancashire field, which is across the Pennines west- 
ward from the West Riding coal, supplies Manchester and other 
mill towns and provides much coal for the ships of Liverpool. 

5. The Cumberland basin, west of the Pennines and oppo- 
site Newcastle field. 

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B ^^^HSheffiela 

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* 4 

^y^K London 5*/ 



/iStol VVy^--^^^ 

y \ Southa^ 

iptinio nPo^tsmouth^J •" 

HjjnlWv, 2 

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6. The southern coal fields, lying in the neighborhood of Bristol. 

Outside of England are two great fields : 

i. South Wales. This field supplies the iron, tin-plate, and 
copper industries of Cardiff. From Cardiff vast quantities of 
South Wales coal are exported or sent to British coaling stations 
in all parts of the world. 

. 2. The Scottish fields, in the Scottish lowland, adjacent to 
the firths of Clyde and Forth, supplying the industries of Glas- 
gow, exporting to Ireland and the Baltic, and contributing to 
the greatest shipbuilding industry in the world. 

67. Coal in other countries. Of all European countries ex- 
cept Great Britain, Germany has the largest coal beds and makes 
most use of them. Her fields are in the Ruhr basin, already 
noticed in the account of iron ; along the Saar, in the Moselle 
basin, near the French boundary ; in southern Saxony about 
Zwickau, not far from Leipzig and Dresden ; and in Silesia, 
near the Austrian and Russian border and extending into those 
lands. Breslau is the center to which these Silesian deposits are 
especially tributary. 

France has coal in several areas, and one of these is in the 
northeast and continues into the great industrial region of coal 
and iron in southern Belgium. This coal area is close to the 
coal and iron of the whole Rhine region and of the grand duchy 
of Luxemburg, making this part of western Europe one of the 
first commercial and industrial centers. 

Spain is well supplied with coal but awaits enterprise and 
development. Coal deposits are insignificant in Portugal, Italy, 
Switzerland, Holland, Denmark, and the states of the Danube 
and the Balkans. The important coal beds of the British colonies 
are found in Canada, particularly in Nova Scotia and other eastern 
provinces ; in South Africa, the greatest production being in the 
Transvaal ; in New South Wales and other provinces of Aus- 
tralia ; in New Zealand ; and in India, whose fields have been 
estimated at 35,000 square miles. 

Coal beds are important and now much worked in Japan. 
Chinese coal fields are imperfectly known and little worked, 

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8 9 

but information warrants the belief that 200,000 square miles 
is a low estimate for their area. As coal is at the basis of in- 
dustry, it will be seen how profoundly the commerce of Asia 
and of the world may be affected when modern enterprise has 
full opportunity in this great empire. Our survey of the world's 
coal is enough to show that this fuel is very generally distributed, 
for South America also has several fields, and exploration may 


TONS itt.jno.ooa 200.000.000 290,000,000 *»,ooo,ot» 390,000,000 400.000,000 490000,000 son 000 000 















Fig. 54. Annual production of coal in the United States, 1846- 1907 

be expected to increase the number. This general supply of 
power will favor local prosperity and comprehensive systems of 
transportation and exchange, including all the habitable lands 
of the globe. 

68. Varieties and by-products of coal. Coal is the remains 
of vegetation, and ranges from the soft peat of modern swamps 
to the hard anthracite of ancient forests. The soft or bitumi- 
nous coal may be just as old as the anthracite, but has been sub- 
ject to less of pressure or other influences that would change its 

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condition. Lignite is intermediate between peat on the one 
hand and true coals on the other. 

Special types of coal are sought for particular industries, and 
Pennsylvania coal and coke go far west in the Mississippi 
Valley, because suited to domestic needs and to some classes 
of manufacture. Thus, results of a distinctly geographic nature 
follow from the variety in the qualities of coal. 

The number of by-products derived from coal is considerable. 
Among these is illuminating gas, and in some cases the manu- 
facture of coke would not be profitable were not the gases uti- 
lized for this purpose. The by-products include also several 
sorts of chemical products, such as flavors, perfumes, dyes, 
soaps, antiseptics, cleaning preparations, and explosives. 

69. The conservation of coal. Some of Mr. Carnegie's esti- 
mates at the White House Conference of 1908 are here given. 
The entire original supply of coal in the United States was put 
at 2,000, 000, 000,000 tons. We mined in 1907, 450,000,000 
tons, or more than five tons for each person in the United 
States. At the present rate of increase the production in the 
year 1937 would be over 3,500,000,000 tons. Mr. Carnegie 
thinks that unless unforeseen economies or inventions intervene, 
most of our coal will be gone in two hundred years. 

The methods of mining coal also cause much waste. Many 
beds of coal contain rock or earthy matter, which diminishes 
their value, and such coal is often thrown to refuse heaps in 
the mine or at its mouth. The average amount of this impure 
coal for all the mines of the United States is estimated at 25 
per cent, and it is lost in spite of the fact that it is high in 
heating power and would for some purposes have great value. 
In some mining regions, by careless methods, 40 to 70 per 
cent of the coal is believed, on expert authority, to be left in 
the ground. According to Dr. I. C. White, the gas from 
35,000 coke ovens in the vicinity of Pittsburg is wasted, 
which means a loss of one third of the power and one half the 
value of the beds of Pittsburg coal. Dr. White estimates that 
at the present rate of consumption this seam of coal will give 

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COAL 91 

out in 93 years. As the industrial greatness of Pittsburg depends 
on this coal, here is a fact of the utmost importance to the student 
of commercial geography. 

Mr. Carnegie also shows that the methods of using the coal 
are more wasteful than those of mining, for in power plants 
only 5 to 10 per cent of the energy actually contained in the 
coal is used, while in electric lighting and heating only about one 
five-hundredth of the power belonging to the coal is utilized. 

From these statements appears the importance of saving coal 
supplies in every way. The exhaustion of this fuel would intro- 
duce great change in the character and distribution of the 
world's industries. Only the progress of invention could in this 
event save the human race from limitation and hardship. The 
present generation owes the duty of reasonable thrift to those 
which will come after it, and the present waste is to be counted 
as little less than crime. 

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70. Commercial geography defined. General geography com- 
prehends the surface of the earth, with its life. Physical geog- 
raphy includes the forms of the land, the ocean, the atmosphere, 
and the globe in its movements and relations as a planet. Text- 
books of physical geography usually give some account of plants 
and animals, including man. If man himself is studied in his 
relation to the earth, the subject is termed anthropogeography. 
If within this field we, in a more special way, study man as 
a trader, and the earth's surface as affording a place to trade, 
the theme is commercial geography. It is clear that the student 
of this subject must deal with land forms, soils, climate, the 
distribution of water; with minerals, animals, and plants; with 
routes, cities, and countries, — he must indeed bring all geog- 
raphy under tribute. 

Thus commerce is largely geographical in its nature. It 
involves the distribution of all natural features and products. 
It is also, in its larger development, carried on among peoples, 
and is therefore largely controlled by historical, racial, and politi- 
cal conditions. Hence political and economic history must be 
taken into account, and, even prior to these, the discoveries 
which have gradually made the earth known and the migrations 
by which the lands have been peopled. 

71. The development of commerce. The primitive community 
is sufficient to itself. It provides all its own food by hunting, 
fishing, or simple agriculture, and makes its own clothing of 
skins and rude fabrics. A dugout, a snow hut, or a tent of poles 
or grasses serves as a habitation, and the implements of domes- 
tic life and of warfare are of home production. Commerce be- 
gins when the primitive man finds in the possessions of another 


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tribe or race something that he can gain by barter or can win by 
some medium of exchange which seems valuable to both parties. 



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Fig. 55. Distribution of population in the United States, 1790 

The real development of commerce follows upon growth in 
civilization arid the multiplication of needs and desires. Then 
man's life ceases to be a reflection of the things immediately 
around Jiim, and: takes in a larger world. Along with rise in 
the scale and complexity of living goes increasing knowledge 

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of other regions, travel, and evolution of means of transporta- 
tion. Gradually experience teaches the economy of a division 

Fig. 56. Distribution of population in the United States, 1850 

of labor, and the wisdom of each family, each tribe, or each 
nation doing what it can do best, and producing what it can 
produce to the highest advantage. 

Commercial geography for an American savage would have 
included a tract of forest or prairie and a few neighboring tribes. 
His trade could hardly be called commerce until the white man 
came, enlarged his knowledge, excited his desires, and began 
to trade with him, receiving his peltry for clothes, knives, guns, 
and trinkets. Commercial geography for the Roman people 

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would have centered in the Mediterranean region, reaching out 
to the Orient, to North Africa, to Germany, and to Britain. 
Commercial geography in the seventeenth century belonged to 
a few nations of Europe, exchanging fabrics and furniture for 
American tobacco, and continuing with the Far East, for silks 
and spices, the trade of medieval days. Now all peoples except 
a few remote tribes, all seas except those bound in polar ice, 
have to do with the production, transportation, and sale of com- 
modities for those, near or far, who do not produce them. 

It is now time to analyze more in detail the principles of the 
subject. These have in some manner been stated and exempli- 
fied in the study of the five typical products which form the 
themes of the preceding chapters. A fourfold division is made, 
and sections 72-75 will deal in succession with raw materials, 
manufacture, markets and final distribution, and transportation. 

72. The raw materials. The raw materials of commerce fall 
into three great classes. 

1 . Those of a mineral nature. Iron is found in certain parts 
of the world. It exists everywhere in rocks, soils, and even in 
the waters of the sea,, but is so concentrated in certain places as 
to be available to man. It is in northern and central but not in 
southern New York ; it is about Lake Superior, but not to any 
extent on the prairies ; it is in northern and western but not to 
any extent in metropolitan England ; it is found in Sweden and 
Spain, but not in Holland. Where it is, depends on ancient 
conditions, and thus geographic distribution leads to geologic 
origins. Coal has a similar distribution over the world, being 
widespread but not universal. If salt is taken, or petroleum, or 
gold, the facts of modern geographic distribution are dependent 
on ancient conditions, which belong to the geography of some 
remote time. 

2. Raw materials of a vegetable nature. Wheat, like all other 
vegetable products, depends on the existence of soil. This 
comes from the rocks, and might itself be called a mineral 
product, belonging to geology as truly as gold or coal. Wheat, 
however, depends for its actual distribution more on climate, 

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9 6 

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that is, on the distribution of temperature and moisture. Hence 
it does not grow in Iceland or Panama, although those regions 
have abundant soils. It does not grow in Nevada or Colorado 
unless water is supplied. It does not grow in the Rockies or 
other high mountain regions, because altitude introduces semi- 
arctic conditions. 

Cotton has its somewhat distinct zone also, in like manner 
dependent on climate, and wheat and cotton belong essentially 
to different belts, although they may overlap, as in Georgia, 
Tennessee, Texas, or Egypt. 

3. Raw materials of animal origin. Cattle will thrive where 
either wheat or cotton may grow, and thus exemplify the law 
that a type of animal life will often flourish over more various 
conditions of soil and climate than are possible to stationary 
organisms, like plants. Cattle as a commercial product are there- 
fore raised not so much where they might be raised, as where 
man finds this industry more convenient or profitable than to 
produce cereals or fruit or cotton. This introduces the human 

73. Manufacture. Raw materials are transformed into things 
which are ready for man s use. Wheat is made into flour or 
breakfast cereal ; cotton is turned into thread, muslin, or lace ; 
cattle are transformed into beef, leather, shoes, harness, and 
into a multitude of lesser things ; iron becomes steel, and steel 
is given manifold useful forms. 

The processes of manufacture belong to chemical, mechanical, 
or other sciences, which are not in themselves geographical ; 
but they involve many and vital geographical conditions, and 
thus demand a large place in commercial geography. Thus 
always the question presents itself, Where is the raw material 
made into the finished product ? The answer to this question 
is geographical. Still more fundamental is the question, Why 
is the particular place chosen ? This involves the locality of 
origin of the raw material, the possibility of quick and cheap 
transportation, the presence of power, the neighborhood of sup- 
plementary materials, the nearness of the market, the supply 

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of labor, the taxes and imposts of government, whether local, 
national, domestic, or foreign, and also the business skill and 
inventive genius of the people. 

To illustrate some of these points, Pittsburg may be taken as 
an example already familiar. Power is ready at hand in the form 
of coal. Iron is transported thither under favorable conditions, 
but transportation depends upon the genius of man in developing 
the " Soo," the lake steamer, and the railway. Inventive skill in 
manufacturing processes has been marked, but is not peculiar to 
Pittsburg ; for example, the Bessemer process was a British in- 
vention. Labor is abundant, because with ready and cheap trans- 
portation it comes from the overcrowded countries of Europe. 
The growth of the Pennsylvania Railroad system and the mod- 
erate distance from New York and other Atlantic ports have 
made it possible to deliver the product where it is wanted. 
American enterprise, the power of large combinations of cap- 
ital, and the device of protective tariffs have made it possible to 
market much of the steel almost at the mouth of European 
mines. Thus the location of Pittsburg iron making involves a 
great variety of factors more or less geographical, and belonging 
both to the physical and the human phases of the science. A 
similar application of geographic principles covers Birmingham 
in reference to iron ; Atlanta, Lowell, Fall River, or Manchester 
(England) in the field of cotton manufacture ; or St. Joseph, 
Omaha, or Chicago as centers of meat packing. 

74. Markets and final consumption. Commercial products find 
their chief markets among the largest and most progressive pop- 
ulations. Hence all kinds of manufacture seek, so far as possi- 
ble, the places near which the most people live. A great factory 
is not often placed in a remote and sparsely populated region. 
A glance at a railroad map of the United States shows that the 
closest network of roads is east of the Missouri and north of 
the Ohio and Potomac rivers. Hence Pittsburg, Buffalo, and 
South Chicago are more accessible to the market for steel rails 
than Birmingham or any point in the Cordilleran region. Man- 
chester is a long way from the cotton fields of the South or of 

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Egypt, but it is close to the vast body of British and other Euro- 
pean consumers. There are important exceptions to this rule, 
for Manchester may market its fabrics in India or Argentina, 
and its weavers may buy beef from Buenos Aires and butter from 
New Zealand. Thus centers of population tend to concentrate 
industry, while transportation favors dispersal, especially where 
two remote lands can supplement each other, and ships can 
bear cargoes in both directions. 

The location of the market depends not only on the number 
of people, but on what they want. The use of wheat bread and 
of cotton is extending in some countries of the world because 
many people are finding these things desirable. Hence the 
market and the best locations for manufacture change with the 
progress of nations and of the race as a whole. Thus China 
breaks down its walls of conservatism and desires the products 
of American, British, and German skill. Business enterprise 
is alert to exhibit modern products and convince primitive or 
backward nations that they must have them. 

75. Transportation. This is a fourth fundamental factor es- 
sential to the geography of commerce. Carriage is required at 
every stage, — from field or mine to the factory, and from fac- 
tory to the market and the consumer. There may be a series 
of manufactures, as when steel made in the furnace goes to 
machine shops of every kind and to factories where agricultural 
implements, sewing machines, typewriters, or builders' hardware 
are made. 

Thus transportation takes the various raw materials, with 
pauses en route, all the way to the consumer's door. The place 
of the intermediate manufacturing and marketing stations de- 
pends on a variety of causes. Cotton may be made up near the 
smaller number of consumers, as at Atlanta ; or far from the field 
but close to the consumer, as at Fall River or Manchester. 

Effectiveness in transportation depends on many factors both 
natural and human. Take first the natural conditions. River 
valleys favor those points of production, manufacture, and con- 
sumption which they join. The Hudson-Mohawk, the Potomac, 

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the Rhone, and the Rhine are examples. If a mountain range 
separates two progressive regions, its passes are highways, and 
are historic if the countries are old. Thus the St. Gothard, the 
Simplon, and the Brenner passes have long been arteries of 
trade between central Europe on the north and Italy and the 
Mediterranean on the south. The Union Pacific Railway finds 
a low place in the Rocky Mountains of Wyoming, and the 
Canadian Pacific follows a series of passes from Banff westward 
in the Canadian Cordilleras, both roads becoming great com- 
mercial links between two oceans. 

The greater rivers and lakes serve as inland waterways, and 
to these man adds canals, by which he joins river systems and 
makes the difficult parts of rivers subject to commerce. He 
goes farther, cutting the lands in two to join the seas and 
oceans in unbroken communication around the world. Perhaps 
even more important than other land forms are plains. Thus 
railways are cheaply and rapidly built along the coastal plain 
from New York to Savannah, Jacksonville, New Orleans, and 
Texas, or along the Great Lakes and across the prairies. The 
Great Plains are equally favorable, and the grades are imper- 
ceptible to the eye, in Kansas, Dakota, Manitoba, or along that 
more northern line where the Grand Trunk Railway crosses 
Saskatchewan and Alberta toward Prince Rupert and the 
western ocean. 

More truly than any land, however great, the ocean is the 
natural highway of nations, and has been tracked by ships as 
anciently as the trade routes of the Orient have been trodden 
by hoof of horse or camel. 

Seas reach the borders of every continent and island, and 
their waters are the public possession of nations. The Atlantic 
Ocean is thus far the great theater of marine commerce, being 
bordered on the east and west by the greatest commercial peo- 
ples. Europe is indented by gulfs and seas, including the diver- 
sified outlines of the Mediterranean. North America likewise 
has the Gulf of Mexico, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and Hudson 
Bay. Both continents have secure and plentiful harbors. The 

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Atlantic has the Gulf Stream and the prevailing westerlies, 
and toward the equatorial region is marked by the presence of 
the trade winds and the equatorial current. All these natural 
features are made useful to the ships of commerce in deter- 
mining their routes and facilitating their passage. Land and 
sea routes are more and more coordinated, sometimes under a 
common management, so that commercial transportation may 
now be considered as a world-embracing organism. 

Fig. 59. Westward migration of centers of population and manufacture ; 
centers of oats, farm values, etc., 1900 

Transportation is dependent on invention, and the human 
porter, the pack horse, the freight wagon, the steam and elec- 
tric car, mark steps of historical advancement on land, as the 
canoe of the savage inaugurated on the sea a series of craft 
which has its present culmination in the great liner of the 
ocean. Invention not only creates the means of mechanical car- 
riage but adds conditions of comfort to the traveler, of security 
to the cargo, and of preservation for products that are perish- 
able. Much commerce in food materials would be impossible 
and the future prosperity of some nations might be threatened, 
but for the device of preservative processes such as hermetic 
sealing, chilling, and freezing. 

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76. Complex results of commercial processes. It must not 
be thought that commerce involves a simple progress from the 
sources of raw material to final consumption. Every great 
industry gives origin to others. It carries with it a chain of 
causes and effects. Cotton is raised and baled with the aid of 
modern appliances, such as the plow, planter, and machines for 
ginning and pressing. To make these, other centers and other 
kinds of industry are fostered. To carry the cotton requires 

Fig. 60. Population in agricultural pursuits shown by dark inner circle, — 

number in thousands, below ; population in all pursuits shown by outer ring, 

— number in thousands, above (census of 1900) 

railways and steamships, and thus workers in wood, in iron 
and other metals, decorators and furnishers, are necessary ; also 
expert operators, business managers, and innumerable helpers. 
To manufacture the cotton introduces the machine maker, capi- 
talist, foreman and operative ; the sales agent, wholesaler and 
retailer ; in other words, communities are built up and the single 
industry branches in directions so numerous as to be impossible 
to trace. 

77. Human factors in commercial geography. The fore- 
going principles are primarily related to the earth and to natural 

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conditions, but even these cannot be discussed without passing 
over into the human realm. Man is the agent in commerce, and 
even its geographical features are shaped by him. Theoretically 
it might be expected that each region would produce what its* 
mines and quarries contain, or what its soil and climate are 
fitted to yield, and sell its surplus where needed. This would 
imply equal intelligence, similar standards of living, and equally 
advanced development of all regions according to their capacity, 
with unhindered interchange among nations. But the actual 
facts present a far different picture, and it is the real and not 
the ideal which here claims attention. The following sections 
give a partial analysis of some of the human factors. 

78. Different standards of living. A market can only be had 
where the people feel, or can be made to feel, the need of a 
commodity. Thus American farm machinery makes its way 
slowly into China or even Russia. The past of wheat is espe- 
cially interesting because it has gained wider standing as giv- 
ing the bread of civilization. Its future is the greater problem 
because it is uncertain how far the demand for the wheaten 
loaf will go throughout the world. Germany is increasing her 
consumption of wheat because her working classes do not rely 
as much as formerly on black breads of rye and barley raised 
within the empire. The use of tropical fruits is extending 
among the people of temperate regions. Thus it is but a few 
years since grapefruit has taken its place beside the orange in 
the markets of the Northern states. 

79. Different degrees of skill. Great resources may be idle, 
as iron and coal in China, or largely even in Spain. This applies 
to the winning of raw material, to manufacture, to transportation, 
and to the organization of commerce in its financial aspects. The 
North American Indians wrought drift copper, using such frag- 
ments as the ice sheet broke from native ledges and distributed 
with the glacial drift. The white man delves a mile into the earth 
and brings forth abundant supplies. The savage made a spear- 
head or a rude ornament. The white man constructs an apparatus 
for transmitting electric energy for power, heat, or light. 

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A noteworthy advance is seen if we compare the amount of 
time required to produce a given result by hand labor and by 
machinery. The table on pages 104-105 gives such a compari- 
son. It will be seen that in many fields of production a revo- 
lution has taken place within a half century, or even within a 
much shorter period of time. 

80.- Different stages of occupation of lands. Land is inten- 
sively tilled on the plains of the Po or on the flood grounds of 
the Seine. It is well utilized, but less fully, on the prairies of 
Illinois, and is barely in the beginnings of culture in western 
Canada or on the plains of Argentina. In the subduing of the 
earth there has been a migratory progress, in which men of 
competent or advanced races find and settle new countries and 
exploit by their skill and energy new articles of commerce. 

81. Division into political units. This has often taken place 
along lines that are arbitrary and on which artificial restraints 
are set up, such as tariffs. The sales of a product may be sub- 
ject to internal taxation, as, for example, tobacco and alcohol 
in the United States ; or they may be made a government 
monopoly, as salt and tobacco in Italy. It is said that parts of 
the Italian coast have been patrolled to prevent the peasants 
from getting their salt by the evaporation of Mediterranean 
water. A change of government may introduce new commer- 
cial conditions suddenly, as lately in the Philippines and Cuba, 
or less recently in Alaska, South Africa, and India. 

On the other hand, progressive governments greatly facilitate 
commerce in numerous ways. 

Fundamentally, government guards the rights of property as 
between man and man both on land and sea. Government sets 
up courts of law and maintains lawful standards of weight, 
measure, and value. Piracy is suppressed, and at the present 
time there is growth of governmental activity in preventing 
unlawful and unjust restraints of trade by monopoly and political 

Government affords protection from the hazards of nature 
to which commerce is exposed. It charts the seas, maintains 

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Fig. 6i. Percentage of improved land to total area 

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life-saving service, gives weather and flood warnings, maintains 
lighthouses and signal stations, and sets up a quarantine. It 
guards against the migration and importation of pests, as is illus- 
trated by the presence on the plains of Canada of officers whose 
duty is to enforce laws for the suppression of noxious weeds. 
The attempted extermination of the gypsy moth by the state of 
Massachusetts is a further example, as is the stringent control 
exercised by the Department of Agriculture over the foot and 
mouth disease by which the cattle and dairy industry is threat- 
ened. Under this head falls sanitation, as organized by govern- 
ment authority at Havana, Panama, and Manila. 

Government also promotes transportation. It gathers scien- 
tific information dealing with routes, practicable roadways, the 
resources of adjacent territory, and the development of termi- 
nal points. The Pacific Railway surveys of the decade 1850- 
1860 offer an example, and also the land grants made to the 
Union Pacific and other transcontinental roads in the years of 
construction following the Civil War. Governments often sub- 
sidize lines of marine shipping, and they have given much aid 
in the construction of canals. River and harbor improvements 
belong under this class of government activities affecting com- 
merce, as does the extensive development of earth roads and 
highways. Great Britain, Norway, Switzerland, France, Italy, or 
indeed any advanced European nation, is conspicuous for its 
building of roads ; and the United States, though far behind 
in this particular sphere, owing to the newness of the country, 
is now extending this important aid to commercial operations. 
Government mails and telegraphs are further factors in trade. 

Governments constantly investigate natural resources, such as 
mines, soils, and climate. It is enough to name, in the United 
States, the Department of Agriculture, with its Soil Survey, its 
Bureau of Plant Industry, its experiment stations, and other activ- 
ities ; or the United States Geological Survey, its topographic 
mapping, and its study of general and economic geology. In 
addition may be named the Reclamation Service, for irrigating 
the arid lands; and the Forest Service, for forest protection 

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and the regulation of timber cutting and pasturage. Also here 
belong the consular services, by which every progressive nation 
receives fresh information regarding markets, crops, new prod- 
ucts, and commercial conditions from all parts of the world 
for the benefit of the farmer, the miner, the manufacturer, and 
the trader. 

82. Social and economic conditions. Here fall matters belong- 
ing strictly in the realm of economics and sociology, which have, 
however, important bearings on the activities of commerce. Such 
are the restraints imposed by trade unions and by monopolistic 
combinations of capital. Here may be named again government 
subsidies and bounties, which interfere with the more appro- 
priate productions of a region or with the natural routes of com- 
merce. Cities having every natural advantage may be retarded 
by the retrogressive spirit of the people or the repressive policies 
of labor or capital ; or they may be brought to prosperity by 
special favor, in the face of natural limitations. It may well be 
doubted, however, whether a great and permanent center of com- 
merce can arise, if not favored both by nature and by man. 

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The student who begins commercial geography should have 
mastered the chief principles of physical geography and should 
know his own country well. This short account of the United 
States will not supply such knowledge. It will serve to review 
a few leading facts and to give a bird's-eye view of American 
geography in its relations to commerce. 

83. Position. The lands of the republic are in the middle 
latitudes of North America, and, excepting Alaska, include no 
frozen grounds or Arctic wastes ; nor are there tropical lands, 
save the island possessions gained in recent years. The conti- 
nental United States has enough land in regions of temperate 
climate to provide all characteristic grains, vegetables, and fruits ; 
and it reaches so far toward the tropic of Cancer as to produce 
abundance of cotton, rice, cane, and subtropical fruits. Being 
on the Gulf of Mexico and near the Caribbean Sea, this coun- 
try readily trades with the West Indies, Central America, and 
the tropical parts of South America. 

The nations which led the civilization of modern times are 
in western Europe. The lands of the United States are directly 
across the Atlantic and were naturally colonized by Spain, France, 
Holland, and Great Britain. In more recent times almost every 
country of Europe has given many of its people to America, 
so that ancestry, present kinship, and neighborly positions on 


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Fig. 62. Relief and drainage of the eastern United States 

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opposite shores of. a narrow ocean have created on the North 
Atlantic Ocean the chief trade of the world. Having a long 
frontage on the Pacific, this country readily reaches out to 
Japan, China, and the newer countries and islands of that 
ocean. A commercial position of this kind is held by no other 
country save Canada. 

84. Atlantic region. On the Atlantic border is a broken shore 
line whose bays and tidal rivers once tempted the explorer and 
pioneer, as they now invite the ships of commerce and form 
the gateways to great cities. The shallow waters of these inlets 
extend from 50 to 100 miles out from shore over the continental 
shelf, and here the fisherman plies his trade, and the oyster- 
man gathers his harvests from the Chesapeake to the Banks 
of Newfoundland. 

The Atlantic lowland from New York to Eastport, Maine, is 
a worn mountain land, once lofty and rugged, now reduced and 
merely hilly, bearing the farms, towns, and cities of coastal New 
England. From New York to Florida the lowland is a coastal 
plain cut by many tidal rivers and by deep bays such as the 
Delaware and the Chesapeake, and stretching westward to the 
fall line and to the cities of Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washing- 
ton, Raleigh, and Columbia. These cities mark the passage 
from the smooth coastal plain and its sluggish rivers to the 
ancient foothills of the Appalachians. The Atlantic region 
shows a fiord coast. It is without the rugged heights of the 
fiords of Norway or Scotland, and in the south is more like east- 
ern England, with the " drowned " lower courses of the Thames, 
the Humber, and the Tyne. Here, therefore, are safe harbors, 
good sites for cities, valleys offering roadways to the interior, 
and fertile fields lying close at hand. All these conditions are 
helpers to commerce. 

85. Appalachian highlands. Rising as a background from 
these eastern lowlands are the Appalachian highlands. These 
are mountain ranges and plateaus of various ages, shapes, and 
heights. As a whole they stretch from northeast to southwest, 
with Maine at one end and Alabama at the other. To them 

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belong the highlands of Maine, the White Mountains, the 
Green Mountains, and the Berkshires of New England, the 
Adirondacks and the Highlands of the Hudson. Southward 
they include the Blue Ridge and the long parallel ranges that 
reach from eastern Pennsylvania to central Alabama. West of 
these mountains is the Appalachian plateau, more familiarly 
known as the Catskills in New York, the Allegheny uplands 
in Pennsylvania, and the Cumberland plateau in Kentucky and 
Tennessee, and reaching out toward the Mississippi River in 
Ohio and Indiana. 

These heights are crossed by important valleys, of which the 
following have the greater commercial value : the Hudson- 
Champlain in New York and Vermont ; the Hudson-Mohawk 
in New York ; the Susquehanna in Pennsylvania ; and the Poto- 
mac in Maryland and Virginia. To meet the more southern of 
these openings the Ohio and its branches reach into the highlands 
from the west. By way of these gaps the earliest railways and 
canals in America were laid out, and here to-day are found the 
New York Central, Pennsylvania, and Baltimore and Ohio rail- 
way systems. These passes likewise have determined the posi- 
tion of New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and will, through 
all time, contribute to their growth and sustain their trade. 

Throughout most of the length of the Appalachians runs a 
broad valley, fertile in soil, rich in towns, and serving as a great 
highway. Parts of this great Appalachian valley are known as 
the middle Hudson valley in New York, the Cumberland valley 
in Pennsylvania, the valley of Virginia, and the valley of East 
Tennessee. Among its towns are Reading, Harrisburg, Hagers- 
town, Staunton, Knoxville, Chattanooga, and Birmingham. 

The Appalachians have forests of pine, spruce, and hard 
woods, offer fertile valleys running among the heights, are 
abundant in water power, are rich in iron and coal, and hold 
these resources within easy grasp of the great commercial 
centers and smaller industrial cities of the Atlantic lowlands. 

86. Mississippi Basin. Unlike as they look on the map, 
North America and Europe resemble each other in structure 

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and general relief. Europe has its lower and older mountains 
in the north, its younger and higher mountains in the south. 
We have lower 
and older 
heights in the 
east, younger, 
loftier, and 
more rugged 
mountains in 
the west. Ly- 
ing between the 
mountains in 
each continent 
is a lowland. 
Holland, North 
Germany, and 
Russia belong 
to the central 
lowland of Eu- 
rope, as the Mis- 
sissippi basin 
and the basins 
of the Nelson 
and Mackenzie 
rivers form the 
vast interior 
lowland of 
North America. 
the Mississippi 
Valley and the 
great plains of 
Russia, there is 
much likeness 

in surface, size, and fertility, but the American plain is better 
placed commercially. Russia has outlets on the Black and the 

Fig. 63. Original distribution of prairie and woodland in 
Illinois (Barrows) 

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Baltic seas and the Arctic Ocean, and its greatest river flows 
into a closed sea, while the Baltic ports are often shut by ice. 
The Mississippi Valley has its outlets by the great railways to 
both seaboards, by the Great Lakes to the Atlantic, and by the 
river to the Gulf of Mexico, and soon, by the Panama Canal, 
will have access to the Pacific Ocean. 

In extent of rich and productive soil only two other regions 
in the temperate zones can be compared with the Mississippi 
Valley. One is the European lowland already named, and the 
other is eastern and central China. 

The Mississippi basin includes the western slope of the Ap- 
palachian highlands, as already described. On the west, in the 
states stretching from the Dakotas to Texas, lie the so-called 
Great Plains, really a plateau sloping eastward from the Rocky 
Mountains. Thus two plateaus descend toward the Mississippi 
River, but before they reach it they pass into the prairie low- 
lands of Iowa, Illinois, and other central states. The Missis- 
sippi and the prairies are in a region of sufficient rainfall. 
The rainfall decreases westward until deserts lie at the foot of 
the Rocky Mountains. It increases eastward until heavy forests 
of hard wood crown the heights of the Appalachians. With 
suitable improvement of the rivers nearly all parts of this region 
can have transportation by water, and its surface has ever 
favored the construction of railroads. 

87. Gulf- region. Southward are the Gulf lowlands, consist- 
ing in part of the delta of the Mississippi, and in greater part 
of coastal plain, some of which is prairie, some forest, and all 
a land of productive soil, favorable climate, and open by land 
and water to the operations of commerce. The Panama Canal 
will place this southern belt near one of the trunk lines of the 
world's commerce. 

For the purposes of trade no line can be drawn between the 
Mississippi Valley and the regions bordering the Great Lakes. 
The divides between the two systems of waters are so low as to 
make the passage between them almost imperceptible. Thus 
Minneapolis connects with Duluth, the valley of the Wisconsin 

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River with Milwaukee, and Illinois and surrounding states with 
Chicago. Around the lakes are extensive arable lands in 
Michigan, Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio, and New York. The 
lakes themselves afford a highway to the eastern seaports not 
only of the lower St. Lawrence, but, by the Erie Canal and the 
various railways, to New York. The lakes were once larger 
than now, and some of the lands are plains representing the 
ancient lake bottoms. Such also are the rich prairies of the 
Red River valley, both in the United States and north of 
the border, in Canada. Some of the lands about Lake Superior 
are ancient mountain country, now greatly worn down and 
holding stores of copper and iron. 

88. Cordilleran highlands. The routes of settlement and 
many of the highways of commerce cross the Atlantic lowland, 
pass the divides of the Appalachians, and descend to the Great 
Lakes and the Mississippi River. Thence they rise across the 
Great Plains to the base of the Rocky Mountains. Here they 
enter the western uplands, which are properly called the Cor- 
dilleran region. The first member of these uplands is the 
Rocky Mountain ranges, extending from Montana and Idaho 
through Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah. Rising to heights of 
two or nearly three miles above the sea, they catch abundant 
moisture and send down their streams to water the arid plateaus 
both east and west. They are most massive in Colorado, but 
the railways to the Pacific find passes across them in every 
state through which they extend. 

West of the southern Rocky Mountains are the Colorado 
plateaus, grand in physical features, especially in giant canyons, 
but poor in natural resources. Parts of Wyoming, Utah, Colo- 
rado, New Mexico, and Arizona are included in this region. 
West of the northern Rocky Mountains are the lava plateaus of 
the Snake and Columbia rivers, an arid region, but capable of 
production where water is available for irrigation. 

Beyond the Colorado plateaus, in the western half of Utah 
and in Nevada, is the Great Basin, which is one of the driest 
parts of the western country. It is bordered by the lofty Wasatch 

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Mountains on the east and the bold Sierras on the west. The 
best supply of water is from the Wasatch, and here, since the 
beginning of the Mormon settlements, the hand of man has 
made a broad oasis in the desert. 

89. Pacific coast region. The coast states will be best under- 
stood by following the course of the Sierras, which pass through 
eastern California and continue northward as the Cascade Range 
through central Oregon and Washington. Above the forests of 
the Cascades rise snow-crowned volcanic cones, as sentinels look- 
ing out upon the Pacific Ocean. Following the shore line through 
the three states are lower and younger mountains. These are 
still, it would seem, in the process of building, as was shown 
by the extended dislocation and attendant earthquake shocks of 
1906. These mountains bear the names Coast Range in Cali- 
fornia, Klamath Mountains in Oregon, and the Olympic Range 
in Washington. 

Between the greater range on the east and the lesser on the 
west is a series of broad and rich valleys. These are the cen- 
tral valley of California, with its fields of grain and fruit ; the 
fertile lowlands of the Willamette valley in Oregon ; and 
the plains extending along Puget Sound and southward in 

With much of rugged mountain and intervening desert, the 
Cordilleran region has great resources. The area under the 
plow will never be large, but the culture will be intensive, as 
scientific irrigation makes good use of the water supply. And 
as the mountains of the East have wealth in iron and coal, so 
the western mountains and plateaus supply gold, silver, lead, 
mercury, and copper, and the climate favors those human ener- 
gies which make the most of every resource. 

The harbors of this shore line are not many as compared with 
the Atlantic, but each state has one goal for Pacific shipping. 
San Francisco stands at the Golden Gate, where the waters of 
the valley of California pass into the ocean. The lower Colum- 
bia River leads up to Portland in Oregon, and Seattle and 
Tacoma stand on the shores of Puget Sound. Lacking in the 

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other coast states, coal is abundant in Washington, and, in com- 
pensation for the deficiency, California has become a large pro- 
ducer of petroleum. 

No parts of the United States show a greater variety of cli- 
mate or surface than the three great states of the Pacific coast. 
They combine regions of large rainfall and districts so arid that 
crops can only be raised through the aid of irrigation. Broad 
and fertile valleys invite the raising of all kinds of fruits and 
grains, while the mountain slopes and plateaus bear the great- 
est of American forests. In response to these natural advan- 
tages this region has in recent years seen large growth in its 
cities and great expansion of its industry and commerce. 

Thus in the United States, as in all lands, mountains and 
plains, lakes and streams, the soils and the rocks beneath, the 
moisture of the atmosphere and the form of the shore lines, 
help to shape production, to locate the centers of trade, and to 
trace the lines along which man and his merchandise move. 

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90. Wide range. Plants depend on soil, moisture, and tem- 
perature. The United States, from Florida to the Canadian 
boundary, covers 24 degrees of latitude, and hence its climate 
varies from subtropical to temperate. Therefore cotton, sugar 
cane, and tropical fruits flourish in the southern parts, and wheat, 
oats, barley, apples, and Irish potatoes abound in the north. 
Corn is intermediate in its character, and may be grown from 
Wisconsin and New York to Louisiana and Georgia. The 
country also embraces 58 degrees of longitude, and has great 
variety of surface from the Atlantic and Gulf plains to the 
Appalachian uplands and the heights of the Rocky Mountains 
and the Sierra Nevada. With these features is coupled a large 
range in rainfall, from the deserts of the Great Basin to the plentiful 
moisture east of the hundredth meridian, and the heavy precipita- 
tion of the southern Appalachians and of the northwest coast. 

The consequence of these conditions is that nearly all the 
vegetable products needed by man can be raised on our own 
soil. Canada, in contrast, ranges from temperate to arctic, and 
must import many necessary things. No European country has 
so large a range, though Italy, Spain, and France, by virtue of 
variety of surface, go far to make up for their lesser extent of 
latitude. It will be seen that the range of vegetable products in 
the United States steadily widens by the importation and breed- 
ing of new plants and by irrigation and more scientific farming. 
We tend therefore, so far as natural resources go, to become a 
self-sufficient nation. 

Plant products fall into a number of groups. Food plants 
include cereals, fruits, vegetables, sugar-producing plants, plants 
yielding beverages, and indirectly those used for forage. Fiber 

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plants and forest products show a vast variety of uses, though 
the more important of these is protective, in the way of clothing 
and shelter. These groups will be taken up in their order. 

91. General view of cereals. Cereal plants produce edible 
grains and strictly belong to the family of grasses. For conven- 
ience other grains not grasses may be included. Buckwheat is 
an example. The importance of cereals is shown by the fact 
that in 1899 (Twelfth Census) the ground occupied by them 
was nearly 64 per cent of the area occupied by all crops. The 
states of the North Central division led all others. This division 
includes the chief prairie states and extends from Ohio along 
the Great Lakes and 
includes on the west 
the Dakotas, Ne- 
braska, and Kansas. 

Oats showed the 
greatest yield per 
acre (3 1 .9 bushels), 
followed by corn 
(28.1) and barley 
(26.8). Wheat and 
rye were at the bot- 
tom of the scale, 
with yields of about 
12^ bushels. In 

order, the leading cereal states stood as follows at the time of 
the Twelfth Census, whose figures are for the year 1899: 
Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, Nebraska, Minnesota, Missouri, Indiana, 
Ohio. The total production in the United States was nearly 
4,500,000,000 bushels. The production for 1908 was 4,376,- 
000,000 bushels, this figure including seven grains in order, 
from highest to lowest : corn, oats, wheat, barley, rye, rice, and 

The geographic center of production of six cereals, omitting 
rice from the above list, was in 1900 on the Mississippi River 
between Quincy, Illinois, and Keokuk, Iowa. In 1850 the 

Fig. 64. General distribution of the more important 
agricultural products 

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center was near Cincinnati, and has thus moved westward, and 
in less degree northward. From 1890 to 1900 the center 
moved westward but 25 miles, due to the fact that the new 
lands of the West had been mainly taken up. At the same time 
(1900) the center of population for the United States was in 
Indiana and the center of manufacture in Ohio. Thus there is 
a greater bulk of manufacture east, as there is larger raising 
of cereals west, of the center of population. 

92. Cereals of the temperate regions. Wheat has been studied 
in Chapter I. It is the most important of cereals, although corn 
and oats surpass it in amounts produced. 

Corn has a special importance for the United States because 
it is a native of the western world and because the climate is 
favorable to it. It was readily raised by the pioneer on fields 
from which the trees had been cut, and was ground for his food 
on the top of a stump or in primitive gristmills. While wheat 
is a native of the Orient, it has been brought to the new con- 
tinents. Corn in like manner has become a grain of many 
nations, but retains its center here, both in production and con- 
sumption, being used as food for man but much more largely 
for raising stock. Americans restrict the term "corn " to maize, 
while the English apply it to wheat and cereals in general. 

Corn well illustrates the importance of climate in commercial 
geography. Some corn is raised throughout the latitude range 
of the United States and in southern Canada, but the large pro- 
duction extends from central Michigan and Wisconsin into the 
Gulf States. Within this region, however, is a narrower area 
known as the "corn belt," with Illinois and Iowa as the most 
important states, and including Ohio on the east and Nebraska 
and Kansas on the west. The belt lies mainly between 39 and 
43 degrees north latitude. 

Corn cannot endure frost; hence the season must be long 
enough to protect both the young and the maturing stages. It 
requires hot weather during its period of growth, with ample 
supplies both of rain and sunlight. These conditions are well 
provided in the prairie region of the Central States. In like 

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I2 3 

manner corn flourishes in Roumania, Russia, and the Mediter- 
ranean countries, but cannot be grown in Great Britain or the 
northern parts of the European continent. 

The corn crop of the United States in 1908 was 2,558,000,- 
000 bushels, of which Illinois produced 298,000,000 bushels, 
Iowa 287,000,000, and Nebraska and Missouri each a little 
more than 200,000,000 bushels. 

Oats afford the second largest cereal crop in the United States, 
but in commercial importance are much inferior to wheat, the 


Fig. 65. Average annual production of corn in millions of bushels, 1899- 1908 

trade in them being chiefly local and domestic. In 1850 New 
York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio produced the most oats, but in 
1899 four fifths of the crop were raised in the North Central 
States, while Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota produced 
more than one half of the total. 

Comparing the chief cereals as regards their general range in 
north latitudes, oats, rye, and buckwheat are more distinctly 
suited to northern localities, while rice and Kafir corn flourish 
in southern or at least warm temperate regions. Wheat and 
corn are somewhat intermediate, wheat inclining to the north 
and corn to the south. Barley has a wider climatic range than 

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any other cereal. It is grown in Norway at 70 degrees north 
latitude, and in the northern parts of Russia and Siberia, and it 
flourishes also in the subtropical regions about the Mediterranean. 

It is not a bread 
cereal in the 
United States, 
being chiefly used 
for malt liquors. 
The production 
in 1908 was only 
1 66,000,000 
bushels. The 
chief area in the 
United States is 
between Lake 
Michigan and the Missouri River, with minor areas in western 
New York, about the head of Lake Erie, and in California. 

Rye is a much less important crop than barley, amounting to 
31,000,000 bushels in 1908. It is used chiefly for distilling 
whisky. Like 



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Fig. 66. 

Rice production in thousands of pounds, 1869 
(Census of 1870) 





barley, it is an 
important food 
crop in northern 
Europe. It is 
grown in New 
York, Pennsyl- 
vania, southern 
Michigan, and 
Wisconsin. Buck- 
wheat was pro- 
duced in 1908 to 
the extent of 15,000,000 bushels, and, unlike any other grain 
in the group studied, keeps its center in the North Atlantic 

93. Cereals of subtropical regions. Rice is the most impor- 
tant cereal in the world, if the numbers which it feeds be taken 

Fig. 67. Average annual production of rice in thousands 
of pounds, 1 904- 1 908 

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as the criterion. Judged by standards of living, and having re- 
gard to the most advanced peoples, wheat is the chief cereal. 
Rice is a minor product in the United States, amounting in 
1908 to 21,000,000 bushels; but its culture is increasing. Being 
a native of the East Indies, it finds similar conditions in the 
South Atlantic and Gulf regions. It is grown in eveiy coast state 
from Virginia to Texas, and to some extent in Arkansas. Loui- 
siana ranks first in the production of rice, Texas has second 
place, and these are followed by South Carolina. 

* Fig. 68. Harvesting rice, Louisiana 

Suitable land is found in marshes and river bottoms, tide flats, 
the prairies of Louisiana and Texas, and on some uplands. For 
a long period rice was the only crop in the United States culti- 
vated by the aid of irrigation. The most important localities for 
the past 10 years have been southwestern Louisiana and eastern 
Texas, where modern methods of irrigation have been adopted 
and immigrants have come from parts of the Mississippi Valley 
to the northward. The change from the flail of the old days 
and from winnowing in the wind, to steam threshers, cleaning 
from 1200 to 1500 bushels in a day, illustrates the progress of 
the industry. 

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Kafir corn is a native of Africa, as its name suggests. It 
is related to sorghum, and was introduced in recent years by 
the Department of Agriculture as a substitute for Indian corn. 
It is raised in Kansas, Oklahoma, and other parts of the South- 
west, being adapted to a hot and dry climate. Its ability to meet 
droughts makes it productive where Indian corn is likely to 
fail. In 1893 the area of its production in the United States 
was less than 50,000 acres. In 1899 more than 600,000 acres 
were devoted to this grain. 

94. Subtropical fruits. The great state for these fruits is 
California, whose product at the time of the Twelfth Census 

Fig. 69. Date palms in bearing, six years after planting, Tempe, Arizona 

exceeded $7,000,000 in value, no other state reaching even 
$1,000,000. Florida reported a value of $945,000. It was here 
that the Spaniards, about the year 1562, planted orange trees in 
America. Arizona and Texas were the only other states which 
produced fruits of warm climates to the amount of $10,000. 
California produces nearly all the lemons raised in the United 
States. Pineapples, on the other hand, are scarcely grown in 
this country outside of Florida. Five million pounds of olives 
were produced in 1 899, — all in California. The area of olive 
orchards in 1908 was 30,000 acres. Figs are produced in Cali- 
fornia and Texas, and in a small way in all the Gulf States. 
Date palms have been introduced by government experiment 

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stations in Arizona and California, and it is hoped to lay the 
foundations of an important industry. 

95. Fruits of temperate latitudes. These include by far the 
greater part of the total fruit product. California produced values 
of $28,000,000 in fruit in 1899, three fourths of this amount 
being credited to fruits of temperate climates. California is the 
first fruit state, and is followed by New York, Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, and Michigan. The fruit centers are therefore in the 
Northeast and Southwest, embracing a wide range of climate. 




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Fig. 70. Production of apples in 1899 in thousands of bushels 

The apple is first among American fruits. Trees to the num- 
ber of 120,000,000 were reported in 1890, and in 1900 the 
record rose to 200,000,000. New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio 
are the greatest producers. Taking all orchard fruits into account, 
California was first and New York second. These states hold 
the same order in grape culture, while in small fruits New York 
leads the list and California is in the eleventh place. California 
in the last census reported three times as many grapevines as 
any other state, while New York was second and Ohio third. 
On the borders of Lake Erie, in Chautauqua County, New York, 
is a region known as the Chautauqua grape belt. The temperature 

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is moderated by the presence of water, and the soils are in part 
the silts of glacial lakes which stood at higher levels than the 
present waters. This single county has nearly 1 2,000,000 grape- 
vines and a fruit product of $1,620,000, nearly all of which 
is from vineyards. Niagara County, similarly situated on Lake 
Ontario, reports a crop valued at $1,184,000, chiefly apples, 
peaches, pears, and plums. 

The peach is next to the apple in orchard fruits, and is able 
to take a wider range of climate, being extensively grown in 
New York and Michigan, as well as in Georgia, Alabama, and 
Texas. New Jersey and Delaware, once known for this fruit, 
have fallen off in production, and in a recent year California 
raised more than half of the product of the United States. 

Of small fruits the strawberry is the most important. The 
cranberry, though not a large product, shows an interesting con- 
centration in the marsh lands of Wisconsin, New Jersey, and 
Cape Cod, Massachusetts, — three localities which yield more 
than 96 per cent of the entire crop. 

96. Vegetables. According to the Twelfth Census, vegetables 
occupied 2 per cent of the acreage of all crops, but made up 
8.3 per cent of their value. This means that the land is both 
more intensively cultivated and that the nature of the crop makes 
larger values possible on small areas. The states from New York 
and Pennsylvania to Illinois and Wisconsin were the chief pro- 
ducers, as might be expected when it is remembered that these 
states contain several of the great cities, and that the trade in 
vegetables, owing to their bulk and their perishable character, is 
in a special degree local. 

The Irish potato, so called, is believed to be a native of Chile, 
and is the chief among American vegetables. It is especially a 
Northern crop, and Maine, New York, Michigan, and other 
states on the Canadian border have recently increased their pro- 
duction, while several Central States just southward have fallen 
off. Thus there has been a northward movement of the plant. 
There is a smaller consumption in the Southern states, doubtless 
owing to the presence of the sweet potato in that region. New 

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York has been first in this crop since 1850. The annual con- 
sumption in the Northern states is about four and one-half bushels 
per person. 

Potatoes are difficult to transport ; hence the sale is local and 
large crops glut the market and cause low prices. A small crop 
is therefore usually more profitable to the farmer than a large 
one. The sweet potato ranks second among the vegetables, and 
is most largely grown along the coastal belt from Virginia to 

Fig. 71. Digging potatoes near Greeley, Colorado 

Alabama. In small plantings, however, this vegetable covers a 
surprising range, for the only states that did not report sweet 
potatoes in 1900 were Maine, Montana, and Wyoming. The 
effect of climate is well shown in the following comparison. 
The combined states, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, reported 
sweet potatoes from 64,067 farms, while Michigan, Wisconsin, 
and Minnesota reported them from 309 farms. A great variety 
of minor vegetables is grown in truck gardens for market and in 
family gardens for private use. Their chief interest in commer- 
cial geography is that they supply an example of the concentra- 
tion of industry about centers of population. 

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97. Preservation of fruits and vegetables. The drying of 
apples and berries was practiced by the American Indians and 
by the early settlers. It is a process of commercial importance, — 
raisins, prunes, and currants being examples. Canning, with her- 
metic sealing, is now the great method of preserving these other- 
wise perishable products. Effective beginnings were scarcely 
made until the period of the Civil War (1861-1865). During 
the years following, canned goods were a luxury, but are now in 

Fig. 72. Potato cellar near Greeley, Colorado 

common use among the rich and the poor. The value of canned 
fruits and vegetables in the year 1905 in the United States was 
more than $70,000,000. Corn, tomatoes, and peas are the chief 
vegetables canned, but many others of growing importance appear 
in the list. The canning process enables these products to 
pass beyond the local market and enter in a large way into 

98. Transportation of fresh fruits and vegetables. This trade, 
which seems familiar and established, is nevertheless young. It is 
but little more than a half century since the first garden truck 
was carried by water from Virginia to New York City. Ship- 
ments by rail began from Virginia as late as 1885, and Florida 

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began to send oranges by rail to New York in 1888 and straw- 
berries in 1889. Strawberries were sent to Northern markets in 
1875 from Mississippi and Tennessee. In 1888 ripe cherries 
and apricots were successfully sent across the continent from 
California in refrigerator cars. Of such cars it is believed that 
no less than 61,000 were in operation in this country in 1901. 
This number includes cars engaged in carrying meat, beverages, 
and dairy products, as well as those of the garden and orchard. 
Solid trains thus laden now pass from California to the Atlantic 
coast, and the car is supplemented at many points by the cold- 
storage warehouse. 
These arrangements 
not only expand the 
market in a large 
way, but they pro- 
long the period of 
supply of a given 
product. Thus a 
resident of New 
York has the bene- 
fit of successive 
ripenings of strawberries while the season of ripening passes 
from Florida up the coast to New England. 

99. Sugar-producing plants. These are the sugar cane, the 
sugar beet, and the hard-maple tree, sorghum being grown for 
sirup. Sugar cane has been raised in Louisiana for a century 
and a half, and that region is still the chief locality for this 
product in the United States. As sugar cane is a tropical and 
subtropical plant, the Gulf States on the northern rim of the 
equatorial belt are suited to its culture. The domestic product 
has never been large, and as the people of the United States 
consume much sugar, they import heavily from tropical regions 
and now draw supplies from the territory of Hawaii. 

Sugar from beets marks one of the younger among the great 
industries of the world, but has now come to vast importance, 
particularly in Germany. Since 1889 more than one half of the 






14 \ 


\ 322,549 


Fig. 73. Production of cane sugar in thousands of 
pounds, 1899 (Census of 1900) 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



world's supply of sugar has been derived from beets. In 1853— 
1854 beets afforded but one seventh of the total. The first suc- 
cessful factory in the United States dates only from 1870. Ten 
years later the product was valued at $2 50,000. In 1905 the 
value had risen to $24,000,000, and there were 51 establish- 
ments, of which Michigan had 19, Colorado 9, and California 5 ; 
Colorado, however, leading in value of product. The by-products 
are not unimportant, since the pulp is used to feed stock, the 

f • 

W JffA 



# / 
/ • 

1 f 

4 j* 

T 0- 

\ 1 889>£ 

Mj/lion pounds 

[ \ 




1 15 \ 

Fig. 74. Average annual production of beet sugar, 1907-1908, in 
millions of pounds 

juice may be employed for making alcohol, and the lime cake 
from some Michigan factories is mixed with asphalt and made 
into paving blocks. 

In Colorado and Utah sugar beets are grown by aid of irriga- 
tion, and the latter state supplies an interesting example of local 
transportation. Slicing stations are built 12 to 25 miles away 
from the factory, the juice is extracted and forced to it through 
pipe lines. Taking the sugar of the world as a whole, we see the 
phenomenon of an industry largely migrating from tropical to 
temperate regions. It is therefore reasonable to expect that the 

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■ f \\ ft i\ ** i 

iiiu mill u 

Fig. 75. Sugar factory; sugar beets at Blissfield, Michigan 

United States will here take a step in commercial independence 
by producing in the near future its own sugar. 

100. Plants yielding beverages. Reference has been made to 
some of these in the account of cereals. Corn and rye serve for 
the distillation of whisky, and barley malt for the brewing of beer. 
Wine making has no such relative importance as in the Latin 

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countries of Europe, but is growing with the expansion of vine- 
yards in California, New York, and other states. According to 

the Twelfth Census the total 
value of vinous liquors was 
$6,500,000, while distilled liq- 
uors amounted to $96,700,000, 
and malt liquors reached the great 
total of $237,000,000. In con- 
trast France has 1,600,000 wine 
growers, and the vintage for 1 907 
was valued at nearly $200,000,- 
000. Apples are used for the 
production of cider, and hops for 
the making of beer. Hop rais- 
ing tends to localization. For 
50 years previous to 1890 a few 
counties of central New York raised most of the hop crop of the 
United States. In later years the greater development has been 
transferred to Oregon, California, and Washington. Wisconsin 
grows a few hops, and the production of all other states is trivial. 

Fig. 76. Tea bush, Ceylon type, Sum 
merville, South Carolina 

Fig. 77. Tea factory at Summerville, South Carolina 

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For the nonalcoholic beverages, tea and coffee, the United 
States relies on importation. There is reason to expect that tea 
may be grown at home, and the Department of Agriculture has 
already made successful experiments in Texas and South Carolina. 

101. Tobacco. This plant has a wide climatic range through 
the torrid and temperate zones. It has been raised in Scotland, 
and flourishes in Sumatra, India, Brazil, Cuba, and Mexico. 
In the United 
States it grows 
from Wisconsin 
to Louisiana 
and is widely 
distributed in 
the East. Rich- 
mond is the 
largest center of 
tobacco trade in 

Tobacco is a 
native of Amer- 
ica, but became 
an important ex- 
port as early as 
1676, and was 
used as legal 
tender in Mary- 



Fig. 78. Average annual production of tobacco in thou- 
sands of pounds, 1 900- 1 908 

land in 1732, the year of the birth of Washington. In his first 
administration (1 789-1 793) tobacco was exceeded by flour alone 
as an export product, and its cultivation and use have gained a 
surprisingly wide distribution throughout the world. The study 
of its history is a most useful exercise in commercial geography. 
The United States produces far more tobacco than any other 
country. The crop of 1908 was valued at $74,000,000, and 
the manufactured output, including some imported raw mate- 
rial, at $331,000,000. In the same year Kentucky was as usual 
the leading state in acreage, though North Carolina slightly 

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surpassed her in the amount grown. The third state was Virginia. 
A tobacco map of the United States shows that the production 
is east of the hundredth meridian, except in a small area in 
California. All territory averaging more than 1000 pounds per 
square mile is east of the Mississippi River, and the densest 
areas lie along the Ohio River, in the Carolinas, Virginia, and 
Maryland, and across Pennsylvania to Lake Ontario in New 
York. There is also an important area in the Connecticut valley. 

r - 


p* • • 

'^(^s^^^b^ ' 

'C x ■■:- 



< 7 jL l «. 

B^^ /' S> s 



■ ^■ w * 

Fig. 79. Harvesting alfalfa, Port Conway, Virginia, on the farm which 
was the birthplace of President James Madison 

102. Forage products. Of these, hay is much the most im- 
portant, timothy grass and clover being the main sources of this 
product, whose value in 1908 was $635,000,000. Forage crops 
occupy more than one fifth of the land used for crops in the 
United States. At the time of the Twelfth Census they occu- 
pied one third as much land as the cereals, and the values were 
about in the same ratio, while in 1908 the area was about one 
fourth that of cereals. In the North Atlantic division this crop 
is more important than all cereals combined, but the North 
Central States are first in total value of the product. 

The trade is chiefly local, and the crop is related to the dairy 
industry of the East and to the cattle raising of the West, with 

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small exports of baled hay. Hay includes wild, salt, and prairie 
grasses, millet, and alfalfa, which is related to clover and is 
especially important in the western parts of the country. Corn, 
Kafir corn, and sorghum, cut in a green state, are the principal 
forage plants, much corn being cut before ripening for ensilage. 
103. Fiber plants. These include cotton (studied in Chapter 
II), flax, hemp, wood, straw, and cornstalks. This use of wood 

Fig. 80. Flax at harvest time, Pigeon, Minnesota, 1909 

will be considered under the head of Forest Products. While 
flax is here named as a fiber plant, its chief commercial product 
in the United States is the seed, used for linseed oil, and this 
industry the United States shares with Russia, British India, 
and Argentina. The linen and linen fiber used are chiefly im- 
ported, for their better quality and their cheapness. The compe- 
tition of cotton has been too strong for native flax. The seed is 
raised chiefly in Minnesota and the states bordering the Missouri 
River. Hemp is a minor crop in the United States, Kentucky 
being the principal producer. Manila hemp and jute are im- 
ported in large quantities, for purposes for which the native fiber 

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might be used. Cotton takes its place for twines and yarns, and 
the industry has dwindled more than 90 per cent since 1859. 

104. Forests of the United States. When the white man 
came to America he found a dense forest cover stretching from 
the Atlantic coast somewhat beyond the Mississippi River. There 
was one important exception in the prairies of the upper Mis- 
sissippi, but even these were not wholly treeless, for there were 
many patches of forest, especially along the watercourses (fig. 63). 

Fig. 81. Hemp at harvest time, Lexington, Kentucky, 1907 

Heavy forests extended from Maine westward across New York 
and along the Great Lakes far into Minnesota. To the south- 
west the forest was continuous along the Appalachian highlands 
to the Gulf of Mexico. Trees grew abundantly along the Ohio 
and Tennessee rivers and on the Gulf plains, as well as across 
the Mississippi in the higher lands of Arkansas and Missouri. 
These eastern tree growths are often called the hardwood 
forests, because they are made up largely of such deciduous 
species as the maples, oaks, chestnut, ash,, beech, birch, hickory, 
and black walnut. Many coniferous trees, however, are found, 

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especially along the Appalachian Mountains and in the Northern 
states from east to west. Throughout this entire range the 
white pine is or has been of the first importance, but the supply 
has in recent years been depleted. The hard or Georgia pine is 
a Southern species ranging from Virginia to Texas. The cypress 
is another characteristic Southern conifer. Among Northern 
conifers, in addition to pine, there are spruces, firs, cedars, and 
larches, and in some localities the hemlock is abundant. 

1 Eastern Region 

2 Central TreclcM Region 

3 Western Region 

Fig. 82. Distribution of forests in the United States 

The Cordilleran woodlands are less extensive and more broken 
than those of the East, and are chiefly coniferous in character, 
forests being often made up largely of one or two species of 
trees of great size. Most important of these is the Douglas fir, 
which is found extensively in the Pacific coast states and Brit- 
ish Columbia, and to a less degree in the Rocky Mountains. 
Several species of pine are found in the Cordilleran highlands, 
and in California two species of Sequoia, the redwood and the big 
tree. Large areas of the Great Plains and of the intermontane 
plateaus are so arid as to be destitute of trees. 

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105. Lumber and lumber centers. Lumber, in boards and 
other forms, is the most important product of the forests. 
Thousands of sawmills are located at points to which the logs 
can conveniently be brought. In the Northern states the first 
movement is over the winter snows. The logs are piled beside 
streams, down which they are " driven " in the flood water of 
the spring. Often they are bound into immense rafts and towed 
across lakes or down the greater streams. The mills are run 
by water and by steam, and the waste wood in the latter case 
furnishes a convenient fuel. Sometimes, as at Minneapolis, a 
great sawing center develops, and a chief market for lumber as 
well. This special center has water power, is near the forests, 
and is on the edge of a great prairie, which offers a market. 
The same is true of other towns farther down the Mississippi. 
The Great Lakes also offer a highway for the lumber of their 
bordering states, and hence Ashland, Milwaukee, Chicago, Bay 
City, Detroit, and Tonawanda, New York, are lumber markets. 
Modern devices for hauling logs, and improved sawing machin- 
ery are quite as important in the development of the lumber 
trade as inventions in wheat, cotton, or other industries. Bangor 
is one of the chief lumber centers of New England. St. Louis 
and Memphis receive and distribute much of the hard wood of 
the central region, and the Pacific coast ports are the natural 
markets for the lumber of the adjoining region. 

106. Varying uses of wood. Notwithstanding the increased 
use of iron, stone, brick, and cement in building, it is found 
that the demand for wood is constantly increasing. For house- 
hold furniture hard wood is the most suitable material and the 
demand is enormous. The same is true of agricultural machin- 
ery, railway cars, railroad crossties, all kinds of road vehicles, 
of ships, and of a vast number of tools and utensils used in 
shops, in the household, and on farms. 

107. Wood pulp. The forests largely supply the modern 
demand for paper, the fibers of the softer woods being sepa- 
rated and made available by mechanical and chemical processes. 
From 1900 to 1907 the amount of wood pulp consumed in the 

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United States doubled, and the amount of wood used rose from 
2,000,000 to 4,000,000 cords per year. Of all the wood employed 
in 1907 two thirds was spruce, followed by hemlock and poplar, 
with small amounts of pine, cottonwood, and balsam. Three 
Northern regions furnished most of the product, — namely, New 
England ; New York and Pennsylvania ; Michigan, Wisconsin, 
and Minnesota. Imports of spruce for this purpose are increas- 
ing, and nearly 1,000,000 cords were brought from Canada in 

Fig. 83. Wasteful logging, Tyler County, Texas. The abandoned top would 
yield a timber 40 feet long and 10 inches square 

1907. Some manufactured pulp also comes in from Canada and 
from Europe. Of 258 pulp mills in 1907, New England had 
66 and New York 92. 

108. Turpentine, rosin, and tar. These products are derived 
from certain species of pine. The earlier center of the industry 
was in North and South Carolina, but it has now passed to 
the southward, and Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and 
Louisiana are important producers. By tapping the trees resin 
is secured. From this by distillation turpentine is derived, and 
the residue is known in commerce and the arts as rosin. Tar 

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is obtained by the direct distillation of the wood. The total 
annual value of these products in 1850 was less than $3,000,000, 
and in 1900 it was more than $20,000,000. Two thirds of the lat- 
ter total was in spirits of turpentine, Georgia and Florida much 
surpassing other states. These products are exported to a con- 
siderable extent, and for this trade Savannah is the principal port. 
109. Conservation of American forests. The first settlers in 
the virgin forest found the trees in their way, and their great 
1880 lwr labor was to secure clearings for 

crops. The timber was burned, 
and, so far as needed, was made 
into charcoal. With the modern 
increase of population, wood has 
greatly increased in value, and high 
prices have led to wasteful cutting 
of the forests to secure the largest 
present gain, without reference to 
the permanent productiveness of 
the forest or the needs of coming 
generations. Forests are needed 
to promote even water flow, avert 
floods, prevent the destruction of 
Fig. 84. Relative lumber produc- the ^ promote river navigation, 
tion in ten states in 1880 and 1907 , ...... 

and provide for irrigation. 

Scientific forestry as applied in Germany and other parts of 
Europe will secure permanent and regular crops of fuel and 
timber without injuring the forest. Only mature trees are cut, 
fires are prevented, and suitable planting and thinning receive 
attention. These methods are being applied in the United 
States, notably by the Forest Service of the Department of 
Agriculture, and by a similar bureau in the state of New York, 
where large forest reservations are pwned by the state, in which 
it is hoped to develop the woodlands so that they may be per- 
manent and at the same time make due return to the people. 

The wood industries ranked fourth among the great groups in 
the census of 1900, and there is no hope of a lessened demand for 

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forest products. In view 
of the destruction that has 
already taken place, this is 
a serious problem, and has 
received its due share of 
attention in the recent dis- 
cussion of the various con- 
servation questions. It is 
held on expert authority 
that the Southern yellow 
pine will be exhausted in 
18 years, and the Pacific 
coast timber in 41 years. 
Already the white pine 
of Northern forests has 
been brought to a low 
reserve. For industries 
and states which a short- 
age of hard woods would 
affect, the student may 
consult Circular 1 16 of 
the Forest Service on 
"The Waning Hard- 
Wood Supply and the 
Appalachian Forests," 

110. The use of the 
national forests. There 
were at the last report 
145,000,000 acres of na- 
tional forest lands, of 
which 5,000,000 were in 
Alaska and Porto Rico. 
Fig. 85. Lumber cut in 1907, by states The agricultural land in- 
cluded in these reservations is open to settlement, and mining 
is unrestricted. Timber is given away for domestic use and is 



Washington . . 
Louisiana . . . 
Texas .... 


L i 

I 3 4 

Mississippi . . 
^Visconsin . . 

Arkansas . • • 

Michigan . . . 
Pennsylvania . 

Oregon . . . 
North Carolina 

Virginia . . . 

West Virginia . 

California . . 

Alabama . . . 

Maine . . . . 

Kentucky . . 
Tennessee . . 


Georgia . . . 
New York . . 
Florida . . . 


New Hampshire 
South Carolina . 


Missouri . . . 


Ohio . . '. . 


Idaho . . . . 


Indiana . . . 


Vermont . . . 
Massachusetts . 
Montana . . . 
Maryland . . . 
Iowa . . . . 
Illinois . . . 
Oklahoma . . 
Connecticut . . 
Colorado . . . 


New Mexico 


Arizona . . . 


Delaware . . . 
New Jersey . . 
South Dakota . 
Rhode Island . 


Wyoming . . . 
Utah . . . . 
All others . . 


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sold for commercial purposes. In 1906 there were given away 
75,000,000 board feet, and 700,000,000 feet were sold. Grazing 
goes on as usual, but under restrictions which protect the rights 
of all. Fire protection is one of the chief ends sought, and the 
need of it may be seen in the fire-ravaged tracts of the Adiron- 
dacks, of southern Ontario, and of the Cordilleran highlands. It 
has recently been ordered that railways whose lines cross the 
Adirondack forests should, in the summer season, use oil as 
fuel for their locomotives. Progressive forestry clears away brush 
and fallen trees, thus lessening the danger of fire. Forest con- 
servation insures a supply of timber for mining in the ore-bearing 
regions of the West, and the government forests become perma- 
nent playgrounds for all. 

111. Foreign trade of the United States in forest products. 
The value of forest exports rose from $82,000,000 in 1904 to 
$104,000,000 in 1908. The large items are rosin, tar, and tur- 
pentine, sawed timber, boards, deals, and planks. A notable 
feature is the export, chiefly of Douglas fir, from Washington 
to Mexico, South America, and oriental countries ; also con- 
signments to Alaska and the Hawaiian Islands. From 1904 to 
1908 Australia alone received from Washington and Oregon 
over 800,000,000 board feet of lumber, China and Japan over 
700,000,000, and South America over 700,000,000. 

Over against exports of $104,000,000 for the year ending 
June 30, 1908, there were in the same year imports of forest 
products to the amount of $101,000,000. The chief items were 
dyewoods and extracts ; gums, such as gum arabic, camphor, 
and shellac ; India rubber, which was much the largest item ; 
cabinet woods and pulp wood. Mahogany came chiefly from 
Mexico and the Central American countries. Canada supplies 
most of the imported timber and pulp wood. 

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112. General statement. Animals serve human needs chiefly 
in three ways, — in providing food, clothing, and power. While 
the more important are domesticated, wild creatures, game ani- 
mals and fish, furnish considerable amounts of food. The cattle 
and dairy industries have been reviewed in Chapter III, and the 
other animal products will be found to illustrate the same gen- 
eral principles of commercial geography. Useful animals have 
their own climatic range, both as regards temperature and the 
vegetable products on which they depend. Thus the hog finds 
its most conspicuous place in the corn belt of the United States. 
Preservative processes are even more important than with most 
vegetable products, and the distribution of animal industry, as 
of all others, is controlled by the development of transportation 
systems which offer speed and reasonable rates. 

The greatness of these industries is indicated by the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture in his report for 1907, in which he states 
that the live stock sold from farms plus that which is slaughtered 
on them is worth nearly twice as much as the cotton crop. In 
his report for 1908 he observes that the animal products amount 
to about three eighths of all the produce of the farm. 

113. Sheep. These animals, like nearly all domesticated ani- 
mals in North America, were imported from the Old World, where 
their origin, from primitive wild creatures is lost in obscurity. The 
Spaniards brought sheep to Florida in 1 565, and the mission- 
aries took them to California in 1773. The colonies of Virginia 
and New York early received them from England and Holland. 
In 1 8 10 interest in fine woolen goods led to the importation 
of 26,000 merino sheep from Spain. The merino and the 
English breeds are now of nearly equal importance in this 


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country, the latter, or mutton sheep, being found in the East, 
where large populations require corresponding supplies of meat. 
Mutton, however, is not so general an article of food here as in 
Great Britain. 

In 1900 more than half the sheep in the United States were 
found in the Western division. More than one fourth were 
in the states of the North Central division. The four leading 
regions were Montana, Wyoming, the territory of New Mexico, 


Fig. 86. Average annual number of sheep, in thousands, 1899 to 1908 

and Ohio. 1 In the Western division there were 33,000,000 sheep 
on 25,000 farms. In the North Central division there were 
16,000,000 sheep on 358,000 farms. Thus great flocks are the 
rule in the West and on government lands. Because sheep often 
injure vegetation by too close cropping, grazing on government 
reservations is now placed under suitable restrictions. 

114. Hogs. This type of domesticated animal has received 
its largest development in the United States, and it is claimed 
that American farmers have improved the breeds in a way 
similar to the advance made by the English agriculturists in 
beef cattle and in mutton sheep. Extremes of temperature are 
1 For the ten-year period Idaho takes third place (fig. 86). 

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unfavorable for swine, and they require ample feeding. Thus the 
climate and the plant produce of the corn belt are favorable, and 
this industry has here become more important than elsewhere. 
It is also a natural accompaniment of the dairy industry, using 
the waste products of the latter. Water is essential, especially in 
summer ; hence hogs are not much kept in the semiarid regions. 
The meat and lard from the slaughter of hogs reported for 
the year 1906 amounted to more than 9,000,000,000 pounds. 


Fig. 87. Average annual number of swine, in thousands, 1899 to 1908 

Pork affords the greater element in meat packing in the United 
States, — Kansas City, Omaha, and Chicago being the chief cen- 
ters, with many other cities in the West and East. Cincinnati 
was formerly first in this industry, and earned the name of 
" Porkopolis " ; but the migration of agricultural industries, 
due to the settlement of the prairies, carried the center of the 
pork industry farther west. The Southern states have mois- 
ture, mild temperature, and a plentiful supply of corn, and the 
industry is developing there. The growth of alfalfa under irri- 
gation makes it possible also to raise hogs in the dry regions 
of the West. 

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115. The poultry and egg industry. The importance of this 
kind of farm produce is not well known because it enters little 
into foreign commerce and because the domestic trade is largely 
local. But here again the growth of cities and the facilities for 
rapid transit are enlarging the commercial scope of the product. 
Its importance is brought out by certain comparisons made by 
writers in the Department of Agriculture. Poultry produce is 
one of the four or five most important sources of agricultural 
wealth in the United States. It usually holds nearly a middle 
position in the list of eight or ten principal agricultural prod- 
ucts of the several states. The egg product of the United States 
was more than the combined gold and silver output in every year 
from 1850 to 1899, though slightly exceeded by them in 1899. 
The poultry output also exceeded them in every year of that 
period except 1899 and 1900. Poultry and eggs formed, in 
1899, one sixth of all the products of animal origin. At the 
census of 1900 there were, on the average, 42 fowls on every 
farm in the United States, the census not taking account of the 
large number kept in villages and towns. 

Iowa, Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri were the four leading 
states, all belonging to the Central division. The growth in 
this industry in Kansas, another state of the same group, was 
from $6,000,000 in 1903 to $10,000,000 in 1907. The Secre- 
tary of Agriculture, in his report for 1907, says that the poultry 
products are worth more than the wheat. This emphasizes the 
difference between the two commodities. Both the foreign and 
the interstate trade in the one is vast, the market belongs to the 
world, and transportation and general finance are deeply con- 
cerned. The other trade is local, more widely diffused, is equal 
as a wealth producer, but less conspicuous. It holds a growing 
place, however, because of new attention to sanitation, to careful 
breeding, -and to prompt marketing. 

116. Wild game. This class of food was the principal sup- 
port of the aboriginal Americans, and was an important part of 
the sustenance of the early settlers, but is now a luxury, often 
confined to the tables of the rich. The growth of population 

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and the restriction of forests and other wild lands have put 
many species of animals in danger of extinction. Especially 
was this true when hunting for the wholesale trade became com- 
mon. Hence legislation has become general in the states, re- 
stricting hunting to certain periods, usually protecting the 
various species through the breeding season, and often allowing 
hunting but a few weeks of the year. Some years ago the state 
of Connecticut made by law a closed period of eleven years for 

Fig. 88. States and provinces which prohibited the export of game, 1905 

deer, with the incidental result that these animals became so 
plentiful as sometimes to injure the crops of the farmers. A 
beaver may not at any time be taken in the state of New York. 
It is well known that man has brought nearly to extinction the 
uncounted millions of buffalo that once trod the Western plains, 
and now the governments of Canada and the United States are 
guarding the few which remain, by caring for them and seek- 
ing to increase their numbers on government reservations. 

The federal government has begun also to protect other wild 
life, the first general law having been enacted in 1900. This 
law provided for information, for regulation of importation of 
foreign species, and for the restriction of interstate commerce. 

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Much traffic in game, especially birds, centering in Chicago, 
St. Louis, and other cities, was stopped, preventing the com- 
plete destruction of grouse, prairie chickens, quail, and ducks. 
The wholesale game trade thus passed out of existence. The 
general government has cooperated with the states and with the 
Audubon societies everywhere, resulting in discontinuing the use 

of plumage of 
native birds for 
millinery, and in 
stopping the ex- 
port of native 
cage birds. Some 
game preserves 
have lately been 
set apart, usually 
small areas serv- 
ing as breeding 
grounds for birds. 
An example is 
Pelican Island, 
in Indian River, 
Florida, — a tract 
of four acres, a 
breeding place 
for the brown pel- 
icans. Breton Is- 
land is a breeding 
place of terns, off the mouth of the Mississippi River ; and the 
Wichita preserve of S7,ooo acres has been set apart in Okla- 
homa for birds and big game. 

Man's power to change the life of the earth is nowhere bet- 
ter seen than in this field. With growing population, effective 
weapons of destruction, and modern transportation, he would, 
unless restrained by public sentiment and by law, destroy the 
desirable species through greed, and, by carelessness or igno- 
rance, spread widely the undesirable species. 

Fig. 89. Principal fishing grounds of the Atlantic 
coast region 

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117. Fisheries. Under this head other aquatic foods as well 
as fish are included. The waters of the world afford a vast field 
for the growth of food materials, although it is the shallow 
marginal seas which yield the greater abundance, and it is these 
over which man may hold more effective control. The product 
belongs more to temperate and northern seas, and thus, like 
products of the soil, is somewhat subject to the larger elements 
of geographic influence. 

The fishing regions of the United States may be given a 
fourfold division. 

1. The Atlantic coast fisheries. These are most extensive 
along the New England shores, where the continental shelf and 
the tidal bays offer favorable conditions for fish. The cod, her- 
ring, and mackerel are the chief species taken, and the cod is 
chiefly sought on the Banks of Newfoundland, a wide area of 
shallow water extending from that island far into the Atlantic. 
This is a most historic fishing ground, frequented by English, 
French, and Canadian fishermen, and by those from the United 
States. Of late the industry has become much centralized, being 
largely confined to Gloucester and Boston. Within the " three- 
mile limit " fishing belongs exclusively to the adjacent country, 
but, outside of that, fishing grounds are recognized as the com- 
mon property of nations. 

2. The Pacific coast fisheries. In this region the salmon is 
the chief fish of commerce. When the first explorers crossed 
the mountains they found the red men living chiefly upon it, 
and its capture, canning, transportation, and sale have long 
afforded an important total among the animal products of the 
Pacific coast. The salmon abounds in the waters of the Colum- 
bia and Fraser rivers. Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia, 
once important as a depot for furs, has now become a center of 
the salmon industry. These fish periodically enter these streams 
and follow them hundreds of miles for spawning. They are cap- 
tured, preserved both by cooking and hermetic sealing, and sent 
by means of refrigeration and quick carriage to eastern markets. 
The Alaskan salmon fishery has grown to large proportions. 

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Fig. 90. Salmon waters of Washington, Idaho, British 
Columbia, and Alaska 

3. Great Lake 
fishing. The Great 
Lakes afford an 
important supply 
of some kinds of 
fish, particularly of 
lake trout, white- 
fish, and sturgeon. 
The development 
of fresh-water fish- 
eries, with rapid- 
transit facilities, is 
believed to be one 
of the factors in 
the decline of the 
New England fish- 
ing interests. The 
sturgeon is also to 
be found in ma- 
rine bays, as the 
Chesapeake and 
the Delaware, and 
while little in de- 
mand until about 
fifty years ago, in 
recent years it has 
been especially de- 
sired for its roe, 
so that the fish has 
been sought in the 
breeding season, 
and hunted down 
till it is well-nigh 

4. The smaller 
lakes, and inland 

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streams. A very considerable volume of food is gained from 
these widely distributed fishing waters, but little of it enters into 
the commerce of the country. 

118. Other aquatic foods. Here belong oysters and other so- 
called shellfish, — lobsters, crabs, and shrimps. Of these in 
American waters the oyster is chief, and is especially abundant 

Fig. 91. Oyster bed at low tide near Brunswick, Georgia 

on the Atlantic coast from New England to Chesapeake Bay. 
In many beds young oysters are " planted " until they mature, 
and are then systematically gathered for market, — a process re- 
sembling the farmer's intensive culture of his fields. Oysters are 
sent inland chiefly by refrigeration, but sometimes as a canned 
product, and a considerable quantity is exported. The oyster 
product of the world, outside of the United States, is insignificant. 
119. Organization and protection. The United States Fish 
Commission is an important organization, employing experts 

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for the dissemination of knowledge, supporting laboratories, 
and cooperating with state institutions. State laws protect fish 
as they do wild game, and, by means of hatcheries, lakes and 
streams are periodically stocked with the young of desirable 
food fishes. 

120. Bees and their products. Bees furnish another illustra- 
tion of man's power to change the grouping and distribution of 
animals and plants throughout the world. Honeybees were 
brought from the Old World to the New in the days of the 

Fig. 92. Gloucester harbor and fishing vessels 

early settlements, and at various times in the past fifty years the 
Department of Agriculture has introduced important varieties. 
In the Northern states the bees gather the nectar largely from 
clovers, buckwheat, the linden, and the raspberry. The tulip, pal- 
metto, gum, mangrove, and citrus are sought by the bees in the 
South. The wax is an animal product more truly than the honey, 
for it is secreted by certain glands belonging to the body of the bee. 
In 1899 the five leading states in producing honey were, in order, 
Texas, California, New York, Missouri, and Illinois. Beekeep- 
ing is more associated with fruit culture and dairying than with 
other kinds of farming. The total production of honey in the 

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United States in 1899 was 61,000,000 pounds, of which more 
than half came from the North and South Central divisions. 

121. Wool. In 1850 the North Atlantic and North Central 
States produced most of the wool grown in the United States. 
That grown in the more westerly region was insignificant. In 
1900 much more than half the total was produced in the 
Western division, and somewhat more than one fourth was 
grown in the North Central States. Thus the industry has 
moved westward. From 1850 to 1900 the number of sheep 
increased 67 per cent and the wool clip 300 per cent. Better 
breeds and better care resulted in much heavier fleeces. The 
wool clip of the United States for 1908 was about 31 1,000,000 
pounds. The total domestic supply falls from 25 to 50 per cent 
below the demand, the deficiency being supplied from abroad. 
The temperate lands of the southern hemisphere supply the 
needs of the manufacturing countries. Their wide and thinly 
peopled plains and mild winter climate furnish favorable con- 
ditions. Here belong Argentina, South Africa, and Australia. 
Boston is the most important of American wool markets. 

122. Leather. The geography of leather making depends 
upon the supply of hides and skins, upon suitable conditions 
for tanning, and upon the location of markets. Upon all these, 
however, modern transit and the invention of advanced proc- 
esses have an important influence. 

Tanning was early established in the Massachusetts and Vir- 
ginia colonies ; the former long held the leading position, but 
at the census of 1900 had dropped to fourth place among the 
states, Pennsylvania ranking first, New York second, and Wis- 
consin third. Tanning has followed the supply of oak and hem- 
lock bark, materials which are still most largely used. The 
11 chrome process " has, however, taken a considerable place in 
making some products, especially upper leather. Modern inven- 
tion utilizes the entire tannin contents of the bark and brings 
results more swiftly than the methods of the early days. 

The hides and skins are drawn from many sources. The leather 
industry is an accompaniment of live-stock raising, utilizing the 

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skins of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, and goats. To a lesser de- 
gree the skins of some wild creatures enter into the making of 
leather. Among these are deer, kangaroo, porpoise, seal, and 
alligator. American leather makers import skins from many 
lands. Many come from the European ports, — London, Ham- 
burg, Marseilles, Naples, Salonica, and Constantinople ; also 
from India, China, and several South American countries. 
The capital employed in the industry has steadily increased in 
recent years, while at the same time the number of tanning 
plants has decreased, thus showing the progress of consolida- 
tion and the elimination of small concerns. 

123. Furs and feathers. Fur-bearing animals are in great 
part the inhabitants of the colder regions, and hence furs are 
largely the product of arctic and subarctic lands. As the cold 
lands are chiefly in the northern hemisphere, this commodity 
largely originates in that part of the world, but it is manufac- 
tured and used chiefly in the north temperate belt, where the 
winters make such protection useful, and where live the greater 
number of civilized people. Canada and the Russian Empire 
are the principal fur-yielding territories. The United States has 
its most immediate interest in the Alaskan seal fisheries. Sev- 
eral minor fur-bearing animals are still found in the United 
States, such «s the raccoon, mink, muskrat, skunk, and fox. 
Before the wild lands were so fully subdued the United States 
produced more furs than now, sharing in that early trade in 
beaver and other peltry which furnished a most important motive 
in early explorations, and which formed an object of trade jeal- 
ously guarded by French, Dutch, and English colonies. The 
trade is more concentrated in New York City than elsewhere 
in this country, for here are received both undressed and manu- 
factured furs from London, Leipzig, and other foreign marts, as 
well as domestic supplies. 

With the suppression of the use of the plumage of native 
wild birds, ornamental feathers are little produced in this coun- 
try. An interesting exception is found in successful beginnings 
in ostrich farming in Arizona, California, Florida, and Arkansas. 

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124. Silk. Practically all the raw silk of the world is pro- 
duced in Europe and Asia. The United States, through the 
Department of Agriculture, is carrying on experiments in this 
direction, but the results have not yet become commercially im- 
portant. Although all the raw material is imported, the United 
States now manufactures more silk than any other country. The 
silkworm, and the mulberry upon which it lives, are suited to 
other continents than those named, but require cheap labor and 
skill in handling, neither of which conditions has as yet devel- 
oped in other parts of the world. Wool, therefore, and leather 
are the principal clothing materials of animal origin grown in 
the United States. 

125. Animals used for power. Of these the most important 
is the horse, cattle being little employed for this purpose in the 
United States. About 21,000,000 horses were enumerated by 
the Twelfth Census. The Western states raise more horses for 
market than other parts of the country. Most of the horses 
for city use and for export are reared west of the Appalachians, 
Omaha and Kansas City being the more important markets. 
More people own horses in small than in large cities, because 
in the latter other means of conveyance are abundant, and be- 
cause horses are less easily kept in such centers. The fears that 
bicycles and automobiles would drive out horses have not been 
realized, perhaps because the farms require 80 per cent of all 
the horses bred each year. Since agriculture is growing and the 
export demand is increasing, the future of the horse seems as- 
sured. As the Erie Canal and the railways, contrary to the 
expectation of some, increased the demand for draft animals, 
the present development in mechanical transportation will not 
be likely to reverse past experience. 

126. Organization in animal industry. The Bureau of Animal 
Industry in the Department of Agriculture has done much in 
this direction. It disseminates information, promotes the intro- 
duction and breeding of new strains, studies the best methods 
of feeding and care, and, by instruction and rigid supervision, 
prevents disease, and suppresses it when introduced. When 

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necessary, local, interstate, or international traffic is regulated or 
forbidden, and infected herds are slaughtered, with liberal com- 
pensation to owners. General authority in these matters must 
belong to the central government, as state authority would often 
be powerless. 

State bureaus, agricultural colleges, and experiment stations 
act in cooperation with the general government. Acting for 
the same ends — of better breeding, care, and sanitation — are 

,J 16,929 


Fig. 93. Horses on farms and ranges, average annual number in 
thousands, 1 899-1 908 

numerous state and private stock breeders' associations. Some of 
the latter are national in scope, giving information through liter- 
ature and through fairs and other public exhibitions, and using 
influence for favorable laws concerning the stock industries. 
Such associations pay much attention to the breeding of blooded 
stock, showing its advantages and protecting their members 
against dishonesty and false pedigrees. Many associations in 
the range country protect against thieving and false branding. 
Sheep breeders often organize against the encroachments of 

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127. Miscellaneous animals and animal products. As has 

been already stated in reference to cattle, the bones, horns, hoofs, 
and other parts of all domestic animals are used for the making 
of notions and various objects, and the final refuse is an im- 
portant contribution to fertilizer. Soils are not inexhaustible, 
and wisdom requires that all organic material removed from 
them by the processes of growth should, so far as possible, be 
returned to them. The bones and oil of the whale offer other 




Fig. 94. Number of horses in thousands, in all countries from which 
data are obtainable 

examples of animal products. Whaling, once an important marine 
industry of the United States, has declined because the supply 
is small and because other substances have taken the place of 
both the bone and the oil. Sponge fisheries exist on the Florida 
coast in the neighborhood of Key West. 

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128. Distribution of mineral and organic products. Minerals 
have little present relation, as regards distribution, to climate or 
to conditions that make climate, such as latitude, altitude, rain- 
fall, temperature, or the movements of the atmosphere. There 
have been strong relations in the past, as in the climate of the 
coal period. So far as peat is forming to-day, climate is influ- 
ential in determining its presence. Coal and peat are, however, 
primarily organic, although usually classed among minerals. 
Temperatures and the presence of water have in the past had 
much to do with the making of some mineral deposits, but now 
we may find gold in the arctic belt in Alaska, in the temperate 
regions of the Cordilleras, and in the tropical belt in Mexico. 
Even more widely distributed are building stones and clays. 

129. Causes of the distribution of mineral products. These 
are various, and their full study belongs to geology. One broad 
distinction, however, may be made in a study of commercial 
geography. Mountain lands, because regions of disturbance, 
have been favorable to the making of some mineral deposits, 
especially of the metals. In such regions heat, water, and pres- 
sure have worked effectively in separating the minerals from 
the rocks and in forming workable ores. Thus gold and silver 
abound in the states of the Western division. The rule has 
many exceptions, however, for the precious metals are not im- 
portant in the Appalachians and they scarcely occur in the Alps. 
Lead and zinc occur most largely in regions of disturbance, such 
as the Ozark plateau and the Rocky Mountains, but are also found 
in the undisturbed rocks of the prairies of Illinois and Wisconsin. 

Petroleum and natural gas are not found in regions of disturb- 
ance, for, although they may have occurred before the rocks were 


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upturned, the cracking and thrusting on edge have released these 
light and often gaseous products, so that they have long ago been 
dissipated in the atmosphere or have been swept down the streams. 
Building stones occur in both kinds of territory, but their 
character varies. Thus granites, marbles, and slates are found in 
regions of disturbance, while sandstones and ordinary limestones 
often occur elsewhere. Rocks of volcanic origin depend upon 
the outflow or outburst of heated materials, and may belong to 
regions of present or of ancient volcanic activity. 

130. Some minerals exhaustible. A definite quantity of some 
minerals exists in workable masses, and this amount is enough 
for the uses of man for but a limited time. Geological periods 
have been required for their formation ; and if they are still 
making, the process is so slow that the supplies thus formed 
will not be of practical interest to the men of to-day. Such min- 
erals are gold, silver, coal, copper, iron, and petroleum. If we use 
them all, there will for thousands of generations be no more. 

The case is otherwise with the products of the soil, which, 
with reasonable care and wise management, may be won indefi- 
nitely. Building stones, also clays, cements and cement materials, 
sands, gravels, and salt occur in such quantities as to be practi- 
cally inexhaustible. 

131. Petroleum. The mineral oil bearing this name began 
to be important as the foundation of an industry in 1859, and 
Pennsylvania was practically the only producing state until 
1875. In those years lighting oil derived from petroleum largely 
replaced animal substances such as whale oil and the tallow 
candle. It is now to a considerable degree replaced by electricity, 
and thus lighting offers an example of the importance of inven- 
tion and discovery in serving the convenience and changing the 
industries of civilized peoples. Petroleum products are now much 
used for the purpose of lubrication, and as they are less expensive 
than animal oils there is no apparent substitute for them. 

The principal oil fields in the United States are here indicated : 
the Appalachian field occupies the same general region as Appa- 
lachian coal ; oil is not, however, found in the anthracite region, 

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but it occurs in western Pennsylvania, along the Allegheny rather 
than along the Monongahela River. It is found extensively in 
Ohio and West Virginia and as far south as Tennessee. Indiana 
also produces petroleum, and there are fields in Kansas, Okla- 
homa, Texas, Colorado, Wyoming, and California. The Texas 
field is along the Gulf coast and extends into Louisiana, the 
most important center being at Beaumont, where a vast number 
of wells have been sunk on a small tract of 200 acres. Cali- 
fornia has several 
liliililllllliliil fields, all in the 

southern half of 
the state, and has 
far outstripped any 
other state in pro- 
duction in recent 
years. This abun- 
dance is highly 
important because 
that part of the Pa- 
cific region has so 
little coal, and in- 
deed imports much 
of this fuel. 

The highest 
point in Pennsyl- 
vania production 


g 20 

2 18 

"r 17 

£ 15 
2 14 


s 5? 


Fig. 96. Decline in production of New York and 
Pennsylvania oil fields 

was reached about 1890, the output now having dropped to one 
third, as compared with that time. The amount stored in the rocks 
is limited and is rapidly exhausted. The so-called "pools " are not 
cavernous reservoirs, but occur in masses of porous rock, usually 
sandstone, — the "oil sands" of the well driller. Sometimes the 
oil is forced out by a vast pressure of natural gas, but more often 
it is pumped, at the rate of a few barrels per day. The life of a 
well is prolonged by " shooting " it, that is, by exploding a heavy 
charge of nitroglycerin at the bottom, shattering the rock and 
allowing the oil to concentrate. Wells vary in their period of 

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production from a few months to a score of years or more. 
Seven years is considered in Pennsylvania to mark the average 
life of a well. The output has also declined in Ohio, West Vir- 
ginia, Kansas, and Texas. Experts hold that the present known 
supply of petroleum in the fields of the United States, at the 
present rate of production, will be exhausted in ninety years. If, 
as in the past, more is used each year, the time will be shorter. 
The life of the industry may be prolonged by fresh discoveries. 





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8 1 1 i 1 1 

Fig. 97. Annual production of petroleum in the United States, 1859-1907 

The transportation of petroleum has led to the adoption of 
ingenious methods. As it is inflammable, iron reservoirs and 
tank cars are employed, but a large part of the crude product is 
conveyed in pipe lines to remote cities. Smaller pipes collect 
the oil in a given field, and it is then forced, or flows by gravity, 
for hundreds of miles ; as from western Pennsylvania to Balti- 
more, Philadelphia, New York ; or to Buffalo, Cleveland, and 
Chicago on the Great Lakes. The small reservoir at the well, 
the small pipe, the large reservoir, the great pipe, the tank 
steamer, the reservoirs in remote seaports, and tank cars in dis- 
tant lands form links in the chain of transportation by which 

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American oil is transferred from Pennsylvania or Ohio to light 
homes on the other side of the world. 

Refineries are established in the oil fields, at the ports as above 
named, and some American petroleum is refined in foreign lands. 
A great number of products results from the processes of refin- 
ing. Among these are gasoline, benzine, lighting oils, lubricat- 
ing oils, vaseline, and paraffin. Russia, with the fields of Baku 
on the Caspian Sea, is the only great rival of the United States 
in the petroleum industry. 

132. Natural gas. This substance is often found in petroleum 
territory, but may occur alone, as in several places in central and 
western New York. The largest fields are in western Pennsyl- 
vania and northern Indiana, but the size of the field does not 
indicate the amount of gas now available. Indiana reached its 
highest production in 1900, and in 1907 had declined more 
than three fourths. In the latter year the leading states were, 
in their order, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Kansas. 
The total product for the United States in that year was nearly 
$53,000,000, the highest value from the beginning of the in- 
dustry. Natural gas is now transported largely from West Vir- 
ginia to Cleveland and other Lake Erie ports. This shows the 
possibility of piping ordinary fuel gas long distances, and intro- 
duces an important factor into the development and localization 
of industry. 

The pressure of gas in new wells is sometimes very great, 
amounting in one case (New York, 1897) to 1500 pounds per 
square inch. No well is likely to show a pressure beyond 100 
pounds to the inch after 10 years, and the yield is prolonged in 
an important way by pumping the gas. The waste of gas is 
large, due sometimes to the difficulty of capping wells subject 
to great pressure. On high authority it is believed that even 
now 1,000,000,000 feet of gas are wasted every 24 hours. This 
waste is an important item in the general movement for saving 
the natural resources of the United States. 

133. Bituminous substances. These, as found in the United 
States, are divided by Ries into two groups : the asphaltites, or 

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masses of purer solid bitumens ; and the bituminous rocks, 
whose pores are filled with this material. In either case it is 
believed to have been derived from petroleum. The most im- 
portant deposit of asphaltite in the United States is in Utah. 
The bituminous rocks are found chiefly in Kentucky, Oklahoma, 
and near Santa Cruz in California. The chief supplies, as for 
paving, are, however, drawn from Trinidad. Some forms of 
the bitumen serve minor purposes, as varnish for ironwork, roof- 
ing pitch, and insulation of electric wires, as substitute for bees- 
wax, and as a constituent of candles. 

134. Salt. This substance was early obtained in the Atlantic 
colonies by the evaporation of sea water. Sometimes the boiling 
process was used and occasionally the sun's heat was employed. 
This industry continued in Massachusetts until after 1830, when 
the salt from Onondaga County, New York, became so abun- 
dant and cheap as to absorb the market. Salt was made about 
San Francisco bay from the time of the discovery of gold in 1 849. 
There the industry continues, and has the advantage of prolonged 
dry seasons, so that the vats need not be covered from storms, 
as in the East. The wind also, being constant, favors evapora- 
tion, and as it comes from the Pacific Ocean it does not bring 
dust to the salt. The Mormons gathered salt on the shores of 
Great Salt Lake, beginning with 1847. Michigan, in the Sagi- 
naw region, began to be an important producer in 1859, and 
Kansas in 1867. New York and Michigan have been the lead- 
ing states, each having in some years been the largest producer. 
Other important states are California, Kansas, Ohio, Texas, 
Utah, and Louisiana. The eight states named produced 98 per 
cent of the salt output of the United States in 1905. The total 
in that year was a little over 17,000,000 barrels. 

Salt is derived as rock salt, being mined in its natural state as 
associated with beds of rock ; also as solar salt, evaporated by 
the sun's heat ; and by boiling processes. It is further found as a 
natural surface deposit in arid regions, especially in connection 
with salt lakes. The rock salt is due to natural evaporation in 
more or less remote geological times, and was afterwards covered 

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by rock deposits. Underground waters in some places meet 
these beds and form brines, which are reached by wells, or come 
to the surface as salt springs. The latter, known as " salt licks," 
were common in Kentucky and elsewhere, and were frequented 
by wild beasts and by aboriginal tribes. Thus the Indians long 
made salt at the Onondaga Springs in New York. White men 
began to make salt there soon after the Revolution. Only brines 
were found, first in springs and later by boring. Salt formed the 

Fig. 98. Salt works, shore of Cayuga Lake, near Ithaca, New York. The vats 
for the brine are above the building on the right 

fundamental and leading industry of Syracuse until the time of 
the Civil War, when the Michigan product and foreign salt came 
into competition. In 1880 beds of rock salt were discovered near 
the Genesee River, and now the salt industry of New York has 
chiefly moved westward from Syracuse, the salt being obtained 
by dissolving and evaporating and by direct mining processes. 
The largest use of salt is for seasoning and preserving food. 
More than three fifths of the domestic product in 1905 was so 
used. Above one fifth was used in making soda products and 
bleaching materials. Smaller quantities were consumed in mak- 
ing various chemicals, in the curing of hides, in freezing mix- 
tures, and in the manufacture of pottery, dyestuffs, fertilizers, 
fire-clay products, brick, and tile. 

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135. Fertilizers. The chief mineral materials so used are 
gypsum, phosphates, limestone, and marl. Gypsum is sulphate 
of lime and is often found in beds in connection with rock salt. 
New York, Michigan, Kansas, and Iowa supply most of the 
gypsum used in the United States. Deposits occur southward 
from Kansas, in Oklahoma and Texas. The substance has other 
uses, as in the manufacture of plaster of Paris, and when used 
as a fertilizer is often called " land plaster." 

Phosphates have been produced in South Carolina since 1867, 
but Florida has taken first place for several years. Phosphates 
are also found in Tennessee, Arkansas, and in an area extend- 
ing from Utah into adjoining corners of Wyoming and Idaho, 
a region said to " embrace the largest area of known phosphate 
beds in the world." Of 2,265,000 tons produced in 1907, ex- 
ports made 40 per cent. This seems to be an unfortunate item 
of foreign trade, in view of the vast areas of agricultural land at 
home, which need, or will soon need, the application of fertilizers. 

Other mineral substances used in a limited way as fertilizers 
are quicklime, made from limestone ; marls, consisting of vary- 
ing mixtures of clay and lime ; and the so-called greensand, 
containing iron, potash, and phosphoric acid, and occurring 
chiefly in the young strata of the coastal plains of New Jersey 
and Virginia. 

136. Building and ornamental stones. The mineral fuels are 
found in relatively few parts of the world, where ancient con- 
ditions have favored their formation. The same is true of salt 
and of mineral fertilizers. Building stones, on the other hand, 
are widely distributed, because rock-making agencies have been 
active almost everywhere. Some ancient rocks, indeed, are so 
soft or so full of joints that they are unsuitable, and along the 
borders of seas the rocks are sometimes too young to have ac- 
quired the necessary hardness and strength ; but it is still true 
that a supply of suitable stone is usually found near the place 
where it is desired to use it. 

Because most building stones are abundant and of small value 
in proportion to their weight, the trade in them is local. Only 

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a few enter into international or even into interstate commerce. 
Such heavy freight is transported more readily by water than by 
land ; yet building stones are so commonly found in inland situ- 
ations, or among rugged hills and mountains, that the latter mode 
of carriage is much more common. Here is found a mineral com- 
modity, which, unlike petroleum, iron, coal, or gold, is, for human 
needs, absolutely inexhaustible. 

The use of stone depends partly upon the abundance of the 
forests, and hence is apt to be larger in the older lands, in 
which the supply of wood is restricted. Also, with growing 
wealth and mature civilization men desire to erect monuments 
and buildings of the highest degree of beauty and permanence. 
Many classic structures of the Old World have been the prod- 
uct of the religious and artistic aspirations of the people, aided 
by an abundance of cheap labor. The United States is a new 
country, with its structures chiefly of wood, both because wood 
has until recent years been plentiful and cheap, and because a 
people absorbed in subduing a continent could not, in general, 
erect the more durable structures. The tendency is now toward 
the use of stone, especially in cities. For foundations stone is 
commonly used, as well as in bridges, embankments, locks, and 
other works of a private or public character. 

It will be enough to name five of the more common kinds of 
stone that meet these needs ; namely granite, slate, sandstone, 
marble, and ordinary limestone. Granite is a term properly used 
of a crystalline rock consisting largely of three minerals, — 
quartz, feldspar, and mica. The two first named are hard min- 
erals, and aggregates of the three, especially where fine-grained, 
offer the qualities of resistance, hardness, color, and durability, 
which are important in building material. For the student of 
commercial geography the distribution of the granites is the 
most important fact concerning them. Granites are usually 
among the older rocks, and often form the central or axial parts 
of mountain ranges. Four chief regions may be distinguished 
in the United States : the Appalachians, from Maine to Ala- 
bama ; the Lake Superior region in Wisconsin and Minnesota ; 

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the Rocky Mountain belt ; and the Southwest, along the Sierras 
and running through southwestern Arizona. The most extensive 
quarries are in the northeast, because the population is dense 
and much granite is required for city buildings and burial mon- 
uments. Westerly, Rhode Island, Quincy and Rockport, Mas- 
sachusetts, and Barre, Vermont, are among the best known 
quarrying centers for this kind of stone. 

Slates are rocks which cleave into thin sheets, and, being 
hard and resistant to weathering, are useful for roofing and 
other purposes. They originate in a soft mud rock or shale, 
which has been changed under pressure to the present condition. 
The process of change is known in geology as metamorphism, 
and consequently slates are found only in regions of disturbance, 
where the necessary forces have been available. The chief region 
in the United States is along the Appalachian belt, but slates 
occur in the Lake Superior region, in Arkansas, along the 
Sierras, and elsewhere. The Appalachian slates enter most into 
trade because the dense populations are in the East. Extensive 
quarries are worked along the New York- Vermont border ; also 
in Maine, Pennsylvania, and southward to Georgia. 

Sandstones, being cemented masses of sand, have been formed 
in all ages and are widely distributed. But few in the United 
States are used or transported widely enough to warrant a place 
here. The " brownstones," which indeed may be brown or red, 
once extensively used for city houses, come from the Connecticut 
valley in Massachusetts and Connecticut, also from New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania. The Potsdam of New York is a very hard 
red sandstone, and the Medina of the same state is red and gray 
and much used for paving. Fine-grained sandstones that come 
out of the quarry in wide, thin slabs are known as flagstones and 
are used for sidewalks and curbs. 

The Berea sandstone of Ohio now enters into interstate com- 
merce more widely than any other. 

Limestones are chiefly of organic origin on the floor of ancient 
seas, and are abundant, though less so than sandstones. They 
consist mainly of carbonate of lime, or of lime and magnesia, 

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and are a rather soft and soluble rock, though the more compact 
varieties offer good grades of stone. The Bedford limestone of 
Indiana, consisting of small rounded or oolitic grains, is widely 
used, and much is shipped to Eastern cities. It is readily dressed 
to any desired form, is of good color, and is reasonably strong 
and durable. 

Marbles are metamorphic limestones, and hence, like slates, 
are confined to regions of disturbance. In the language of trade, 

/ • r 



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Fig. 99. Portland cement plants in the United States. (After Eckel) 

any limestone that will take a polish is likely to be called a marble. 
True marbles occur most extensively and have been most devel- 
oped along the Appalachians, the largest American quarries be- 
ing at West Rutland and Proctor, Vermont. Massachusetts, New 
York, and Tennessee furnish other Eastern marbles, and Colo- 
rado and California offer a future supply for the West. 

Ornamental stones, including gems, are not so abundant in 
the United States as to require an account in an elementary 
work. In 1907 the stone product of the United States, includ- 
ing furnace flux and lime, amounted to about $90,000,000. 

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137. Cements. These 
materials are derived 
largely or wholly from 
stone, are used for sim- 
ilar purposes, and are 
of growing importance 
in the United States. 
Ordinary mortar is 
chiefly a compound of 
sand and quicklime, 
which has the property 
of setting and thus 
becoming like rock. 
Certain impure lime- 
stones, when burned 
and ground, form a 
natural cement, which 
has hydraulic proper- 
ties and will set under 
water. Among the chief 
localities in the United 
States are Rosendale 
and Akron, New York, 
and also Cumberland, 
Maryland. Much more 
extensively used at 
the present time are 
the Portland cements. 
These are made by 
burning certain combi- 
nations of limestone, 
marl, and clay. The 
kiln is kept at a high 
temperature and the 
resulting clinker is 

















































































! 1 


1 § 

2 I 




I < 

S i 


1 1 





1 1 

Fig. 100. Comparison of production of Portland 
The powder and natural cement, in millions of barrels, 1 890-1908 

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sets under water like natural cement, and is also widely used in 
constructions above ground. This industry was of small extent 
as recently as 1890, but has now grown to large proportions. In 
1900 the total production in this country was valued at over 
$9,000,000, in 1903 at nearly $28,000,000, and in 1908 at over 
$40,000,000. The supply of the necessary materials is practi- 
cally "without limit, and the growth of population and the increas- 
ing cost of wood indicate a vast future use of this material. New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Michigan, and Ohio are among 
the heaviest producers, a large percentage of the total being made 
in the Lehigh district of Pennsylvania. 

138. Clays. Like the common rocks, clays are widely dis- 
tributed and are used for so many important purposes that they 
enter largely into manufacture and commerce. They consist of 
the finer waste of the surface rocks, the essential element being 
aluminum silicate. They are derived from the rocks by weather- 
ing and mechanical erosion, and are deposited by streams and 
in lakes and seas. Where lakes have been partly or wholly 
drained, or the borders of seas have receded through uplift of 
the land, areas of clay are often exposed and made available. 
Ancient marine clays, long hardened into rock, are often quarried 
and ground, thus offering supplies of clay where there are no 
surface beds of the unconsolidated material. 

Clays lend themselves to many uses, as for building brick, 
fire brick, sewer pipe, drain tile, pottery, and paint, and as a 
constituent of some papers. Kaolin is a pure clay produced by 
the wasting of ancient crystalline rocks. It is worked chiefly in 
the eastern states, notably Pennsylvania and North Carolina, and 
is employed for pottery. Lower grades of clay are used for 
stoneware. Brick clays are found in all states, but noteworthy 
development has occurred where abundant deposits are available 
by water carriage to great cities. The most conspicuous illus- 
tration is found along the Hudson River, where large deposits 
were made in lake waters at the close of glacial time. These 
clays are made into bricks and floated in scows to New York 
City. The brick clays in the Atlantic States from New Jersey 

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southward are mainly marine, being found in strata of the 
coastal plain. In the states between the Ohio River and the 
Great Lakes alluvial clays and glacial-lake clays are the common 
materials for brick. 

The total clay product of the United States in 1905 was 
$135,000,000, and Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Illinois, 
and New York, in the order named, were the leading states. 
Bricks are required in increasing quantities in paving the streets 
of cities and towns; and according to recent reports of the 
census, great fires, as at Baltimore, have increased the demand 
for hollow building blocks and other noncombustible products 
of clay. 

139. Various mineral products. Graphite is a black mineral 
composed chiefly of carbon, and is often called black lead. Its 
most familiar use is for lead pencils, but it is also employed in 
making crucibles, lubricating powder, stove polish, and for other 
purposes. The chief locality in the United States is Essex 
County, New York, near Lake Champlain, but the larger reliance 
is on importations from Ceylon. 

Abrasives are used for various sorts of grinding and are found 
in various forms. Some are hard rocks, suitable for grindstones, 
millstones, and whetstones. The Berea grit, an Ohio stone, is 
chiefly used in the United States for grindstones. A very fine- 
grained sandstone, called novaculite, is quarried in Arkansas, 
and is used at home and is exported, for hones and oilstones. 
Some hard minerals are crushed or powdered, and are used in 
the manufacture of sandpaper and abrasive wheels. Quartz, gar- 
net, and corundum are such minerals. Corundum mixed with 
certain kinds of iron forms emery, of which the chief deposits 
are at Chester in western Massachusetts. Various abrasives are 
produced by artificial processes and are much used. 

Glass is made from quartz sand which is widely distributed 
over the United States. The value of the glass product in 
1905 was $79,000,000, having risen to that figure from $21,- 
000,000 in the previous twenty-five years. Of the total, build- 
ing glass made a little more than one fourth, pressed and blown 

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glass about the same amount, while bottles and jars aggregated 
$33,ooo,ooo. Pennsylvania stood first, with $27,000,000, or 
a little more than one third of the total. Indiana came next, 
with $14,000,000, followed by Ohio, New Jersey, Illinois, and 
New York. Of all the building glass made in the United 
States, Pennsylvania produces more than one half. The location 
of glass factories is influenced more by the availability of suit- 
able fuel than of the sands. It is stated that good glass can be 
made from impure materials with good fuel. A glass factory 
was built in Virginia in 1608, and the industry remained on the 
Atlantic border until 1797, when coal was adopted as fuel by 
an establishment in Pittsburg, in a state which has continued to 
provide for more than a century the best of fuel for this industry. 
Natural gas is one of the best fuels, but is less permanently 
available than coal, while oil is much used but is considered ex- 
pensive. " The cost of fuel is the largest item of expense in 
glassmaking " (United States census report). In recent years 
important machinery has been adopted in glassmaking, and 
importations from France and Germany have greatly declined. 

140. Metallic andnonmetallic minerals. All the mineral sub- 
stances thus far studied in this chapter are known as nonme- 
tallic. As regards their importance to man, a threefold division 
may be made : first, salt ; second, the group of fuels, including 
coal (Chapter V), petroleum, and natural gas ; third, the build- 
ing materials, — stones, cements, and clays. 

Of the metallic minerals iron has already been considered 
(Chapter IV), and is by far the most useful to man. The pre- 
cious metals have important uses as money and in the arts, but 
the absence of them would not be fatal to commerce and the 
general progress of the race. 

141. Gold. According to figures given by the United States 
Geological Survey, $60,000,000 per year in gold was the amount 
of the output soon after the gold discoveries of California in 
1849. By 1883 production decreased to $30,000,000. A few 
years later the region about Cripple Creek, near Pikes Peak in 
Colorado, opened, and production reached $80,000,000 in 1902. 

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Alaskan discoveries followed, and the output in 1906 reached 
$94,000,000. The world's production in 1907 was $412,000,- 
000, of which $151,000,000 came from Africa, mainly from 
the Transvaal. The most recent important discovery in the 
United States is in Nevada. Three states and one territory 
have now been named. Other chief producers are South Dakota, 

oooooo»3ea6S3o-jc oo » to S w ao 

.-. -.-.-. t. r-. r. r- o -■ O => s> O => 3 O O — —• — — i -h -h 
3 >o n n a; -jo h I ~ J ci o> o o> 








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$?y CA 



T r ill 

^./^ . 














Fig. i oi. Production of gold ; the world and principal countries from 
1800 to 1906 

Montana, Idaho, Oregon, and Arizona, so that nearly all the 
gold of this country comes from Cordilleran territory. As gold 
offers great value in small compass and is easily transported, 
the limitation of distribution is not unfortunate. It would be 
far otherwise if such essential products as coal, iron, or stone 
were confined to a single region, since they are both bulky and 
heavy and therefore costly to transport. California and Alaska 
gold is found in placers, that is, in a fine fragmental state among 
gravels of present or ancient streams and seas. This gold is 

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secured by " washing " the gravels, and the process is known 
as hydraulic mining. The chief gold supplies of other states 
are won by underground mining, following the course of gold- 
bearing veins. The experts of the Geological Survey express 
the opinion that the gold output of the United States is not 
likely in coming years to rise above $60,000,000 or sink below 
$40,000,000 per year. In 1906 about two thirds of the gold 
used in the United States was coined and one third was em- 
ployed in the arts. 

142. Silver. This metal was not produced in an important 
amount in the United States until about i860. Soon followed 
great discoveries at Virginia City in Nevada ; also in Arizona, 
Montana, and at Leadville and other centers in Colorado. The 
maximum was 63,500,000 ounces in 1892. The price, however, 
declined from $1.24 per ounce in 1875, to S3 cents in 1902, 
rising to 67 cents in 1906. The United States and Mexico, in 
about equal measure, contribute approximately two thirds of the 
world's supply. Canadian production is increasing, reaching 
nearly 20,000,000 ounces in 1907. The rank of states in 1907 
was as follows : Colorado, Montana, and Utah were in a first 
group, producing about equally ; then came Nevada and Idaho, 
followed by Arizona and California. Thus the silver in this 
country is chiefly Cordilleran. Much of it is really a by-product 
secured in the mining of lead and copper. More than half the 
product is exported. Relatively more silver is used in the arts 
than is the case with gold. 

143. Copper. In 1908 the United States produced 943,000,- 
000 pounds of copper, which was more than four times the output 
of 1888, or 226,000,000 pounds. This in turn quadrupled the 
production of 1878, which was 48,000,000 pounds. The rapid 
growth of copper production was due in considerable part to the 
development in electrical construction, for which copper is pecul- 
iarly suited. It is also much used as a constituent of the alloys, 
— bronze and brass, — and as sheet copper for many purposes. 

The United States produces more than half of the world's 
copper and exports largely. Arizona, Montana, and Michigan 

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are the leading regions. Michigan began to produce in 1845 
and has contributed more than any other state, though its an- 
nual output is now somewhat below that of Arizona and Mon- 
tana. Among the companies mining copper in Michigan, the 
Calumet and Hecla produces the most. The copper in Michigan 
is "native," that is, not in chemical union with other substances. 
In this respect the Lake Superior region is said to be " unique 
among the copper regions of the world." Some workings in 
Michigan have now attained the great depth of one mile. Cop- 
per mining began in Arizona in 1873, while Montana began to 
be an important producer in 1880. Butte is the center of the 
copper district of Montana. Utah, Nevada, and California are 
also important producers, and considerable is mined in Idaho, 
New Mexico, and Alaska. Several Appalachian states have 
copper mines, those of Ducktown, Tennessee, alone deserving 
mention here. 

144. Lead, zinc, tin, and mercury. The world's lead product 
is very small compared with that of copper, and amounted in 
1907 to a little less than 1,000,000 pounds, of which the United 
States furnished about one third. Spain is the chief foreign pro- 
ducer. Both here and in other lands the reserve of lead seems 
to be small. Missouri, Idaho, Utah, and Colorado are the chief 
states for this metal. Joplin is the center for Missouri and Cceur 
d'Alene for Idaho. The use of a large amount of lead for paint 
is peculiar to the United States, a significant fact, considering 
that, in the face of growing demand, production is not likely to 
increase, and also that no lead so used can be recovered, as is 
the case with much scrap iron and copper. 

Missouri mines half of the zinc produced in the United States, 
followed by New Jersey, Colorado, Wisconsin, and Kansas. As 
with lead, Joplin is the center in Missouri, and the mines of 
New Jersey are at Franklin Furnace. Small amounts of tin 
occur in the Black Hills, and in North and South Carolina and 
Alaska, but most of the domestic supply is imported from the 
Malay Peninsula. The making of tin plate from foreign metal 
is a considerable industry. 

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1 7 8 


Mercury is one of the minor metals, yet its uses are important. 
It is employed in making thermometers and barometers, in sil- 
vering mirrors, in extraction of the precious metals, and in 
medicine. The only important locality in the United States is 
in California, though Texas has become a small producer. Spain 
is the chief foreign source of this metal, and is the only country 
which mines more of it than our own. 

145. Analysis of chief mineral substances in reference to 
their uses. Water is here included, but will be treated in the 
following chapter. 

f Coal and peat 

Fuel i Petroleum 

L Natural gas 

Fertilizers (indirectly) 
' Stone 



„ The metals, — iron, copper, lead, tin, zinc 


Paving stones and brick 



Nearly all common metals 

Gems and other ornamental stones 

Pottery clays 

' Iron, copper, silver, gold 

Bronze, brass 



Lithographic stone 

Stone and bricks used for inscriptions 

146. Precedence of the United States in mineral industries. 

The total value of the mineral products of the United States 
for 1907 was $2,069,000,000. Iron, copper, and coal are the 


Building . 


Utensils and objects of 

Record and communication - 

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three minerals which seem essential to industry, and in these 
three this country far exceeds any other. Lead, silver, alumi- 
num, and petroleum are also more largely produced here than 
elsewhere, and the production of gold nearly equals that of any 
other land. 

147. National and state surveys. The United States Geo- 
logical Survey applies a large part of its energies to the study 
of mineral deposits and to the dissemination of information. Its 
reports take the form of bulletins, which give prompt notice 
of new discoveries ; annual summaries of progress in mineral 
industries ; extended monographs and final reports on impor- 
tant regions ; and an extended series of papers on water supply. 
Many state surveys and bureaus cooperate in this work. While 
mineral products fill the chief place in these reports, much may 
be found concerning agriculture, plant and animal life, roads, 
climate, and the forms of the land. 

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148. Sources of water. All the fresh water that is available 
for use has come down in the form of rain or snow. The rain- 
fall map of the United States (fig. 102) shows where precipita- 
tion is light and where it is heavy. The greatest rainfall is found 
in the Pacific coast mountains and among the southern Appa- 
lachians. The least is found among the plateaus of the western 
half of the country. All other regions are intermediate. 

The water may be directly gathered, for domestic use, in cis- 
terns. In great part, however, it is found in rivers, lakes, under- 
ground waters, and springs. Water is always held in plants, 
animal tissues, and in the soil and rocks. On penetrating below 
the surface of the land, at a depth of a few or many feet, a point 
is reached at which all interspaces of soil or rock are full of 
water. This is a point in an undulating water surface which ex- 
tends everywhere beneath the land surface. This water surface 
is known as the water table. Its position depends on the shape of 
land surface, texture of rock, and changes of season, but always 
it is the top of an underground reservoir which supplies rivers, 
springs, and wells. 

149. Water as a natural resource. In early days of the 
white man's life in America, water, like the atmosphere, the 
soil, and the forest, was thought inexhaustible. Springs, brooks, 
and wells supplied enough for household use, and any small 
stream with a swift flow could turn the wheels of a gristmill or 
saw a few logs for home consumption. There were no large 
towns whose wastes would pollute the waters, and indeed the 
dangers of impure water were not known. It is easy to find 
persons at the present time who are ignorant of these vital 


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matters, and who think one water as good as another if it be 
clear, cold, and free from bad taste or odor. 

The new view of water as a great natural resource, more im- 
portant than gold, or coal, or iron, has arisen in a time of grow- 
ing density of population, when large cities require much water 
for the household, for fire protection, and for manufacture, and 
when the disposal of sewage and manufacturing waste is likely to 
contaminate the ground waters and the streams. The dangers 

Fig. 102. Mean annual rainfall in the United States 

to health and life, due to use of bad water, are also well under- 
stood by the greater number of people. Other uses of water 
also press into the field, and it is not possible to question the 
statement with which a government expert begins a recent 
water-supply report: " The water supply of the United States is 
of more importance to the life and pursuits of the people than 
any other natural resource." 

150. Uses and conservation of water. In the early days of 
small domestic use water served chiefly for navigation by the 
small craft of the explorer and pioneer. Irrigation was not 
needed while population was small and well-watered lands were 

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plentiful. Now irrigation is an absolute essential to the growth 
of several great states, and is no longer considered unimportant 
in states having an average rainfall. Probably not one thou- 
sandth of the power capacity of our streams was used in the 
days of small local mills and factories. In the present time, 
when enterprises are vast, when the fuel should be conserved, 
and power can be sent far by electric transmission, the use of 
water power will be pressed to its limit. The ice product, both 

Fig. 103. Humid, semiarid, and arid regions of the United States 

natural and artificial, requires a large and increasing use of water. 
Flood prevention is a part of the proper handling of water re- 
sources, and this has to do, in turn, with forest preservation, 
soil conservation, the promotion of water power, and uniform 
flow for navigation. Thus nearly all the conservation prob- 
lems which now engage the public interest are related to the 
management of water. 

Most important of all is domestic and municipal use, — for 
the household, for manufactures, fire protection, street flushing, 
public baths, and in relation to parks and playgrounds. The 
North American Conservation Conference recently laid down 

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the principle that " the highest and most necessary use of water 
is for domestic and municipal purposes. We therefore favor 
the recognition of this principle in legislation, and, where neces- 
sary, the subordination of other uses of water thereto." 

151. Ordinary wells and springs. The essential fact here is 
that all such sources should be used with caution. Springs and 
wells that once offered healthful waters may now be full of dan- 
ger because of growing population and the entrance of house- 
hold or barnyard wastes into the ground waters that furnish the 
supply. A student of water supply noted, in an eastern state, 
between forty and fifty wells located on slopes below cesspools. 
Under such circumstances even deep wells would be unsafe. 
Wells 200 feet deep in a New England city showed con- 
tamination. It is thus clear that the supply for large bodies 
of people must be sought at some distance. Great systems 
of transportation and distribution must be devised, and these 
constitute large geographical facts of daily importance to the 
people. Thus the whole question of water has its rightful place 
in commercial geography. 

152. Artesian wells. The artesian well is variously defined. 
Formerly the term was quite generally restricted to flowing 
wells. It is now, however, often used of any deep well, even 
though the water must be pumped from far below the surface. 
It is better to apply the word to any well in which the water 
is under hydrostatic pressure, whether it rises to the surface 
of the ground or not. 

Conditions favorable to such wells are found in nearly hori- 
zontal and unbroken rock strata, in which some of the series 
are porous, as, for example, sandstone ; while others are com- 
pact, serving to hold the water in the porous beds until it is 
released by well borings. For a fuller account of the nature 
of artesian wells the student is referred to physical geography. 

The Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains and the Great Plains 
leading up to the Rocky Mountains offer the most widespread 
favorable conditions for artesian supplies. Thus in South Dakota, 
according to Darton, such beds as are described above descend 

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1 84 


fr&lack Hills 
-Potsdam 8andstone 
-Carboniferous Limestone 
-Juratrias, Clays, Band*, and Gypsum 
"-Dakota Sandstone 

■Cheyenne Bhrer 


[Sioux Rivet 

Fig. 104. A diagram 
illustrating the princi- 
ple of the artesian well, 
as shown in South Da- 
kota, from the Black 
Hills 300 miles east- 
ward. Vertical scale 

eastward from sources in the 
Black Hills and carry waters 
under great "head" to eastern 
South Dakota and Nebraska. 
Water when struck often shows a pressure 
of 500 pounds per square inch. 

153. Lakes. Lakes are among the great- 
est sources of water in the northern United 
States. Chief among all are the Great 
Lakes, furnishing navigation, water for cit- 
ies, and power, as at St. Marys Falls and 
Niagara. Cleveland, on Lake Erie, draws 
its supply from the lake by means of two 
cribs, — one, the older, one and one-half 
miles from shore ; and a newer crib, four 
miles out. Tunnels transmit the water, 
which is pumped into reservoirs, the whole 
system being the property of the city. Chi- 
cago has a famous water system of this sort, 
which has in recent years come into wide 
notice by reason of the Chicago Drainage 
Canal. As there was danger that the city's 
sewage would pollute the waters, the canal 
was primarily constructed so that the sew- 
age might be turned into the Illinois and 
Mississippi rivers. 

Lake waters are most favorable for a city 
supply when the shores can be suitably 
watched and are without large towns. In 
recent years the city of Syracuse discarded 
a more local supply and now draws its water 
from Skaneateles Lake, about twenty miles 
distant. Innumerable small glacial lakes and 
ponds, numbering many thousands in the 
Northern states, now serve or may serve for 
the supply of adjacent towns and cities. 

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154. Rivers. Rivers, including all streams large and small, 
supply a great number of towns with water. Large cities are 
apt to grow, on the lower or middle parts of a river, and there 
is always danger of water pollution from towns farther upstream. 

The subject of river pollution has now entered into law, and 
in some states, as Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Minnesota, the statute restrictions are 
severe. There is a steady growth of public opinion, enforced 
by a pronounced awakening on the subject of public health. It 
is a well-settled part of the common law that a riparian owner 
has the right to have the water of the stream pass on to him in 
practically full volume and in normal purity. There is no in- 
herent right to dump sewage or other waste into a river. If 
pollution makes a stream a public nuisance, all people in the 
neighborhood as well as those owning the banks of the stream 
have a right to redress. 

In some arid states, where irrigation has developed, the right 
of " prior appropriation " is established, and late comers find 
their rights modified by those of earlier settlers. 

Government experts have given much attention to the pollu- 
tion of rivers, and we have examples of numerous cities which 
have had disastrous experience and have taken effective measures 
for protection. Among these are Lowell and Lawrence on the 
Merrimac, Newark and Jersey City, Albany, Pittsburg, Cincin- 
nati, and Louisville. A Hudson River town put a sand filter in 
operation in 1899, and its death rate from typhoid fever at once 
dropped to less than one third of that previously registered. 
This serves to show that the waters of the upper Hudson and 
Mohawk had become seriously polluted by sewage and other 
waste, and now nearly if not quite all of the towns on these 
rivers have adopted upland supplies of water. 

A river in the Atlantic coast region became, a few years ago, 
so foul that two cities were compelled to seek other waters 
for domestic supply, fish in the stream nearly disappeared, the 
river could not be used for pleasure boating or bathing, and on 
certain occasions factories ceased to operate on account of the 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 


— 4:0 — 










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Fig. 105. Mean death rates from typhoid fever in 7 foreign and 66 American 

cities grouped according to the sources and quality of their drinking water. 

The first seven are foreign 


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noxious odors. This is an extreme case, but will be only one of 
many as population grows, unless suitable prevention be adopted 
both by sewage disposal and by seeking and protecting other 
sources of supply. 

The Connecticut offers an instructive case of a stream useful 
in several ways. The upper river furnishes wholesome supplies 
for household use. When it reaches Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut its waters suffer in purity from the large populations 
on its banks. This is not a serious matter, however, since ample 
uplands are at 
hand to furnish 
waters for do- 
mestic use, and 
the river here 
offers resources 
of power of the 
first order, and 
in its lower or 
tidal section is 
much used for 

Perhaps the 
most thorough 
discussion ever 
given to river 

Fig. 106. The Mohawk and Middle Hudson rivers, show- 
ing the cities and larger towns and their population, in 
relation to the ice fields of the Hudson. Cities are named ; 
population only is given for towns 

pollution by sewage was during a suit brought before the Supreme 
Court of the United States in 1900 by the state of Missouri against 
the state of Illinois and the Sanitary District of Chicago. It was 
claimed that the discharge of Chicago sewage into the Missis- 
sippi River, by way of the Drainage Canal and the Illinois River, 
was injurious to the people of Missouri, and particularly to those 
of St. Louis, which draws its domestic waters from the river. The 
case resulted in a decision rendered in 1906, dismissing the 
complaint. Among other things it was shown that dilution of 
the sewage by a large volume of pure water turned in from Lake 
Michigan improved the water of the Illinois River and caused 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 





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Fig. 107. Basins affording water supply for New York City 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 


edible fish to return to it. This decision does not prove that 
sewage does not contaminate, especially within shorter distances, 
but only that injury was not proved in that particular case. 

The Manhattan and Bronx boroughs of New York are sup- 
plied from the Croton and Bronx rivers, with storage reser- 
voirs at High Bridge, in Central Park, and elsewhere. The 
Croton River is 60 miles long, drains an area of 340 square 
miles among the uplands of southern New York, and now has 
15 storage lakes and ponds. As the city was outgrowing this 
supply and it was not easy to take water from Connecticut or 
New Jersey, and as the Adirondacks were distant, an area in 
the Catskills was chosen, west of Kingston, on Esopus Creek, 
over 80 miles from City Hall. Here is the great dam for the 
Ashokan Reservoir, and thence a large aqueduct, built both 
over ground and with deep siphons, will conduct the water to 
the city. One great siphon conducts the water beneath the 
Hudson River at Storm King. The Brooklyn supply is from 
streams, ponds, and wells on Long Island. 

New York and Chicago may be taken as types of great cities, 
one drawing its supply from small streams and great reservoirs 
in the uplands, and the other deriving its supplies from a great 
lake and guarding its purity by costly constructions. Until re- 
cently the Schuylkill River furnished 90 per cent of the water 
for Philadelphia, and the Delaware River the remainder. Here- 
after the Delaware is to supply 80 per cent, its waters being 
cleaner, more free from bacteria, and less hard. Several sub- 
urban towns, as Camden, on the New Jersey side of the river, 
sink artesian wells in the strata of the coastal plain. 

Detroit has" its supply from Detroit River, which furnishes 
water that has been directly derived from the upper Great 
Lakes. It is brought from the center of the channel by a tun- 
nel and raised by pumping. Detailed study would show that 
thousands of smaller cities and towns have, within recent years, 
taken measures to secure an ample supply of healthful water, 
and to discourage, and in some cases to forbid, the use of 
private wells. 

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155. Ice. The water of lakes and rivers has become impor- 
tant as a source of ice, made largely by natural, but to some de- 
gree by artificial, processes. It has been established that bacteria 
which cause disease may survive long enough in ice to be inju- 
rious. Ice is said to be refused by consumers if cut in the main 
channel of the Connecticut River, although it may be better than 
the ice cut so extensively on the middle Hudson, or better than 
that derived from the lower courses of some rivers of Maine. 


x l 7 

4 yf \ 

— x^^aa 1 

— \~V l *r 

V 47 \ 

I *5tk s L 1 

I % (\ s l^«J — r L 1 

r r-^v^T \ 1 /y~\ y^ 

\ 43 

63 \ / 

I 88 / 

1 \ 3T 

\^L — , 

— ihb Northern limit' of-tnanu- V 

factured ice at the census of 1906.1 ^^^ 
oooooooAverage mean temperature ^v^\ 

of 32°E for January, 1904. \ JT^ 
The figures represent the number of Ice \ f 
manufacturing establishments in each state. \_^ 1 

Fig. io8. Zones of natural and of manufactured ice 

156. Navigation. This subject is introduced here for a com- 
plete general view of the uses of water, but the place of water- 
ways in commercial geography will be discussed in the chapter 
on Transportation (Chapter XIV). Navigation and power are 
objects often consistent with each other, but navigation might 
be unfavorable to domestic uses, as involving more or less con- 
tamination. Navigation might or might not be consistent with 
irrigation, the case depending on the amount of water available 
and the amount to be taken out for agriculture. 

157. Water power. This use of water is important because 
the supply of fuel is limited. The supply of anthracite coal will 

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apparently be exhausted within the present century, and the 
bituminous coal in a few centuries. The supply of water power, 
if wisely used, may be permanent. Water power is more eco- 
nomical also, because it exists in many places to which coal must 
be brought over long distances. These things give force to the 

Fig. 109. Hydraulic laboratory of Cornell University 

present movement to keep the water powers from the control of 
monopolies and to put them under the direction, and make them 
serve the needs, of the people. 

New York may first be taken as an illustration. In an address 
by Governor Charles E. Hughes before the Conference of Gov- 
ernors held at the White House in 1908, the annual value of 
the unused water powers of the state was put at $6,600,000. 
This means that water power not now used in industry would, 
if employed, earn this sum each year. Added to this present 
waste is a damage of $1,000,000 per year by floods, which might, 
by good management, be prevented. The storage of flood waters 

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can best be undertaken by the state, which alone can condemn 
needed lands and undertake comprehensive operations. The 
above facts do not mean that New York water power is little 
used, for in 1905, of all water power employed for manufacture 
in the United States, New York used one fourth. A water- 
supply commission has been formed in the state to inquire into 
the available power, to select good reservoir sites, and to pre- 
vent private absorption of these resources. A bill was vetoed, 
which gave a private company rights without compensation. 

Fig. 1 10. Falls of the Passaic River, Paterson, New Jersey 

In a smaller way water powers were much used in manufac- 
ture down to 1870. Since that time steam generated by coal 
has been the chief power, but the new mode of electrical trans- 
mission of the energy of both coal and water introduces a new 
era. Plants now develop power not only for one mill or factory, 
but for sale to many consumers. The full use of Niagara would 
give 7,000,000 horse power, and even the present development 
provides power for many large concerns at the Falls, and trans- 
mits tens of thousands of horse power twenty miles to Buffalo 
and to other points at equal and much greater distances. An 
expert engineer, also speaking at the White House Conference, 
places the power of other regions as follows : 

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Mississippi River system 
Southern Appalachian . 
State of Washington 
Northern California . . 
United States (entire) . 

2,000,000 horse power 
3,000,000 horse power 
3,000,000 horse power 
5,000,000 horse power 
30,000,000 horse power 

Storage of waters would much increase these amounts. In 1908, 

of 30,000,000 horse power used as "prime movers," 26,000,000 

were produced by 

steam engines and 

only 3,000,000 by 

water. This shows 

the vast extent of 

power now going 

to waste. 

Great develop- 
ment of power is 
also possible as in- 
cident to the im- 
provement of navi- 
gation. The locks 
and dams built and 
controlled by the 
government in aid 
of navigation al- 
ready afford some 
1,600,000 horse 
power. And at the 
headwaters of an 
irrigation stream a 
power can often be 
developed without 
loss to agriculture. 
The larger irriga- 
tion canals may 
also in some cases, 
it is stated, serve 
for navigation. 

Fig. hi. Map showing transmission lines of the 
Niagara Falls Power Company 

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Maine is said to have 1 568 lakes at an average altitude of 600 
feet above the sea. These are natural reservoirs providing a 
vast amount of power. Very complete knowledge has been 
gained by the state of New Jersey concerning its waters, as re- 
gards rainfall, watersheds, forests, reservoir sites, flow of streams, 
and availability for domestic use and for power. Georgia and 
South Carolina, among the Southern states, give much attention 
to water power, but all the other states which border the southern 
Appalachians abound in vigorous streams. 

Fig. 112. Hydroelectric plant, Puyallup River, Washington ; producing 
28,000 horse power 

New York leads the states in the development of electrical 
energy by water power. At Niagara 35 wheels afford 91,600 
horse power. California is second in this respect, as might be 
expected from her many streams flowing from high and well- 
watered mountains, directly out upon plains suited to the homes 
and industries of man. The Chicago Drainage Canal has among 
its objects not only sewage disposal and transportation, but also 
power development. It is therefore, in view of such facts as 
have been given, important that " no rights to use of water 
powers should hereafter be granted in perpetuity." This means 
that power should be leased to private companies, so that rents 
may be paid, and readjustment and final control remain with 
the people. 

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158. Irrigation. The artificial watering of lands was practiced 
by the cliff dwellers long before the time of the Spanish invaders 
of the Southwest, their ditches being often cut through rock. 
English colonists began to irrigate about 1700, but only in the 
rice regions of the South Atlantic coast. Mormon development 
of irrigation began in the regions of Great Salt Lake in 1847, an d 

Fig. 113. Diversion dam at the head of the main Truckee Canal, Truckee- 
Carson Irrigation Project, Nevada 

about 1870 the Greeley colony in Colorado began to give wide 
stimulus to this method of agriculture. Since that time, under 
private and corporate enterprise, large tracts have been reclaimed 
in the arid West, in Colorado, California, and other states. In 
1902 the area thus used was greater than the combined territory 
of Massachusetts and Connecticut. Not only in arid states, but 
in others, as Florida, irrigation is used for crops of vegetables, 
tobacco, and fruit, to aid in the period of growth and to prevent 
injury by drouth. In 1902, in Massachusetts, 283 acres were thus 
watered, in New York 159 acres, and in Pennsylvania 906 acres. 

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According to Mr. F. H. Newell, head of the United States 
Reclamation Service, writing in 1909, the Reclamation Act 
had been in operation seven years. This act embodied the 


50 60 J00 150 200 250 

Fig, 114, Location of chief government irrigation projects 

first federal activity in irrigation. Works had been built in 1 3 
states and two territories, and nearly 700,000 acres had been 
brought "under the ditch." Over $1,000,000 had already been 
returned by settlers, as it is the policy of the government that 
the entire cost of the works should in time be borne by those 

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benefited. More than 3000 miles of main canals and minor 
ditches had been constructed. 

By consulting the map (fig. 114) the student may see the 
location of government projects. A few of these will now be 
briefly described as examples. 

Shoshone project, Wyoming. A deep narrow canon was 
chosen and the highest masonry dam in the world constructed, 
310 feet high. It is higher than the Flatiron Building in New 
York City, and will create the largest lake in Wyoming; 100,- 
000 acres of land will thus be watered. 

North Platte project. In this the Pathfinder dam will create 
a reservoir for reclaiming 400,000 acres, lying on the trail of 
the Mormons and the California gold-seekers. This tract is 
open to settlers in farms of 80 acres. The lake will have more 
than 10 times the storage capacity of the new Croton Reservoir 
of New York City. The lands lie both in Wyoming and Ne- 
braska, and will be supplied by a canal 95 miles long. 

Belle Fourche project. South Dakota. Here will be formed 
the largest lake in the state, to irrigate 100,000 acres. Settle- 
ment is well advanced, and markets will be found among the 
mining towns of the Black Hills, in Minneapolis, St. Paul, 
Omaha, and Chicago. 

Rio Grande project. The river of this name is dammed near 
Eagle, New Mexico, forming a reservoir 175 feet deep, 40 
miles long, and sufficient to irrigate 1 80,000 acres. 

Yuma project, delta of Colorado River in Arizona and Cali- 
fornia. About 100,000 acres of rich soil will be reclaimed, and 
it is expected that a plot of 10 acres will suffice for the support 
of a family. 

Salt River project, Arizona. Here the government has built 
the Roosevelt dam, 284 feet high, 1080 feet long, and 170 
feet thick at the base. Enormous works will distribute the 
water, and the climate assures the growth of grapes, almonds, 
dates, and other products appropriate to warm climates. 

Uncompahgre project. The Gunnison and Uncompahgre 
rivers are 10 miles apart, separated by a mountain range 2000 

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1 98 


feet high. A tunnel has been opened 6 miles long, with a cross 
section 10^ by 12 feet. The waters of the Gunnison will make 
productive 140,000 acres in the Uncompahgre valley. 

Yakima valley project, Washington. Several dams provide 
water for 500,000 acres. Here very valuable orchards are 

Fig. 1 1 5. Areas of swamp and overflowed lands in the United States east of 
the Rocky Mountains, compared with the area of three states 

developed, the culture is intensive, and farms of 10 to 20 acres 
are common. As in many irrigation communities, social contact 
is close and the advantages of towns are realized by the peo- 
ple. A further example of this swift development is here given, 
selected from many noteworthy cases in the western region. 
In southern Idaho a tract on the Snake River was a complete 
desert in 1905. In 1908 there were 300 miles of canals and 

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ditches, 85,000 acres were watered, towns had grown up, and 
there were 1400 families on farms. 

Thus through private and government agency millions of 
people will be added to the population of the West, the national 
wealth will in a few years be greatly increased, and the geo- 
graphic conditions will be transformed through this use of 
water resources. 

159. Prevention of floods and drainage of swamp lands. 
These two objects form a part of the comprehensive treatment 
of the waters of the United States. Floods have in recent years 

Fig. 116. Traction ditching machine, experimental farm, Cornell University 

caused many millions of dollars of damage in the southern Ap- 
palachians. They are so severe and so destructive to the cities 
and farms of the Ohio and lower Mississippi rivers that the 
United States Weather Bureau maintains a system of flood sta- 
tions and issues warnings as occasion requires. Other regions 
suffer in like manner, and it has already been seen that the 
storage of waters for irrigation and navigation, as well as for 
the protection of forests, tends to avert floods. 

Swamp lands of tidal origin abound on the Atlantic coast. 
Other swamps are found along the rivers of the coastal and 

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Gulf plains, and numerous marshes in the Northern states are 
due to glacial obstruction of drainage and to the filling and 
partial drainage of lake basins. As population increases, these 
lands will be reclaimed for suitable additions to the food re- 
sources and home sites of the people. It is believed that 
70,000,000 acres could be cultivated, adding $700,000,000 to 

Fig. 117. Gauging river flow, West Carson River, California 

the national resources. Extensive drainage operations, at vast 
cost, are now in progress in the state of Iowa. 

160. Mineral and thermal waters. Waters in their sojourn 
on and in the earth take up mineral substances. There is no 
exception to this rule, but only when the quantity is pronounced, 
and especially when the waters are deemed medicinal, is the 
term " mineral water " applied in a commercial sense. About 
10,000 mineral springs are known and recorded in the United 
States. Most of the springs which supply waters to trade are 
found in the Appalachian region and in the Mississippi Valley. 
Most of the remainder are in the Pacific coast states. This 

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does not mean that such waters may not be just as abundant in 
the intervening plateaus and mountains, remaining to be de- 
veloped as population becomes larger in that region. The 
springs of Saratoga, New York, hold first place in number and 
importance. Thermal springs are found in Virginia and Ar- 
kansas, but are more abundant in the West, a fact to be attrib- 
uted to more recent volcanic activity in that part of the coun- 
try. In the year 1904 but 484 springs reported actual sales of 
water, with a total value of product of about #10,000,000. 

161. Governmental investigation and use of water resources. 
For many years the United States Geological Survey has con- 
ducted studies of American waters, gauging the flow of all im- 
portant streams and publishing numerous reports. Records of 
stream flow have been made at 14,000 stations in the United 
States. In later years these reports form a series of water- 
supply papers, numbering into the hundreds. At the same 
time the Weather Bureau records at numerous stations the 
amount of rainfall. The Reclamation Service utilizes water 
for agriculture in the manner already described, and the more 
recently created Waterways Commission is charged with de- 
velopment of plans for a suitable system of interior navigation. 

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162. Beginnings of industry. Before there were civilized 
peoples there was little diversity or specialization in industry. 
Each family or tribe supplied its own needs. There could be 
no geography of commerce because there was no commerce. 
When tribes began to barter, they had found that others had 
or made what they did not possess or produce, and thus there 
was a rude concentration of resources and handicrafts in certain 
places. As the world of groups that knew and dealt with each 
other grew larger, men learned where the best things were 
made and where their products could be sold, and commerce 
became fully established. The very existence of commerce, 
therefore, depends on concentration, or at least a grouping, of 

When we come to the modern world these processes of spe- 
cialization and adaptation to particular surroundings have gone 
far. In Europe, England very largely supplies the textiles, 
Germany the chemicals, France and Italy the wine and silk, 
and Russia and Roumania the wheat. If the United States be 
added to the list, the group of exchanges and adjustments is 
still wider, and cotton may be taken as an example of a prod- 
uct little raised in Europe. As China and the whole Orient 
open, and as Africa is subdued and civilized, and South America 
comes fully into the family of industrial nations, the world be- 
comes a patchwork of products and industries and a network of 
lines of exchange. 

The same principle applies to a single country. In England, 
Lancashire makes cotton goods, Sheffield forges iron and steel, 
Leeds furnishes woolens, and Newcastle ships, while Norfolk 
raises wheat and Kent produces hops. This chapter will review 

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the special location of industries in the United States, observing 
the simplest and closest concentration of particular manufac- 
tures. Not only the place, but the reasons for the place, will 
be sought. 

163. Cases of concentration already noticed. Minneapolis 
doubtless became the place for wheat milling on a large scale in 
the Northwest, because of the power supplied by the Falls of 
St. Anthony. This cause is not now so important as in the 
beginning of the industry. Minneapolis is also easily reached 
from the present wheat center of the United States, and the 
most perfect modern transportation has been developed in all 
directions. Further, Minneapolis lies en route to the wheat and 
flour markets of the East and of Europe. And yet again, this 
city has established a reputation for the finest brands of flour, its 
trade-marks are accepted the world over, much capital has been 
invested, and skilled labor has developed. If some other place 
could be found having greater natural advantages, the business 
would persist here because it is so firmly fixed in its appoint- 
ments and in the minds of the trade and of the people at large. 

There is a striking concentration of cotton manufacture in 
coastal New England, especially in the. regions of southwestern 
Maine, southern New Hampshire, eastern Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, and eastern Connecticut. This was favored in early 
days by water power, by a moist climate, and by available labor, 
intelligent and faithful operatives being drawn from New Eng- 
land towns and farms. At the present time water power is of 
much less account, though Lowell and Manchester still use it for 
about 50 per cent of their cotton manufacture. Artificial mois- 
ture is now preferred, and people from other lands, particularly 
the French from Canada, contribute largely to the labor supply. 

There is in New England, around the cotton industry, an 
intrenchment of capital, reputation, and skilled labor which tend 
to hold the industry. The region is also near the largest mar- 
kets. On the other hand, the raw cotton and the fuel must be 
hauled for long distances. Cheaper labor, water power, and the 
nearness of the cotton favor the migration of the business to 

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the South. Massachusetts therefore, while holding 37.4 per cent 
of the American cotton manufacture in 1890, held but 32.8 per 
cent in 1900. In like manner Rhode Island dropped from 10.2 
per cent to 7.8 per cent in the same decade. There was a rela- 
tive decline in every New England state, while South Carolina 
was the second state in 1900, having 8.8 per cent as compared 
with 3.7 per cent in 1890. 

The first five cities in 1900 were Fall River, Philadelphia, 
Lowell, New Bedford, and Manchester. Warwick, Rhode 

Fig. 118. Distribution of cotton manufacture 

Island, was the most highly specialized town, cotton forming 
71 per cent of its manufacture. The percentage for Fall River 
was 68, for New Bedford 65, and for Lewiston, Maine, 54. 
The cotton industry represented but 2 per cent of the manu- 
factures of Philadelphia, the second producer, because this is a 
great general center of industries, while the others are small 
cities largely given to one pursuit. 

Cattle and hogs are chiefly raised in the Mississippi basin. 
The greater markets for dressed and packed meats are in the 
East and in Europe. The centers for slaughtering and packing 
would naturally be near the farms and ranches which produce 

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the stock, or on the way toward the markets. As a matter of 
fact they are nearer the farm than the market, at least in Omaha, 
St. Joseph, and Kansas City. The meat can be better shipped 
than the stock " on the hoof," although much is carried in the 
latter way. Further, such a by-product as fertilizer may better 
be made where reshipment to the farm is easy and cheap. The 
centralizing of meat packing is only possible through preserva- 
tive processes and swift and effective transportation. 

[ J Less than $10 to sq. mile 

1 j $10 to $100 '• » 

HB| $100 to $1000 " " 
L_^j_J $1000 and over" " 

Fig. 119. Distribution of slaughtering and meat packing 

The two conspicuous concentrations of iron making are found 
in the southern Appalachian valley from Knoxville to Birming- 
ham, and in the Pittsburg region from western Pennsylvania 
extending into Ohio. The first illustrates the effect of having 
all the raw materials close at hand. The second has the fuel at 
the door, and the iron ore, while far away, is made most acces- 
sible by the best modern transportation. The same is true of 
Buffalo and Chicago, though in these cases fuel also is carried 
some distance. The Northern centers named are nearer than the 
Southern centers to the great markets, for the various steel prod- 
ucts, which are found in the densely populated Northern states. 

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Fifty-six per cent of the iron and steel made in the United 
States in 1900 was made in Pennsylvania, and 1 1 per cent was 
produced in Pittsburg. Pennsylvania has always been first in 
iron, but the use of Connellsville coke and Lake Superior ores 
shifted the center from eastern to western Pennsylvania. East- 
ern Ohio really belongs to the same region, and state boundaries 
should be little heeded in this study. Thus, in 1900, the region 
actually produced 71 per cent of our domestic iron and steel. 
The following figures show the proportion of iron to other manu- 
factures in certain towns : 

McKeesport, Pa 92 per cent 

Youngstown, Ohio 81 per cent 

Johnstown, Pa 79 per cent 

Joliet, 111 48 per cent 

Pittsburg, Pa 44 per cent 

The low percentage for Pittsburg is explained by the fact that 
a great city must always have a considerable variety of industries, 
even though best known by one. 

164. Causes of concentration. The more common causes for 
"localization of industry " are summarized by a writer in the 
census of 1900 as follows : 

1 . Nearness to materials (including fuel) 

2. Nearness to markets 

3. Water power 

4. Favorable climate 

5. Supply of labor 

6. Capital available for investment 

7. Momentum of an early start 

These principles having been stated, other industries will be 
taken up and the principles applied. It is useful to the student 
of commercial geography to know first the facts of distribution, 
that is, where industries are ; and second, to inquire why they 
are so placed, with care to see that commonly not one cause but 
two or more are or have been influential in varying degrees. 

165. fcnit goods. In this industry there is considerable con- 
centration. A visitor to the towns of the Mohawk and middle 

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Hudson rivers in New York would find many large mills and a 
great body of operatives trained to the use of highly elaborate 
machinery. The Empire State makes more than one third of 
the knit goods manufactured in the United States, and is the 
center, although Philadelphia is a larger producer than any other 
single city. Cohoes and Amsterdam in New York are second 
and third, and Lowell, Massachusetts, is fourth. Cohoes and 
Amsterdam differ from both Philadelphia and Lowell in being 

Fig. 120. Operatives in knitting mill, Amsterdam, New York 

more especially devoted to the knitting industry, the share of the 
total output of local industries being 43 per cent in Cohoes, 37 
per cent in Amsterdam, and but 2.6 per cent in Philadelphia. 
As before, it is a difference between a center of special industry 
and a center of general industry. This type of manufacture 
began in Philadelphia in 1698, with the coming of expert knit- 
ters from the German Palatinate. The industry in eastern New 
York is much younger. In 1832 a Cohoes manufacturer in- 
vented a power knitting machine, which largely promoted the in- 
dustry. In Cohoes 75 per cent of the power used is derived from 

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the Mohawk River, whose waters fall 70 feet at that place. Am- 
sterdam, on the Mohawk, 33 miles from Albany, appears to have 
developed the industry because of nearness to Cohoes, having a 
small water power but chiefly using coal. This industry is now ex- 
tensive in the cities of Utica and Little Falls in central New York. 
166. Collars and cuffs. This product offers the most com- 
plete case of concentration supplied by the industries of the 
United States. The whole product in 1900 was valued at $i$r 
769,000, of which the state of New York was credited with 
$15,703,000, or 99.6 per cent. Of the total, the single city of 

Troy produced 
8 5 -3 per cent, 
most of the re- 
mainder being 
made in Glens 
Falls. Collars 
and cuffs pro- 
vide almost half 
of the industry 
of Troy. The 
last cause of con- 
centration stated 

in the census report as above quoted, applies forcibly here. 
There is no reason in the location itself why collars and cuffs 
should be made in a particular town on the Hudson River, rather 
than at any other place accessible to eastern markets. There was 
an early and favorable start at Troy, and the business there gained 
the reputation of being profitable. Detached collars and cuffs are 
said to have been invented there, and this added popularity to 
the trade. Skilled operatives were trained, machinery was in- 
vented, and buyers formed the habit of looking thither for their 
supplies. Capital interested in this industry went there, rather 
than experiment in a place unknown to the trade. The very at- 
mosphere and life of the town became pervaded by this single 
industry. Laundries in many towns were called Troy laundries, 
to take advantage of the fame of the place in this respect. 


— ^V Glens Falls 

, J/1 

' -little Falls J 

, (gr\ f 

_ r ^^W Amsterdam 



/* ^ 


,UFF8 -v. 

ISchenectady" ^>-^ 
J Cohoes^ 


6 6 l'o ft 

# 0L0VE8 

~ / ~~^ AV^ Albany w 

* Troy 

Fig. 121. Centers of production of collars and cuffs, 
gloves, and knit goods in eastern New York 

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167. Gloves. In this product New York supplies another con- 
spicuous illustration of concentration. Gloversville and Johns- 
town are small cities in Fulton County, New York, and are 

Fig. 122. Preparation of skins, Gloversville, New York 

situated a few miles north of the Mohawk River, close to the 
southern border of the Adirondack Mountains. The following 
statement is taken from the census report of 1900 : 

381 glove factories in the United States 
243 glove factories in the state of New York 
166 glove factories in Fulton County 
10 1 glove factories in Gloversville 
49 glove factories in Johnstown 

$16,000,000, total product in the United States 
9,380,000, total product in Fulton County 
6,350,000, total product in Gloversville 

Thus a single small city of 20,000 people made about 40 per 
cent of all the gloves produced in the United States. Johnstown 
adjoins Gloversville, although a separate municipality. Both may 
properly be taken as one center, and thus the percentage of the 
total becomes nearly 59. The whole industrial life of the two 

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towns is centered in gloves. In the lobby of the chief hotel one 
may see glove and leather men from all states and all lands. 
On almost every street are factories, some large, and often small 
establishments in the rear of dwellings. Racks are hung with 
skins in various stages of preparation. Everywhere in the sur- 
rounding country for a dozen miles sewing machines are in oper- 
ation in country houses, where women add to the income of the 
household by sewing the gloves cut in town and distributed and 

Fig. 123. Cutting room of glove factory, Gloversville, New York 

gathered by teams at intervals of a few days. A few factories 
are located in adjoining villages, and the whole region is given 
to the business. 

Localization is not due to any nearness of raw material or of 
freight, for these towns are subject to the rates of a single local 
railway company. Freights, however, are less important for 
gloves than for products of greater weight or bulk and less 
value, such as grain, coal, or crude ore. Again census cause 
number 7 is all-important, — the momentum of an early start. 
Sir William Johnson brought from Scotland emigrants skilled in 
this art. They had been members of the glove guild in Perth- 
shire, and a small town not far from Johnstown now bears the 
name of Perth. In 1809 gloves were first taken to a market 

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beyond the home neighborhood. A bag of gloves was taken to 
Albany and sold at a profit, and so the industry was stimulated. 
In 1825 Elisha Judson took a lumber wagon loaded with gloves 
to Boston. He was gone six weeks and brought back to his 
employers $600 in silver coin, whereby the business received 
another impulse. Foreign skilled workers continued to come 
in, the native inhabitants learned proficiency, capital sought the 
place, and the trade centered here. It is said to be difficult to 




| Lees than $10 to sq. mile \ 

j «io to lino " " « \y 
■■tioo to 41000 " " " 
(H $1000 and over" 

Fig. i 24. Distribution of the manufacture of boots and shoes 

persuade skilled glove makers to go elsewhere. Chicago pro- 
duced in the census year gloves to the value of over #2,000,000, 
and thus ranked next to Fulton County, but this would be but 
a small incident in a great industrial focus like Chicago. 

168. Boots and shoes. Eastern Massachusetts is the Ameri- 
can center of this industry, and had nearly all of it until the 
nineteenth century was far advanced. In the census of 1900 
Massachusetts reported $11 7,000,000 out of a total of $26 1 ,000,- 
000. There have been recent advances in other states, but this 
progress in some degree belongs to the adjoining parts of New 
Hampshire and Maine. In 1890 Massachusetts made 53 per 
cent of the product, but in 1900 had dropped to 45 per cent, 

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showing a tendency to diffuse the industry. The concentration 
in cities is marked. Brockton, Massachusetts, was first, Lynn 
second, and Haverhill third. Men's shoes prevail in Brockton 
factories and women's shoes in those of Lynn, showing still 
closer specializing. Many shoes are made in Philadelphia, 
Brooklyn, Rochester, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis, but 
none of these cities made much more than half of the value 
credited to any one of the three leading shoe towns of 

The industry began in Lynn in 1636. The shoes of the 
continental army were made in Massachusetts and were con- 
sidered as good as if made in England. To-day the United 
States sets the standard for the world in shoes. In 1795 Lynn 
had 200 master workmen and 600 journeymen and turned out 
300,000 pairs of women's shoes. Eastern Massachusetts has had 
the " momentum of an early start." It was long favored by the 
local manufacture of leather, but the westward movement of 
leather tanning and dressing tends to draw the shoe industry with 
it. On the other hand, the local reputation for shoes, the capital 
invested, and the skill acquired tend to hold the manufacture 
where it is. The highest degree of absorption in this single 
industry is seen at Brockton, where the percentage is 75. 

169. Silk. Paterson, New Jersey, is the center of silk manu- 
facture in the United States. This does not mean that Paterson 
makes nearly all American silk, for the percentage of the total in 
1900 was 24.2, or $26,000,000 out of $107,000,000. But no 
other center approached Paterson, the second being New York, 
with value between 6,000,000 and 7,000,000. The interesting 
fact about this example of concentration is that it is far from the 
source of the raw material, which must all be brought across the 
sea. Paterson is said to owe its rank to its nearness to New 
York, the greatest American market for silk. It was favored 
by the water power of the Passaic River and has attracted skilled 
labor from Italy and other parts of Europe. 

170. Glass. Nearly two thirds of the American glass product 
is made in Pennsylvania and Indiana, New Jersey and Ohio 

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ranking third and fourth. Good fuel is the essential factor in 
glassmaking. Coal and gas are used in Pennsylvania, and the 
development in Indiana has depended chiefly on supplies of 
natural gas, which is especially adapted to this manufacture. 
The two city centers are Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and Muncie, 
Indiana, but neither shows much more than 4 per cent of the 
total. Many small towns in these regions have an important 
share in the industry and contribute the greater part of the 
product. Glass sands are not uncommon and are sometimes 
derived from unconsolidated and recent formations, but often 
from ancient and compact sandstones. The localization is de- 
pendent more on fuel than upon the sands. The glass industry 
began in early colonial days and was established beyond the 
Appalachians at Pittsburg so early as 1796. In recent years 
there has been great advance both in quantity and quality of 
the product, as well as a decrease of importations. 

171. Pottery. Ohio, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, in the 
order given, are the first producers, making two thirds of 
the domestic product. Trenton, New Jersey, and East Liver- 
pool, Ohio, are the chief town centers. There are forty pot- 
teries in Trenton, where the industry began at an early date. 
The largest single pottery in the United States is at East Liver- 
pool, which was at one time almost an English town, owing to 
the coming of so many skilled workers in pottery from the 
mother country. The location of the industry at these two points 
does not seem to be due to the presence of raw material, ex- 
cept as coarser clays favored the very beginnings. Then skilled 
labor was attracted, and clays for the finer wares were brought 
from a distance. English clays, for example, are brought to 
Trenton at low cost because ships bearing heavy cargoes east- 
ward are glad to ballast at low rates for the westward voyage. 
It is said that it costs as much to bring a ton of clay by rail 
from beds in New Jersey and Delaware, or even "sagger" 
clay from pits four miles away, as it does to transport a ton 
of the finer clays frdm England to New York City. There- 
fore this industry also illustrates the principle that accessibility 

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by ship or rail may be as favorable as actual nearness of raw 
material or market. 

172. Agricultural implements. Illinois, Ohio, and New York 
hold the larger part of this fields of manufacture, but Illinois 
produces twice as much as the other two states combined, its 
output amounting to $42,000,000, or 44.5 per cent of the 
total. There has also in recent years been an increase in Illi- 
nois and a decrease in Ohio and New York, thus showing 


// c 

— \ ) I^-^y^ 

\ rrr^i _jj 

v. ■ \ \ / J \1*h 

1 1 V 7 !^ 


1 1 \ I 

^ Lees than $10 to sq. mile Vy 

F IsiOtoSHK) «« « 
HJItlOGtoeiOOO «« « 


Fig. 125. Distribution of the manufacture of agricultural implements 

that the industry is moving westward, following the movement 
of agriculture in that direction. Chicago is the greatest city 
center, producing to the amount of $25,000,000, or more than 
five times as much as its nearest rival, Springfield, Ohio. Chi- 
cago is near the grain fields, and is well placed for supplies 
of coal, hard wood, and iron. Both raw materials and markets 
are either near, or are made accessible by the best means of 
transportation. In 1880 Springfield produced as much as Chi- 
cago. Being a small center largely given to one industry, 41.3 
per cent of its manufactured output is agricultural machinery, 
while Chicago shows but 2.8 per cent, because it is a vast 
center of general industry. Racine, Wisconsin, Auburn, New 

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York, and South Bend, Indiana, are highly specialized, but to 
a less degree than Springfield. 

173. Center of manufactures. The foregoing examples suffi- 
ciently illustrate the principles involved in concentration. Changes 
in any of the factors which lead to the concentration of particu- 
lar industries (sect. 164) will tend to shift the special centers. 
Thus the development of water power, of skilled labor, and of 
local markets aids in moving cotton manufacture from New 
England to the South. The westward movement of boot and 
shoe making and of the manufacture of agricultural implements 
has already been interpreted in similar ways. Here, therefore, 
the principle of constant geographic adjustment is introduced 
and illustrated. It may finally be observed that manufacturing 
as a whole predominates in the eastern United States, where a 
considerable share of the raw materials is found, where there 
has been time to develop the required skill, and where the larger 
populations and greater markets are located. In the census of 
1900 the center of population was in Indiana, but the center of 
manufacture was eastward, in central Ohio. 

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2 4 6 8 10 IS 

ChanntU: __ 

Light Haute*; * 
Light V* a »eU: -& 
40°50' Lighted Buoys; * 
Oiktr Buoy*: , 


s y - 

W ^ l\»|^ 



Fig. 126. New York harbor and its approaches 

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174. Introductory statement. In Chapter XII the concentra- 
tion of single industries was studied. In some cases the industry 
made most of the business of a town, as collars and cuffs in 
Troy or pottery in East Liverpool. In other cases a large con- 
centration of a single interest formed but a fraction of the man- 
ufactures of a city, as agricultural machinery in Chicago or knit 
goods in Philadelphia. Chicago and Philadelphia are therefore 
general centers, with a large variety of industries and a diverse 
trade. To the growth of such centers the present chapter is 
given. New York, Chicago, and St. Louis are taken at the out- 
set, the first being an ocean port, the second a lake port, and 
the third a river port. 

175. New York. This city was first built on an island, a con- 
dition useful for defense in early days, and now an advantage 
for the extent of water front. It is also a hindrance to growth, 
making transportation to the outlying boroughs and suburbs 
difficult. This is remedied as much as possible by bridges and 
tunnels. The harbor is the best in the New World and offers 
some hundreds of miles of wharfage. The route to Europe is 
shorter than from Philadelphia and Baltimore, but a little longer 
than from Boston. The city is as well placed as any rival for 
the vast coasting trade. The region tributary to a city's trade is 
often called its hinterland. There is always a local hinterland 
whose relations to a great city are close, whose gardens and 
dairies supply much that the city needs, and whose towns and 
cities contribute to the trade of their greater neighbor. 

The highlands come so close to the sea at New York that 
its local hinterland is smaller than that of Boston, or Philadel- 
phia, or Baltimore. But New York's greater hinterland reaches 


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to the Great Lakes, the prairies, and to the Rocky Mountains. 
The Hudson River is navigable for 150 miles. The Mohawk 
valley offers a pass in the Appalachians, at an altitude of but 
445 feet. The Erie Canal, finished in 1825, made the rich region 
of western New York tributary to the city of New York, and 
the Great Lakes led to the heart of the prairies. Soon the rail- 
roads joined lakes, prairies, and Great Plains to New York, and 
thus, by the North Atlantic, to the markets of Europe. Its place 
upon the national and international highway is the chief expla- 
nation of New York's greatness. It is also favored by the near- 
ness of Pennsylvania coal. 

New York passed Philadelphia in export trade in 1 789, and 
at length outstripped its rivals in interior trade because the 
Mohawk route was easier than those of the Susquehanna and 
Potomac. In 1823 the foreign immigration to New York ex- 
ceeded that of its three rivals combined, and in 1850 the city 
had more than 500,000 people. 

Following these causes of growth, it is easy to see how manu- 
factures and commerce grew also. The growing population made 
an important market at home. Imported raw materials were 
brought there, manufactured, and sent to interior markets. In- 
terior products came to New York and were shipped to Europe. 
The more factories there were, the more people were required 
to operate them. The more goods were transshipped, the larger 
was the population required for such traffic. The increase of 
immigration gave the manufacturer an abundant supply of cheap 
labor, and cheap labor and a large market attracted more capital 
and more industries. These principles are not peculiar to New 
York, but operate in favor of every industrial center. Financial, 
social, educational, and literary advantages attract to every great 
city, and the opportunity for labor and for amusement brings 
many. Thus the local market grows and the relations to sur- 
rounding territory become closer. 

From 1900 to 1905, there were 1596 new manufacturing estab- 
lishments started in New York. There were 20,839 establishments 
in 1905, representing 291 industries out of 339 classifications 

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used by the Census Bureau. New York makes one tenth of all 
the manufactured products of the United States. Only two other 
cities had totals which equaled the clothing industry alone in 
New York. The value of this product for the city in 1905 was 
$305,000,000. Printing and publishing ranked as the second 
industry, and no other American city approaches New York in 
this respect. Twenty-six other industries in New York each re- 
ported a product valued at more than $10,000,000, while tobacco, 
slaughtering, bakery products, and malt liquors each exceeded 
$40,000,000. Sugar and molasses, copper refining, and petro- 
leum refining aggregated more than $150,000,000, but are not 
given individually because each was represented by one vast es- 
tablishment, and it is the policy of the census not to give figures 
which reveal the extent of the business of a single concern. If 
all the manufactures of the region closely dependent on a great 
city are included, the totals are greatly increased, so that the 
above figures do not fully express New York's industrial great- 
ness. The interests centering in New York make it the finan- 
cial and banking center of the entire country. 

176. Chicago. This center had in its beginnings no local 
advantages, for its ground was low and wet. It was, however, 
inevitable that a city would develop at the head of Lake Michi- 
gan, and the actual place was determined by the entrance of the 
small Chicago River, whose lower part affords a certain amount 
of harborage. 

The advantages of the site may be briefly stated. Being at the 
southern end of Lake Michigan, Chicago is at the head of lake 
navigation for the central United States. Duluth, at the head 
of Lake Superior, is too far north, but would, in like manner, 
command a vast region if the Canadian prairies were not in 
another country. All eastern land traffic from Wisconsin, Iowa, 
Minnesota, and the more distant Northwest must pass around 
Lake Michigan, and hence is tributary to Chicago. In addition, 
all of the upper Mississippi Valley is accessible to Chicago, and 
is a region of easy grades for railways, of suitable surfaces for 
agricultural machinery, and has rich soil and mineral resources. 

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Perhaps no other city in any land has so important a local hin- 
terland, combined with such facilities for shipment both by land 
and water. It has been said that Chicago is at the western ter- 
minus of the Erie Canal, and it is on the trunk line of commu- 
nication which leads from western Europe to New York, to the 
Pacific coast, and to eastern Asia. In addition to these conditions 
Chicago has been guided and built by men of progress and energy. 

Fig. 127. Chicago and vicinity. Soundings are given in feet 

Like New York, Chicago has breadth of industry, but its in- 
dustries are more dependent on surrounding lands than are 
those of New York. Chicago had 8159 manufacturing plants 
in 1905, with total products valued at $955,000,000. Slaugh- 
tering and meat packing were first, with nearly $270,000,000, 
which was not far below the total for clothing in New York. 
Chicago reported seventeen other industries, with outputs each 
in excess of $10,000,000. Some of the larger were clothing, 
foundry and machine-shop products, iron and steel, cars, electrical 
machinery and agricultural implements, and lumber. Of all 
thus far named, the meat, metal, and lumber industries depend 

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on the accessibility of raw materials to Chicago. Men's and 
women's clothing made nearly $65,000,000, a little more than 
one fifth of New York's product. Printing and publishing 
amounted to $48,000,000, as compared with about $1 16,000,000 
for greater New York for the same year (1905). 

177. St. Louis. This city has the most commanding posi- 
tion of any American center so far as river navigation is con- 
cerned. Being on the Mississippi below the entrance of the 
Missouri and above the mouth of the Ohio, it is peculiarly ac- 
cessible to the entire Mississippi system of waters and to the 
lands over which they flow. These lands extend from the Rocky 
Mountains to the Appalachians, and from the Gulf almost to 
the Great Lakes. In early days St. Louis was commercially 
important as a fur depot, and then as a distributing point of 
supplies for the Southwest, particularly by the Santa Fe Trail. 
It had a large steamboat trade in the middle of the last cen- 
tury, or until railroads absorbed the traffic. St. Louis was in a 
good position for a railway center, and it now vies with 
Chicago as a point of arrival and departure between the East 
and the West. The first important industry was in meat and 
flour, and these are still large interests. Southern Missouri is a 
region of rich and varied mineral resources, which are tributary 
to the chief town of the state. Close at hand also are the great 
tobacco fields in the region across the Mississippi to the east- 
ward. There is also timber in Missouri and several adjoining 
states, and plentiful coal in Illinois and Iowa. The industries 
are varied, and no single item is as prominent as is clothing in 
New York or slaughtering in Chicago. As in many other cities, 
facility of transportation is the largest factor, the city having 
formerly prospered through river traffic, as it now thrives by 
railway traffic. 

178. Principles affecting the growth of centers of general 
industry. These principles cannot be fully classified or stated, 
but' the following have special importance : 

1. Suitable local site. This is, however, not a controlling 

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2. Facility of transportation. This is the main condition, 
and belongs to places through which people must pass, and to 
which or through which they naturally send their products. 
This central character as regards accessibility of wide surround- 
ing lands belongs to Chicago and St. Louis, and to New York 
in even a larger way, as being between the United States and 
Europe. New York harbor, by its excellence, and the Hudson- 
Mohawk route have determined which Atlantic port should be 
the greatest. 

3. Importance of the hinterland, which is made accessible 
by good routes. This is involved in the second principle. 

4. Conditions for manufacture, such as power, quality of 
water and of the atmosphere, or the presence of raw materials. 
Here, however, transportation makes a center less dependent 
on local conditions. 

5. Attraction of cities, with their schools, libraries, amuse- 
ments, opportunities for capital and labor, and the fascination 
of stir and of large bodies of people. 

6. Political causes. Washington is an example, or Indian- 
apolis. In the latter case the state capital was central to a rich 
region, has become a great railroad center, and has largely out- 
grown the fact that it is a state capital. Columbus and Des 
Moines are similar examples. 

All these principles have to do with growth. The more peo- 
ple congregate the more industries must arise ; and, conversely, 
the more industries develop, the more people assemble around 
them to man them and be supported by them. If there are 
facilities for a particular sort of manufacture, then industry be- 
comes specialized, as in Pittsburg ; but never can a great city 
be so largely given to one industry as is Gloversville to gloves 
or Fall River to cotton. A great city must have varied indus- 
tries, a condition which may, or may not, belong to a small city. 
Some places have been special centers when young, but have 
wider interests as they grow larger. Thus Rochester was once 
the " flour " city and Syracuse chiefly made salt, while these are 
now minor interests, and industry in both places is diversified. 

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179. Atlantic ports other than New York. Boston, Phila- 
delphia, and Baltimore will be considered. In early days there 
were several important ports in eastern Massachusetts, as Salem, 
Boston, and Plymouth. Boston gained precedence as larger 
ships sought the deepest harbor and the railroads chose it as a 
terminal. The Boston and Albany Railroad and the Hoosac 
Tunnel Route gave Boston a share of the Western trade, but 
it has been truly pointed out that her relation to all New Eng- 
land is the main factor in her growth. The capital and manage- 
ment of most New England mills center in Boston. The leather 
and rubber industries lead, while slaughtering is third (for the 
industrial district of Boston), notwithstanding remoteness from 
the stock-raising region. Fine metallic goods, such as tools, 
watches, and jewelry, are manufactures appropriate to an old 
and highly developed industrial community. 

Philadelphia and Baltimore have the advantage of deep tidal 
waters, bearing the largest ships far inland. At an early date 
both had well-built earth roads to Pittsburg and the Ohio valley, 
and these were succeeded by the Pennsylvania and the Balti- 
more and Ohio railway systems. Both likewise have rich hin- 
terlands in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland. Various 
textile industries and the refining of sugar and petroleum are 
characteristic industries of Philadelphia, while locomotives and 
shipbuilding hold no small place. Typical industries of Balti- 
more are the manufacture of tobacco, and the canning of fruit, 
vegetables, and oysters. 

180. Pacific coast centers. Here good harborage has deter- 
mined the sites of the chief towns, and has drawn to them the 
railroads from the East and sent out from them lines of com- 
merce across the Pacific. San Francisco on San Francisco Bay, 
Portland on the tidal waters of the Willamette and Columbia 
rivers, and Seattle on Puget Sound are the great and growing 
centers in this region. All have rich and extensive valleys as 
a local hinterland, with a larger background reaching eastward 
to the Rocky Mountains. All are developing Pacific trade, and 
Seattle especially is brought into close relation with the growing 

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trade of Alaska. There is no great and leading industry in 
San Francisco, but a variety of manufactures to suit the general 
needs of the Pacific coast region. Such are the foundry, slaugh- 
tering, printing, clothing, canning, and lumber industries. Lum- 
ber industries lead in Portland, as might be expected, followed 
by flour, slaughtering, foundry, bakery, and printing. Similar 
conditions prevail in Seattle, where, however, flour is the largest 
item of manufacture. 

181. Great Lake centers other than Chicago. Two of these 
are on Lake Erie, one at its foot and the other on its south 
shore. Cleveland shows the effect of special transportation re- 
lations, which bring to it coal and iron, and the iron industries 
are foremost, including iron and steel, steel bridges and build- 
ings, metal-working tools and machines, carriage and vehicle 
hardware, automobiles, vapor stoves, gas ranges, and ships. 
In addition there are 134 foundries and many machine shops. 
Cleveland in 1905 was the chief manufacturing city of Ohio, 
slightly surpassing Cincinnati for the first time. Petroleum 
refining is another large industry made possible by the neigh- 
borhood of a great oil region and favored by pipe-line trans- 
portation of the crude oil and water carriage of the refined 

Buffalo has a rich local hinterland in western New York, and 
is preeminent in its advantages of transportation, with several 
trunk lines of railway, the Erie Canal, and the entire sweep of 
the Great Lakes. If the Barge-Canal enterprise in New York 
is successful, Buffalo will be yet more favored. The city has 
also a unique situation for power, by reason of Niagara, which 
is but 20 miles distant. It is indeed the opinion of certain ex- 
perts in England that the great manufacturing city of the future 
will be oh the banks of the Niagara River. Flour, slaughtering, 
and iron are the first items of Buffalo industry, and the last is 
growing rapidly. It is claimed that more than enough is saved 
on ore and limestone to offset Pittsburg's advantage in coal, and 
within a few years iron companies employing thousands of men 
have established themselves there on the shores of Lake Erie. 

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Detroit is at a point where the stream of Great Lake traffic is 
crossed by great railways leading from east to west. Its special 
hinterland is the southern peninsula of Michigan. It now has 
a smaller share of lake traffic than formerly, because much 
shipping passes from Lake Superior to Lake Michigan and to 
ports on Georgian Bay. The manufactures are widely varied. 
Milwaukee has an important tributary region in the great state 
of Wisconsin, and its leading industry is the making of malt 
liquors, followed by leather and iron. Duluth and Superior 
handle grain, iron ore, and coal. 

182. River centers other than St. Louis. Cincinnati, Louis- 
ville, and New Orleans are here taken. Cincinnati is naturally 
compared with Pittsburg, both being on the Ohio River, though 
the output of manufactures is much greater in Pittsburg than in 
Cincinnati. The latter has no such leading industry as ironwork 
is for Pittsburg. It is also compared with Cleveland, which it 
about equals in industrial products. Its situation is due to the 
entrance of the Miami upon the Ohio valley, and, as in every 
other example, transportation is a main cause for growth. It 
is on the Ohio River, is the terminus of a canal leading to 
Lake Erie, has attracted to itself many railroads, and is on the 
main avenue from the Northern to the Southern states between 
the Appalachians and the Mississippi River. It has large slaugh- 
tering and meat industries, though not relatively so large since 
the grazing regions have pushed westward. Liquors exceed the 
animal industries, and Cincinnati, like St. Louis, is on the borders 
of the greatest American tobacco fields. 

Louisville was determined originally by the falls of the Ohio 
River and the former break in river trade at that point. It was 
on the line of all early movements westward from Philadelphia 
and Baltimore, and had river trade with New Orleans and the 
West Indies. Its industries depend much on the raw materials 
of the neighborhood. Thus the larger items are tobacco and 
whisky, the latter being related to surrounding grain fields and 
to the quality of the water. Cooperage follows upon whisky, 
and this, with other wood industries, is favored by neighboring 

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forests of hard wood. New Orleans is greater in the commer- 
cial than in the industrial way, and ranks at once as a river 
center and a seaport. The improvement of the Mississippi 
River, the opening of the Panama Canal, and the new devel- 
opment of the South will all favor its growth and may lead to 
very great enlargement. 

183. Other cities. Omaha, Kansas City, Denver, and Los 
Angeles are chosen. All of these except Los Angeles are on 
considerable streams, though Denver is far up the South Platte, 
and in no case does water transportation play a large part. 
The first transcontinental railroad crossed the Missouri River 
at Omaha and made it the chief city of Nebraska. Including 
South Omaha, it has one great industry, — meat packing, — the 
product amounting in 1905 to $65,000,000. In like manner 
Kansas City (Missouri and Kansas) has a large animal industry, 
but also has many others of moderate size for the supply of a 
local but important region. 

Denver is at the eastern front of the Rocky Mountains, is the 
capital of Colorado, and is the financial center of the great min- 
ing interests of this state. It is also a center of general industry 
for a wide region of the Rocky Mountains and adjoining plains. 
Los Angeles, like Detroit, is a center of general industry. As 
with Denver it is favored by large development of through rail- 
way lines, and is the local center for southern California. 

184. Industrial districts. The United States census has 
studied a dozen of the greater American cities by including 
with the city proper the surrounding region and adjacent towns 
whose manufactures are so closely related to it as really to belong 
to it. Viewed in this way, Boston may be regarded as having 
more than 1,350,000 people, or more than twice the population 
shown for the city itself. In like manner New York would 
have at the present time nearly or quite 6,000,000 people. 
The census of 19 10 gives Greater New York a population of 
4,766,883. Across the Hudson River in New Jersey is a region 
of almost continuous settlement, extending many miles from New 
York. In this suburban region the cities having a population of 

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more than 25,000 each, aggregate about 1,000,000 people, 
who would naturally be citizens of the metropolis if a state 
boundary did not intervene. In like manner many towns and 
cities in New York and Connecticut are close to the greater city. 
Twelve such districts may be taken, including New York, 
Chicago, Philadelphia, Boston, Pittsburg, St. Louis, Baltimore, 
Cincinnati, Buffalo, Minneapolis, St. Paul, and San Francisco. 
Considering the 10 leading industries of each for 1905, foundry 
and printing alone appear in all. Clothing appears in 10, slaugh- 
tering in 10, liquors in 9, and tobacco in 5. Slaughtering is 
first in Chicago, St. Louis, and San Francisco. Clothing is 
first in New York and Baltimore, and textiles lead in Philadel- 
phia. Iron and steel are first in Pittsburg, Cleveland, and Buffalo, 
while boots and shoes hold first rank in Boston, liquors in Cin- 
cinnati, and flour in Minneapolis. 

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185. Fundamental to industry and commerce. Transportation 
is the one factor which can never be spared. Without it a city 
like New York could not exist, for its people could neither get 
food, nor materials for their shops and factories. Without it 
the Western prairies and plains could have but a scattering peo- 
ple, for the grain and cattle could not be marketed and manu- 
factured products could not come in. Life would be reduced to 
the primitive stage. Civilization means variety of food, clothing, 
furniture, utensils, objects of art, and leisure to do one thing 
well. Exchange of products alone makes this possible. The 
higher life of man is therefore built on transportation. This 
principle is thus given by Macaulay : " Of all inventions, the 
alphabet and the printing press alone excepted, those inventions 
which abridge distance have done most for civilization." 

186. The old era of waterways and earth roads. The first 
highways were streams followed by the small boats of the ex- 
plorer and settler. The first earth roads were improved trails 
connecting settlements in the same colony. Then larger roads 
joined settlements in different colonies, until there was some 
sort of a road from Massachusetts to Georgia. There was a time 
when it took a freight wagon 115 days and cost its owner $1000 
to go from Boston to Savannah. 

The most important waterways of the colonial time were as 
follows : (1) the Hudson-Mohawk, with a carry from Fort Orange 
(Albany) to Schenectady, continuing by the Oswego River to 
Lake Ontario and Niagara or by the Seneca River to western 
New York ; (2) the Susquehanna, from Baltimore and Chesa- 
peake Bay to western New York ; (3) the Potomac, James, and 
other tidal rivers of Virginia ; (4) the Ohio from Pittsburg, and 


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the lower Mississippi. In the second half of the eighteenth 
century, 1750 to 1800, several roads were laid out, reaching 
across the Appalachian highlands. Among these were the 
Genesee Road, continuing the road up the Mohawk into western 
New York ; the Forbes Road, completed in the time of the 
French and Indian War, and continuing the Philadelphia and 
Lancaster turnpike westward by way of Bedford to Pittsburg ; 

Fig. 129. The Mauretania in New York bay 

the Wilderness Road, continuing the road through the valley of 
Virginia and crossing through the Cumberland Gap to Kentucky 
and the Ohio River. 

187. Turnpikes and canals from 1800 to 1850. The need 
of joining the regions east and west of the Appalachians by 
good highways was understood by Washington and other states- 
men early in the history of the national government. If men 
and products could not go freely between the Atlantic coast and 
the Mississippi Valley, there was danger of estrangement and 
separation. There was an improved road built by the state of 
Maryland from Baltimore up the Potomac to Cumberland. In 
1 8 1 1 the national government began to build from that point the 
National Road, which ran to Brownsville on the Monongahela 

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to Wheeling, to Columbus, and into Indiana. It was the best 
long road in America at that time, and was for the freights and 
mails of a hundred years ago what railways are to-day. 

There was keen interest in canals. The Erie Canal was 
begun in 18 17 and finished in 1825. It revolutionized New 
York and did much to develop the West. By 1835 there was 
through service from Philadelphia to Pittsburg. It was by rail 
to the Susquehanna River, by boat on the river and a canal to 
Hollidaysburg, by the portage railway (horses and stationary 
engines) to Johnstown, and by canal to Pittsburg. In 1828 the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal was begun at Georgetown, near 
Washington. It was carried westward in order to connect with 
the Ohio River. It was never dug beyond Cumberland, Mary- 
land. Additional canals fed the Erie in New York and joined 
the Lakes to the Ohio and Mississippi in Ohio and Illinois. 
This was the first great epoch of canal building in America. 

188. Railways and river traffic to the time of the Civil War. 
The period of the earth roads and canals passed quickly, because 
inventions brought in the steam engine and the iron road. The 
Baltimore and Ohio Railway was begun at Baltimore in 1828, 
the year of the beginning of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. 
In 1853 the first train from the East passed over this road into 
Wheeling, on the Ohio River. The first link of the present 
New York Central Railroad was between Albany and Schenec- 
tady, and the u De Witt Clinton train" first ran over it in 183 1. 
In 1850 seven companies operated roads in the chain from 
Albany to Buffalo, and there was change of passengers and 
freight at each terminal. The Pennsylvania Railroad Company 
was incorporated in 1846 and ran trains from Philadelphia to 
Pittsburg in 1854. There were through rail connections from 
the Atlantic seaboard to Chicago in 1853. 

Meanwhile a vast traffic grew up on the Mississippi River 
and the Ohio by the use of stern-wheel steamboats drawing but 
a few feet of water. Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Louisville, St. Louis, 
Memphis, and New Orleans were the centers of this passenger 
and freight carriage. Since the time of the Civil War, and by 

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reason of the extension of the railroads, this traffic has declined. 
Twice as many steamboats arrived at wharves in St. Louis in 
1886 as in 1906. Through boats between St. Louis and New 
Orleans are no longer in operation. Packet boats still run from 
St. Louis to St. Paul, to Memphis, and to Waterloo, Alabama, 
on the Tennessee River ; also from Cincinnati to Pittsburg and 
Memphis. The Tennessee with its branches has 1 300 miles of 
river suited to steamboats, but the traffic is small. 

There is, however, a vast increase of barge traffic on the 
Ohio and Mississippi, dating from shortly after 1880. It is 
chiefly in coal and lumber. 

189. Railway extension and consolidation from the Civil 
War to 1890. Soon after 1850 extensive surveys were made 
for roads to the Pacific coast. Construction was interrupted by 
the panic of 1857 and by the Civil War (1861-1865), but was 
active again after 1868. The greatest growth was from 1880 
to 1890. In these ten years 70,000 miles of railroad were built, 
raising the mileage of the United States from 93,000 to 163,- 
000. The completion of the Union Pacific and the Central 
Pacific railroads in 1 869 gave the first transcontinental connec- 
tion from the Atlantic to the Pacific, the western terminal being 
San Francisco. In the same year Cornelius Vanderbilt com- 
pleted the consolidation of the short lines leading from New 
York by the Hudson River to Buffalo. 

Several systems now include the greater part of the railroads 
of the United States. These are often known by the names 
of men who have led in construction, consolidation, and man- 
agement. The Vanderbilt lines extend from Boston and New 
York to Chicago, and many branches reach out into territory 
along the main lines. They include also the Lackawanna and 
Erie roads to Buffalo, the Lake Shore and Michigan South- 
ern and the Michigan Central to Chicago, the Chicago and 
Northwestern, and others, forming a network extending to 
Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska. The Pennsylvania system in- 
cludes roads once belonging to more than 200 companies, and 
forms a network covering New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, 

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Virginia, and the three states north of the Ohio River, west- 
ward to St. Louis. 

West of Chicago and St. Louis the following are the greater 
groups : The Gould group covers the region from St. Louis to 
the Gulf of Mexico and westward to Salt Lake City, with eastern 
connections reaching Buffalo, Pittsburg, and Baltimore. The 

Fig. 130. Railway net of the United States : density greatest in the northeast; 
least in the west ; intermediate in the southeast 

Harriman group consists chiefly of the transcontinental Union 
Pacific and Southern Pacific, with extensions on the Gulf and 
the Pacific coast. The Hill group is largely developed in Illinois, 
Iowa, Nebraska, and Minnesota, and reaches the Pacific by the 
Northern Pacific and Great Northern railways, sending spurs 
northward into Canada. New England is chiefly covered by 
the Boston and Maine system in the north, and the New York, 
New Haven and Hartford system in the south. The Southern 
Railway system is the most extensive group south of the Potomac 
and Ohio rivers. 

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Railway building has gone on more slowly since 1 890. There 
are now 240,000 miles of railroad in the United States, or 
more than two fifths of the total for all lands. Steel rails were 
invented about 1867. Their greater strength has meant larger 
cars and engines, greater speed and safety, lower rates, and 
a vastly extended domestic and foreign commerce. Trunk-line 
rates are a small fraction of what they were fifty years ago, 
great cities have grown, and vast fields have come into use 
through the development of railroads. 

190. The new era of waterways. It has been found during 
the past ten years that the railroads, extensive as they are, can- 
1850 1870 1890 191 not handle all the freight 

that is provided by the 
growth of population and 
the opening of farm lands 
in the interior. Hence has 
arisen a new movement for 
the revival and perfecting 
of waterways, both canals 
and rivers. Railway rates 
will be thus regulated. The 
old canals both in this coun- 
try and Great Britain have 
often been absorbed or controlled by railroads to prevent compe- 
tition. A Pittsburg manufacturer has said that when, for any 
reason, navigation stopped on the Monongahela River, railroad 
rates rose elevenfold. Coal was carried from Pittsburg to Memphis 
in 1903 by barges at 42 cents per ton. In cars the cost was 
#3-73 P er ton. The construction of the Erie Canal is said to 
have reduced charges to one tenth of former figures. 

The supplies of iron would be conserved, for more iron is 
required for building railways and rolling stock than for con- 
structing ships. The waterways carry the bulky and cheap 
freights, in which speed of transportation is not important. To 
the railroads are left the valuable freights of small bulk and 
the perishable products, which must be carried quickly. 

Fig. 131. Increase in railway mileage in the 

United States from 1832 (229 miles) to 1908 

(240,839 miles) 

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Of 4200 miles of the older canals more than one half has 
been abandoned. The chief canals now in use are in New 
York, Ohio, Illinois, and Louisiana. The great modern canals 
are usually deep, and are short links in ocean, lake, or river navi- 
gation. Thus the Suez, Corinth, and Kiel canals join parts of 
oceans or salt seas. The St. Maiys Canal joins two of the Great 
Lakes. The Manchester Canal extends sea traffic to an inland 
city. The Panama Canal will join two oceans. The canal at 
Louisville joins the parts of the Ohio River which are above 
and below the falls. The Erie Canal is now being deepened to 
twelve feet to accommodate thousand-ton barges. It will thus be 
intermediate in character between the old and new types, and 
will be a link between the Lakes and the ocean. The Welland 
Canal is a link between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. The 
Chicago Drainage Canal is suited for ships, but, to become use- 
ful, must be prolonged by the improvement of about 300 miles 
of navigation on the Desplaines, Illinois, and Mississippi rivers. 
This would extend traffic to St. Louis, and there remains 
the improvement of the lower Mississippi River. This is one 
of the largest projects now under discussion. Such a work com- 
pleted would open the Great Lake and prairie country to the 
Gulf, and, by the Panama route, to western South America, the 
Pacific, and the Orient. It is claimed that these changes will 
regulate transcontinental freight rates in the United States. An 
important Canadian plan, which will affect the commerce of the 
United States, is to construct a canal from Georgian Bay to the 
tide waters of the St. Lawrence. 

The Panama Canal, begun under French direction and with 
French capital, is now under rapid construction by the govern- 
ment of the United States, and it is hoped that it may be open 
to ships in 191 5. It will create a new trunk line of ocean trade, 
and will no doubt be comparable in influence to the Suez Canal. 
As the latter diverted trade from the route around the Cape of 
Good Hope, so the Panama Canal will no doubt cut off most 
of the traffic around Cape Horn, and will bring the west coast of 
South and North America much nearer to the eastern United 

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k 200.08- ->j. 



J ^<^VsVV\^ J 

r* — 56-0-— ■?!' 

Fig. 134. Cross sections of well-known canals 

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States and to Europe. It is believed that transcontinental traffic 
in the United States will be relieved of the present burden of 
railway monopoly. This waterway will be a lock canal, the great 
Gatun dam serving to hold up the waters of the Chagres River 
and give lake navigation across a large part of the isthmus. 

Streams numbering 295 in the United States are considered 
navigable, making 26,400 miles of navigation. If suitable 
rivers were canalized, the length would be much greater. Thus 

Fig. 135. Electric railways about Cleveland, Ohio 

the government has placed dams and locks on the Mononga- 
hela, resulting in a vast traffic from the coal beds of West 
Virginia and Pennsylvania. The Mohawk will be in part canal- 
ized in the barge-canal improvement in New York. A further 
present difficulty with inland navigation is that rivers are of 
different depths and disconnected, discouraging traffic by costly 
transfer on land or between boats of different draft. 

191. The electric railway. Electric roads have been in oper- 
ation since 1889. By 1902 nearly all street railways in towns 
and cities had adopted this kind of power. Since 1895 inter- 
urban lines have multiplied rapidly. By electric cars one could 

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now go with little break from Chicago to New York. The 
greatest development is in the Lake and prairie states from 
Ohio westward. Hundreds of companies have been formed, 

and the roads form 

oujtmei LakeQ 

a network joining 
the towns in every 
direction. There is 
great improvement 
in the equipment 
and service within 
a few years. The 
cars are larger, the 
roadbeds smoother, 
speed is . greater, 
and there are din- 
ing, freight, express, 
and other special 
kinds of car. These 
roads have taken 
much local traffic 
from the steam 
lines, to which the 
long-distance travel 
is left. The electric 
lines are, however, 
often owned or con- 
trolled by the steam 
roads. Electric lines 
build up the subur- 
ban towns and favor the movement from city to country. To 
the farmer they offer convenient markets and schools, greater 
social opportunity, and increased valuation of property. 

192. Earth roads. The new features of transportation in- 
clude not only improved waterways and electric roads but also 
improved earth roads. In recent years both the national gov- 
ernment and many states have taken steps in this direction, and 

Fig. 136. Electric (interurban) railways of Indiana 

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thousands of miles of country roads have been improved. Sev- 
eral things have encouraged the movement. The invention of 

Fig. 137. Two animals drawing one bale of cotton over a bad road 

Fig. 138. Two horses drawing twelve bales of cotton on a macadamized road 

the bicycle caused many thousands of people to use their influ- 
ence for good roads. A like result has come more recently 
from the widespread use of the automobile. In some Western 
states the automobile is much used between the farm and the 

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market. The adoption of the plan of rural free delivery by the 
Post Office Department has been effective because the Department 
refuses to send its carriers over bad roads. The railroads see 
the value of widening the belt of farm lands from which they 
may receive passengers and freight, and in some cases have sent 
"good-roads trains " over their lines, bearing government experts 
and suitable machinery, to build sample roads and educate the 
people upon this subject. The perfecting of earth roads is a 
direct benefit to all classes of people. 

193. Express business in the United States. In the early 
days the driver of a stage often transacted small items of busi- 
ness for people living along his route, making purchases and 
delivering parcels. The express companies now do this service 
on a large scale, mainly in cooperation with the railroads. In 
foreign countries more of this work is done by the parcels post 
and by fast freight. Independent companies are usually organ- 
ized, and they pay a share of the receipts to the railways for 
cars and hauling. In smaller towns the local agent of the rail- 
way serves also as express agent. The express companies also 
issue money orders and letters of credit to travelers, and act as 
agent in many transactions, such as filing legal documents and 
passing goods through customhouses. In 1907 the express 
companies issued over 1 4,000, 000 money orders, doing more 
than one fourth as much of this business as the United States 
Post Office Department. Express mileage operated in 1907 was 
235,903, of which but 17,795 miles were on steamboat lines and 
1 1 34 by stage. The American Express Company was organized 
in 1850 and the United States and Adams companies began in 
1854. The six companies owning 92.7 per cent of all express 
mileage in the United States are as follows (1907): 

Adams 34,862 

American 42,361 

Pacific 23,661 

Southern 31, 434 

United States 30,101 

Wells Fargo & Co 43,9*4 

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194. Coast routes. The coasting trade of the United States is 
very great, and must, by law, be carried on wholly by American ves- 
sels. The coast line measures about 5 700 miles, but if all indenta- 
tions and islands are included, it amounts to more than 60,000 







Fig. 139. Gross tonnage of all vessels owned in the United States and operated 

in coastal and interior waters, 1906; by geographical divisions and classified 

as steam, sail, and unrigged. (In millions of tons) 

miles. The following statement represents, according to Profes- 
sor J. Russell Smith's " Ocean Carrier," the number of companies 
doing business from the principal Atlantic ports in 1907 : 

Boston .... 7 companies, serving 10 ports (Eastport to Jacksonville) 

New York . . 12 companies, serving 19 ports (Portland to Galveston) 

Philadelphia . . 5 companies, serving 8 ports (Boston to Savannah) 

Baltimore ... 3 companies, serving 6 ports (Boston to Savannah) 

Other routes originate at Mobile and New Orleans on the Gulf 
coast, and at San Francisco, Portland, and Puget Sound ports 
on the Pacific coast. Important types of ship have place in the 
coasting trade, such as barges for coal and steamships planned 
especially for the great fruit trade with the Gulf States and the 
West Indies. 

An inside waterway is an important project for the Atlantic 
coast traffic. The scheme involves short canals, as across Cape 

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Cod, and enlargement of the present canal from the Delaware 
to the Chesapeake. Thus by using the canals and numerous 
lagoons and bays a protected water route becomes possible 
along most of the Atlantic sea border of the United States. 

Fig. 140. Steamships in the locks at the " Soo " 

195. Great Lake routes. Duluth, Minnesota, and Ogdens- 
burg, New York, are the extreme west and east points of navi- 
gation, and the distance by the lake route between the two is 
1 22 1 miles. By reason of Niagara the heaviest traffic is con- 
fined to the four upper Lakes. The Soo Canal and the im- 
proved channels of the St. Clair River, St. Clair Lake, and the 
Detroit River give passage to large vessels down the upper 
Lakes. On account of ice, navigation is here limited to about 
seven months in the year. 

The trunk lines on the Great Lakes have been defined as 
follows : 

1 . Chief trunk line from Duluth and other ports on Lake Supe- 
rior to Toledo, Cleveland, Buffalo, and other places on Lake Erie. 

2. From Lake Michigan ports — Chicago, Milwaukee, and 
others — to Lake Erie. This line was formerly more important 

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than the preceding. The change is due to recent developments 
in iron and grain on lands tributary to the Lake Superior route. 

3. From both Lake Superior and Lake Michigan some traffic 
goes to ports on Georgian Bay. This is especially true of the 
Canadian ports, Fort William and Port Arthur. 

4. Some traffic continues from the chief trunk line by the 
Welland Canal, Lake Ontario, and the St. Lawrence River. 

2 3 








Fig. 141. Gross tonnage of all vessels by divisions, 1889 and 1906 

5. Considerable trade passes between Lake " Michigan and 
Lake Superior. 

The rivers entering the Great Lakes are short, and are un- 
important for navigation except as connecting links and as 
affording harborage. The Cuyahoga River at Cleveland and 
the Chicago River are examples of the latter use. 

196. Ocean routes. Some of the important routes of ocean 
traffic are defined by Smith in the " Ocean Carrier." First is 
the North Atlantic trunk route, from the English Channel to 
New York bay. By the Channel ships reach London, South- 
ampton, Hamburg, Bremen, Rotterdam, Antwerp, and several 
French ports. A slight diversion to the north leads to Liverpool, 
Bristol, and all Welsh ports. One sixth of all ocean shipping is 
said to pass over this route. The Mediterranean -Asiatic trunk 

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route passes through the Strait of Gibraltar and around Asia 
to Japan. It has terminals both in the English Channel and 
in New York. The large passenger and other traffic from New 
York to Naples and Genoa follows this route in part. The 
route reaching from Japan and other east Asian ports to the 
Pacific coast of the United States may be regarded as a con- 
tinuation of the Mediterranean trunk route. 

The Good Hope route extends from New York and the 
English Channel to Delagoa Bay, Australia, and New Zealand. 
It is a great track for sailing vessels. The South American 
trunk route is likewise supplied from two sources, — New York 
and neighboring ports on the one hand, and the English Chan- 
nel on the other. From Cape St. Roque there is a common 
course around South America and up its west coast, with a 
branch to New Zealand. Thus a ship leaving New York may 
go to western Europe, or to the Mediterranean, around the 
Cape of Good Hope, or to South America and the Pacific. 
The opening of the Panama Canal will work great changes in 
the movement of American commerce toward markets bordering 
the Pacific Ocean. 

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Principal transportation 

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jortatJ* 1 

routes of the world 

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197. Old and new ways. Before the days of telegraph and 
telephone a letter or messenger offered the quickest means of 
sending intelligence or making a bargain with a distant person. 
And the letter or messenger went not by fast train or steam- 
ship, but on horseback, by stage, or sailing craft. Weeks might 
be required for an answer on land, and months if correspond- 
ence were across the sea. The wars and politics of Europe 
were reported in American newspapers five or six weeks after 
the event. Commerce with Europe in ideas and in commodities 
proceeds now at no such dragging pace. Two or three weeks 
suffice for a return letter, a few minutes for answer by cable, 
and goods may come or go by fast ship in a week or less. At 
home several days were taken for a transaction now made in- 
stantaneously over a wire. A stock or grain market can be used 
daily by the whole country, and quotations at important centers 
like London, Liverpool, New York, or Chicago at once affect 
the markets of the world. 

Indirectly swift communications affect commerce in many 
ways. A daily weather service is possible only by telegraph and 
telephone, by which the observations of many observers can be 
at once gathered, plotted on maps, and sent out to the public 
from many local stations. These weather reports are especially 
important to coastwise shipping and to the farmer. Newspaper 
service has been revolutionized in the same way. Press asso- 
ciations, with agents everywhere, gather news and sell it to the 
newspapers of cities and larger towns, so that it is read within 
a few hours after the occurrence. The modern man of busi- 
ness knows at once the markets, the condition of crops, the 
new developments in mining, new organization of capital, new 


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government regulations, inventions, and the condition of public 
sentiment as affecting commercial transactions. One may seek 
a file of a newspaper of seventy-five years ago and observe the 
dates of issue as compared with the dates of occurrences. It is 
now possible for a commanding officer to control an entire cam- 
paign, knowing what has happened at each hour and transmit- 
ting his orders accordingly. Wireless telegraphy will give the 
same precision of command to naval warfare, and whether bat- 
tles are on land or sea, the nations are likely to know the events 
within twenty-four hours. Domestic convenience, the saving of 
life, and relief in disaster are all secured by swift communica- 
tion. At the time of the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 
relief began to arrive in the city in a shorter time than would 
have been required in 1850 for the news to reach the cities of 
the Atlantic coast. When Messina was destroyed houses were 
being built by American money within the time once required 
to bring the news even to London. 

198. The railway-mail service. As the railways only gradu- 
ally perfected their tracks and rolling stock and thus gained 
regularity and speed, the mails were not at once transferred 
from horseback and stage to steam cars. The first ten years of 
this slow and broken railway service were from 1830 to 1840. 
Mails sometimes made as much as fifteen miles per hour by 
stage. Stages also ran all night, while the first railway travel 
was chiefly by daylight. Heavier rails, better locomotives, better 
bridges, and the union of short lines all helped toward better 
mail service. The first night mail between Boston and New 
York was put on in i860. In the old days mail was all sorted 
at the post offices and the stages waited for the mail bags to be 
made up. This was at first common in rail service, but trains 
could not wait, and the result was that mails were left behind 
and arrived at their destinations much later than passengers. 
The essential need was the railway post office. An enterpris- 
ing mail agent at St. Joseph gained permission in 1862 to go 
to the eastern terminus of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Rail- 
road and sort the mails on the train, so that they might be ready 

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for the Western stages on arrival at St. Joseph. New cars were 
then planned and built, and the work has grown until exclusive 
mail trains with all post-office conveniences now have right of 
way and make the fastest time. These exclusive trains were first 
used about 1875 between New York and Chicago, on the New 

Fig. 142. Interior view of Southern Pacific steel postal car 

York Central system, and soon on the Pennsylvania Railroad. 
Mail in some cases is sorted and ready for city carriers on arrival. 
Not all mail goes to a central post office, but is directly trans- 
ferred from one mail train to another. 

199. Classification of mail matter. Four classes are estab- 
lished : (1) letters and sealed packages; (2) newspapers and 
other periodicals ; (3) books and other printed matter not period- 
ical ; (4) merchandise. The rate for the last is one cent per 

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ounce. Merchandise is extensively carried by mail in many for- 
eign lands. The shorter distances are there favorable to this 
policy, but it is generally believed that ample parcels-post facili- 
ties would have been adopted in the United States but for the 
influence of the great express companies upon legislation. The 
sending of money by post-office orders is extensive and pay- 
ment is guaranteed. Valuable letters and packages are regis- 
tered, thereby increasing safety, with indemnity in case of loss. 

Fig. 143. Rural free-delivery carrier and mail wagon, Fountain, Michigan 

An additional postage of ten cents insures the special delivery of 
a letter on its arrival at the post office. Official business of the 
government and its representatives is " franked," or carried free. 
Cities and towns whose postal receipts reach a certain amount 
have a free-delivery system. As countries become densely 
peopled the tendency is to establish such delivery for all. 

200. Rural free delivery. The first experimental routes were 
centered at three towns in West Virginia in 1896. By Novem- 
ber, 1899, there were 634 routes, serving nearly 500,000 peo- 
ple. One year later, in 1900, there were 2551 routes, serving 

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1,800,000 persons. At the present time the service has become 
very general throughout the United States. It has been found 
to increase the postal receipts and to enrich the conditions of 
rural life. Some saving toward the expense is made by discon- 
tinuing small post offices thus made needless. The carrier also 
delivers registered mail and may act as agent for securing money 
orders at the central post office. The service has resulted in im- 
provement of roads, in early breaking out of roads after winter 
storms, in regularity of farm supplies for towns, as well as regu- 
larity of mails. A saving of time is effected in thus organizing 
a few men to make the journey between the homes and the post 
office. There is also advantage 
in prompt knowledge of markets. 
Among many cases reported, two *o 
Kansas farmers made the annual 
price of their daily paper by in- 
creased profits on single loads ao 
of hogs, due to prompt informa- 
tion. At a post office in Ore- 
gon 13 daily papers were taken. 
Three years after the establish- 
ment of free-delivery service 
113 were taken. 

201. International postal arrangements. Under international 
compacts made in 1874 and 1878 the International Postal Union 
has an office in Bern, Switzerland, and a meeting is held every 
three years to consider questions that arise in the transmission 
of mails. Thus nearly all civilized countries are a single postal 
territory. Much has been done for uniform and cheap postage. 
Five cents or its equivalent is the usual postage for a letter not 
above one-half ounce in weight. By a recent arrangement such 
letters now pass between the United States and Great Britain on 
a postage of two cents, a rate that has long prevailed between 
the United States and Canada. 

202. The land telegraph. The first business line in the 
United States was put into operation in 1844. This kind of 


Fig. 144. Increase in the number of 

rural free-delivery routes in thousands, 


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communication falls naturally into four subdivisions : (i) commer- 
cial telegraph for the business of the general public ; (2) railroad 
lines for train dispatching and other business of the railroad 
companies; (3) government systems ; (4) municipal systems. In 
1907 there were 25 commercial companies in the United States, 
but this number includes companies owning also ocean cables. 
Much the largest controls in this business are held by the West- 
ern Union Telegraph Company and the Postal Telegraph-Cable 
Company. Over 29,000 offices were reported in 1907, of which 
22,000 were in railway stations. Including cable messages, over 
100,000,000 messages were sent in 1907. 

Train dispatching by telegraph was first put into operation by 
the Erie Railroad in 1846. It would be impossible to manage 
the heavy traffic of trunk lines at the present time, even with 
double or quadruple tracks, without such means of communica- 
tion. Several railroad companies now conduct schools of teleg- 
raphy, to provide a sufficient number of competent operators. 

Government telegraphs are used by the Signal Corps of the 
United States army, by the Weather Bureau, and by the Panama 
Canal Commission. Municipal systems principally serve the pur- 
poses of fire alarm and police patrol. 

203. The submarine telegraph. In 1902 companies in the 
United States owned 16,000 miles of submarine cable. The 
increase was very rapid during the following five years, and 
in 1907 the total was 46,000 miles. The chief new cables of 
that period were the Pacific, the New York and Havana, and 
the New York and Colon. Others were laid down, mainly 
on account of the colonial development of the United States. 
The Pacific cable extends from San Francisco to Hawaii, Guam, 
the Philippine Islands, China, and Japan. It is 8000 miles long 
and was laid in eighteen months. This is the greatest of single 
ocean cables. 

Throughout the world 252,000 miles of submarine cable were 
in use in 1904, of which 139,000 miles belonged to English cor- 
porations and 15,000 to the British government. The British 
lines include five across the North Atlantic, and a Pacific cable 

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joining Vancouver to the Fiji Islands, New Zealand, and Aus- 
tralia. The United States is in this respect second among the 
nations, and also has five lines across the Atlantic Ocean. The 
earliest ocean cable joined Dover and Calais across the English 
Channel, and was laid in 1850. 

The wireless telegraph is now in large use in the mercantile 
marine, in the armies and navies of the world, and, in a more 
experimental way, on land. Overland communication is carried 

Fig. 146. Wireless-telegraph station, Glace Bay, Nova Scotia 

on by the government between Washington and the Brooklyn 
Navy Yard. A station in California heard and took down com- 
munications held between Pensacola, Florida, and the United 
States steamship Connecticut, when the latter was off the east 
coast of Cuba ; the distance was 2800 miles. Messages were 
sent in 1902 between Cape Cod and Cornwall in southwestern 
England. Since 1907 some commercial business has been done 
between stations at Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, and Clifden, Ire- 
land. Five commercial wireless companies were reported by the 
census of the United States in 1907. The most notable service 
of wireless telegraphy to date was in summoning other ships and 
saving several hundred persons, the passengers and crew of the 

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steamship Republic, when it suffered a collision near Nantucket 
in the summer of 1908. All the greater passenger steamers 
are now equipped with wireless apparatus, and thus upon the 
frequented ocean routes are never out of communication with 
other vessels. Wireless transmission is to be regarded as in its 

205. Alaskan and insular service. In 1907 there were in 
Alaska 4000 miles of land telegraph lines and in Alaskan service 
2000 miLes of submarine cable. The principal submarine line 
runs from Seattle to Sitka. There was also a wireless system 
operating between stations 107 miles apart. It is proposed to 
arrange for wireless messages between Alaska and the mainland 
of the United States, also reaching the Yukon River and other 
parts of the interior where the maintenance of ordinary land 
lines would be difficult and costly. The Signal Corps of the 
United States army is in charge of this system. 

In the Philippine Islands service is maintained partly by the 
Signal Corps and partly by the civil government of the Islands. 
In 1907 there were in the Philippines 6000 miles of land line 
and over 1400 miles of submarine cable. In 1907 the Porto 
Rican telegraph service had 774 miles of wire and transmitted 
over 200,000 messages. A school is organized at San Juan for 
the training of operators. 

206. The telephone. Communication by telephone was in its 
infancy in 1880. At the present time the volume of business 
is much greater than that carried on by telegraph. The latter 
has been the chief means of sending messages over long dis- 
tances, but the long-distance telephone has now come into large 
use and is of growing importance. The telephone for local com- 
munication is practically universal in country, town, and city. 
The city office can at once speak with thousands of business 
houses and private homes over a radius of many miles, and the 
farmer may, without leaving his home, call not only his neigh- 
bors but all towns and cities in his own and often in neighbor- 
ing counties. A vast total of time is saved and business is trans- 
acted easily and swiftly. According to the census the telephone 

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industry was three and one-half times as large as that of the 
telegraph in 1907, and over 8,000,000 miles of wire were added 
to the telephone service of the United States in the five years 
previous to that date. In comparison, but 259,000 miles of 
wire were added to the telegraph lines in the same period. The 
totals in 1907 were : 

Telegraph wire 2,000,000 miles 

Telephone wire 13,000,000 miles 

Total 15,000,000 miles 

This length of wire would reach 600 times around the globe at 
the equator. 

207. The world's telegraphs. In 1907 there were 48 coun- 
tries having telegraphic systems under government ownership, 
and these countries contained 945,000,000 of the world's 
population. All adhere to a code of rules adopted in St. Peters- 
burg in 1875, an d an annual report is made through an Inter- 
national Telegraphic Bureau located at Bern, Switzerland. Most 
of the private telegraphic companies of the world adhere more 
or less closely to the St. Petersburg agreement. Thus the world 
is becoming one through a growing network of almost instanta- 
neous communication. The remote farmer, ranchman, or miner 
is given neighbors ; and the discoveries, the business, the battles, 
and the catastrophies of all lands become speedily known to all 
civilized men. 

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208. General objects. When the American Constitution was 
devised Congress was given power " to regulate commerce with 
foreign nations and among the several states, and with the 
Indian tribes." This was a broad provision, and many things 
are now done by the government which could not be foreseen 
in an early day. They belong to the spirit of the Constitution, 
however, and have arisen with the growth of commerce and in- 
dustry. The first need is protection against robbery or other 
forms of dishonesty. There must also be uniform standards, 
so that men need not make exchanges in the dark. Each gov- 
ernment seeks to increase the prosperity of its own country in 
forming its trade laws, but it is more and more found that all 
countries flourish or suffer together, and that world-wide coop- 
eration is the underlying principle of commerce. 

209. Weights and measures. In primitive times measures 
were derived from parts of the body, as the length of the foot, 
the length of the finger, or the width of the hand. The length 
of average grains of wheat or barley was also used, or the length 
of a pace, or the distance from the tip of the king's nose to the 
end of his thumb. Among modern sources of standards are a 
small fraction of a meridian or the length of a pendulum which 
beats seconds. A cubic inch of distilled water at a given tem- 
perature is often adopted as a standard of weight. Measures 
of contents and of weight are based on measures of length. 
Standards are actually embodied in metallic scales or measures 
of capacity, and are held in safe-keeping by the proper bureaus 
at national capitals. There is an International Bureau of Weights 
and Measures, having its headquarters in Paris ; and the Na- 
tional Bureau of Standards, of the United States, organized in 
1 90 1, is a bureau of the Department of Commerce and Labor. 


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Uniformity among nations is highly desirable, since all coun- 
tries enter so largely into international trade. To this end much 
influence has been used, that the metric system, now largely in 
use among European and South American peoples, may be 
adopted by Great Britain and the United States. In these two 
countries, as well as in Russia, Turkey, Egypt, and Japan, the 
metric system has been legalized but is not made obligatory. Error 

Fig. 147. Standard-time belts in the United States 

or dishonesty in weighing or measuring strikes at the roots of 
trade, and suitable laws and penalties are of very ancient origin. 

210. Time and the International Date Line. Before the days 
of swift transportation and instantaneous messages uniformity 
in time was not important. Now a train of cars often runs over 
so many degrees of longitude that the local time at its several 
stations varies several hours. There must be uniform time or 
delay and danger would result. 

To attain this uniformity standard-time belts have been 
adopted, especially by the railways, so that many points on the 
route keep both local and railway time. Time belts were adopted 

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in 1883 for the United States and Canada. They are reckoned 
from Greenwich, and are each 15 degrees wide, corresponding 
to an hour of time. The following names have been selected for 
the time of various meridians : 

Colonial time 60th meridian 

Eastern time 75 th meridian 

Central time 90th meridian 

Mountain time 105th meridian 

Pacific time 120th meridian 

A time belt extends 7.5 degrees each way from the chosen 
meridians. Thus central time prevails from 82.5 degrees to 
97.5 degrees. The boundaries between belts are sometimes 
curved, to save an important town from the need of keeping 
two kinds of standard time, as would happen if a city were on 
the margin of two time belts. 

In traversing the earth to the west one goes with the sun, 
and more than twenty-four hours passes between the noon of 
one day and the noon of the next. In encircling the globe this 
results in the loss of an entire day. In traversing the earth to 
the east one meets the sun, and less than twenty-four hours 
passes between midday and midday. This, in encircling the 
globe, results in gaining one entire day, or one hour for each 
15 degrees of longitude. Two persons starting from the same 
point and going around the earth in opposite directions, setting 
their watches to local time each day, would find their calendars 
two days apart on their return to the starting place. Hence a 
meridian has been chosen at which the west-going traveler will 
add one day to his calendar and the east-going traveler will sub- 
tract one day. This meridian is the International Date Line. It 
is 180 degrees from Greenwich, and was chosen because it is 
in the Pacific Ocean, as much removed as possible from impor- 
tant lands. On the principle already stated for time belts on 
land, the line is considered to bend eastward to avoid the neigh- 
borhood of New Zealand, and also eastward to pass through 
Bering Strait and thus avoid the mainland of Siberia. 

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211. Money, banking, and insurance. Commerce can be 
carried on without money, by barter, and this is the primitive 
way. But this is a clumsy method, and trade would have re- 
mained in its infancy if some medium of exchange had not 
been devised. This medium is called money. Standard articles 
of trade have been used, such as tobacco, beaver skins, sheep, 
or salt. But these were awkward forms of money, useful only 
for a single region or a short period. 

Hence gold and silver are much used because they are valu- 
able for other purposes, are durable, easily worked, and can be 
made into coins of various fixed sizes. They are understood 
also and valued by people of all nations. Baser metals, such as 
copper, nickel, and iron, serve as convenient tokens of value 
for small sums. Paper money has no value in itself, but is 
given value because it stands for gold or silver and is exchange- 
able for them. It thus is a more convenient medium of exchange. 
The nearest approach to a universal purchasing medium is gold. 
In particular, British gold coins are accepted nearly everywhere. 

In large commercial transactions, however, both in domestic 
and foreign commerce, actual money is little handled, drafts 
and bills of exchange being used. Such transfers of credit are 
carried on by the banks. Banks are often either government 
institutions or under the direct supervision and control of gov- 
ernment. Thus our national banks issue paper money, with 
payment assured by the United States, and agents of the gov- 
ernment inspect their accounts at frequent intervals. The local 
bank in a community not only furnishes a safe place of deposit 
for the surplus money of its patrons, but lends money for per- 
sonal needs and business enterprise. It is thus a means of 
gathering up the available resources of a community and mak- 
ing them useful in commerce and industry. The local depositor 
cancels his obligations by drawing personal checks on his ac- 
count at the bank, or by buying a draft at his own bank, which 
his creditor can collect at some other bank. The great banks 
of the commercial centers of the world carry on their busi- 
ness on a vast scale, and may finance great railways, and large 

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manufacturing enterprises, or may even serve the needs of nations 
which must borrow money to pay for improvements or to meet 
the costs of war. 

Insurance has an important relation to industry and trade. 
It protects against many forms of loss, being known as life, 
accident, health, fire, unemployment, fidelity and surety, and 
credit insurance. Marine insurance protects against losses at 
sea. The important principle is that many bear easily the 
burdens which would otherwise crush the few. If the owners 
of property had suffered the full loss in the great fires of 
Chicago, Baltimore, and San Francisco, disaster would have 
resulted not only for these cities but to a great variety of per- 
sons and industries in other places. The state governments 
oversee with increasing stringency the management of insur- 
ance companies. 

212. The census. The Bureau of the Census is a part of the 
Department of Commerce and Labor. The federal census of 
population was first taken in 1 790, manufacturing statistics were 
added in 18 10, and the data as to agriculture began in a partial 
way to be gathered in 1840. Very full statistics are now col- 
lected population, race, conjugal condition, disease, and mor- 
tality ; also as to defective persons, crime, pauperism, education, 
and other matters pertaining to the study of society. Agricul- 
ture and manufactures are reported in great detail, and often 
with full historical treatment. Mining, fisheries, insurance, mort- 
gages, churches, benevolence, transportation, and foreign com- 
merce all fall within the scope of the census. The national 
census is taken each decade, the enumeration of 19 10 being 
the Thirteenth Census. Many states take a census five years 
after each federal census. The Washington Bureau is, how- 
ever, always at work in the collection and publication of special 
statistics relating to industries and other matters. The census 
is therefore a mine of information for all who are interested in 
any phase of industry or of home and foreign trade. Similar 
work is done by all civilized governments, so that a world-wide 
comparison is always possible. 

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213. Geological and geographical surveys. Since 1830 an 
increasing number of states have carried on geological surveys. 
These have dealt not only with mineral resources, but with water, 
soils, plant life, and general agricultural resources. Prior to 
1879 several surveys were at work in the West, under various 
government departments. Since 1879 the present United States 
Geological Survey has undertaken the mapping and survey of 
large parts of the national domain, including Alaska. A most 
important product is in large-scale maps, already covering large 
areas, and intended ultimately to show the reliefs, drainage, and 
human features of the entire country. These maps serve as base 
maps for geological formations, mineral deposits, reclamation and 
forest data, and give information to settlers, travelers, prospec- 
tors, railway engineers, and the directors of industry. A soil 
survey and a biological survey are under the administration of 
the Department of Agriculture. 

214. Protection of health and life. Government here acts 
in close relation to industry and commerce. It makes laws 
concerning the employer's liability for injury to the employee. 
Factory inspection takes account of the safety of machinery, 
ventilation and other matters of sanitation, and of adequate fire 
escapes. In many states child labor is controlled and compulsory 
education enforced. Hours of labor are often limited by law. 
Provision is made for safety in mining. By act of Congress 
a Bureau of Mines was, on July 1, 191 o, established in the 
Department of the Interior. The special province and duty of 
this bureau is to investigate the methods of mining, especially 
with reference to the safety of miners and the prevention of 
accidents, to supervise the investigation of structural materials, 
to make tests of mineral fuels, and to investigate the treatment 
of ores and other mineral substances. 

Public health is promoted by laws relating to pure food, bev- 
erages, and drugs, and laboratories are maintained for the anal- 
ysis of sample products. There are laws against the pollution 
of water and against other nuisances. Such is the requirement 
that railroads in large cities shall use electric power, or that 

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factories shall consume their smoke. The quarantine of ports 
and of houses or towns where there are contagious diseases 
belongs to the same class of government work. General sani- 
tation on an extensive scale was carried on by the government 
at Havana, and is now in effect on the Isthmus of Panama, to 
eradicate yellow fever, typhoid fever, malaria, and other diseases. 
The effect on commerce may be seen in the shortening of quar- 
antine and the more prompt forwarding of South American 
freight. The regulation of immigration has much to do with 
public health and morals as well, as it keeps out diseased persons, 
paupers and those likely to become such, and all criminals so 
far as they can be detected. The character and number of the 
laborers admitted to the country are also under control, as in the 
case of the rigid exclusion of the Chinese. 

Safety in land transportation, whether by rail or other means, 
is an end of government. Automatic brakes and car couplings, 
the abolition of grade crossings, and the limitation of speed 
are subjects of legislation by state and municipal governments. 
Safety in navigation is promoted in a multitude of ways by gov- 
ernment aid and regulation. Some of these will be named, 
such as the registration and inspection of steam vessels and the 
licensing of ship masters. Seas and lakes are charted the world 
over, and coast lines are studied and mapped with care and skill. 
Thus the Mississippi and Missouri River Commissions and the 
United States Lake Survey operate under the engineers of the 
United States army and publish an elaborate series of maps. 
The United States Coast Survey maps the coasts and marginal 
seas with soundings in detail. The United States Hydrographic 
Office and similar bureaus of other nations are clearing houses 
for the world's knowledge of all seas. The Hydrographic Office, 
located in Washington, publishes many hundred maps, includ- 
ing pilot charts of the Atlantic and Pacific, iceberg maps, dere- 
lict maps, and bottle maps, showing the movement of ocean 

The Weather Bureau, under the Department of Agriculture, 
protects commerce on land and sea by its daily weather reports 

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Fig. 150. Lights in the region of the lower Chesapeake Bay 

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and flood warnings. Predictions of storm conditions are particu- 
larly useful to the coasting traffic of the Atlantic and Gulf borders. 
Lights for the guidance of ships are under the care of the 
Lighthouse Board, which now operates under the Department 
of Commerce and Labor. It is the policy of the lighthouse 
management that a ship near the coast should always have 
within sight a beacon to safeguard its course. For purposes of 
administration, including inspection every three months, sixteen 

Fig. 151. The Carnegie, a nonmagnetic ship used by the Department 
of Terrestrial Magnetism of the Carnegie Institution 

districts are arranged, including the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific 
coasts, the St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes, and the Ohio 
and Mississippi rivers. Four classes of lights are recognized : 
(1) primary coast lights ; (2) secondary seacoast lights and lake- 
coast lights ; (3) light vessels ; (4) sound, bay, river, and harbor 
lights. Thirteen hundred fifty-four lights were enumerated in 
1907. Stringent laws are enacted against false lights or tamper- 
ing with official lights. The life-saving service is also highly 
organized and has hundreds of stations on the various coasts, at 
points of greatest danger. All life-saving appliances are ready 
for instant use, and trained surfmen are always on duty, the 

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number being greatest from September until the following 
spring. Many lives, and property to the value of millions of 
dollars, are saved each year. 

In earlier days defense against piracy was one of the chief 
duties of government in relation to traffic on the seas. Navies 
now provide for the security of commerce on the high seas 
when nations are at war, but international usage protects the 
vessels of neutral nations. 

The Carnegie Institution, while not belonging to government, 
is located at Washington, and maintains a department of ter- 
restrial magnetism, whose work is to make magnetic determina- 
tions and maps for land and sea, indicating the variation of the 
compass in many regions. There have been many expeditions 
in North America and Asia, and extensive work has been done 
on the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The latest ocean work is 
by means of a new nonmagnetic ship, the Carnegie. Errors 
have been found and corrected which were sufficient to have sent 
ships many miles out of their course. 

215. Aids to transportation. Direct assistance is given by gov- 
ernment in several ways ; for example, in the building of roads, 
such as the old National Road, and many highways in European 
lands ; also in the construction of most canals and the improve- 
ment of rivers and harbors. In new countries land grants are 
often made to railway companies, which otherwise could not build 
long and costly lines through regions of few people. Under this 
head come several lines which cross the West to the Pacific coast, 
both in the United States and Canada. Some countries, as Italy, 
have put their railroads under government ownership and man- 
agement. All railroads derive their charters and their right to 
appropriate land for their tracks from public authority. The 
limiting of the coasting trade to vessels of the United States is 
a government act in control of commerce. Of similar nature 
are subsidies in aid of navigation. The United Kingdom makes 
grants to some of its steamship lines, and holds certain rights 
as to the transport of mails and the use of the vessels in time 
of war. 

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"■§ 5 
.£ -^ 
•3 2 

.2 5 

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3 ^ 

v rs 

"8 £ 

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216. Regulation of trade. Some illustrations of regulation 
have already been given, as in case of laws for purity of food 
and drugs. Corporations doing various kinds of business derive 
their authority from the state and are held by its restrictions. 
Such control is now especially directed toward railways, because 
these corporations represent immense capital, and their policy 
is at the foundation of trade and affects the prosperity of every 
citizen. In particular, government exerts its authority to prevent 
the payment of rebates, and other discriminations or policies 
which confer unequal advantage. Monopoly in any line of trade 
and the arbitrary fixing of prices to the detriment of the consumer 
have become subjects of frequent legislative and judicial inquiry. 

Chief among the agencies of regulation is the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission. Such a body became necessary as railways 
extended. Since a single line or system crosses many states and 
is therefore subject to no single state government, federal super- 
vision is required. The first important provision was made in 
1887. There has been supplementary legislation down to the 
present, with increased public authority over transportation. The 
general objects are the prevention of pooling and of rebates and 
all secret discrimination, the fixing of just rates, and the require- 
ment of safety appliances. The findings of the commission are 
subject to revision by the courts. 

Similar commissions have been appointed in most of the 
states. Exceptions exist in the West, where the need of trans- 
portation presses heavily ; and in the East, where some legisla- 
tures are said to be controlled by the railways. New York has 
two Public Service Commissions, one for Greater New York, 
and one for the rest of the state. These may be taken as repre- 
sentatives of state commissions. All steam and electric roads, 
telegraphs, and telephones are under their supervision. They 
determine whether cause exists for new lines, supervise the 
issue of securities, and have authority over rates, safety appli- 
ances, and the meeting of the public convenience in time sched- 
ules and accommodations ; subject, like the national commission, 
to the review of the courts. 

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The sale of liquors is subject to a great variety of legislation 
and control by the several states. The conservation of natural 
resources assumes importance with growing population, and the 
United States is following in the wake of the older nations of 
Europe in undertaking the ownership and control of natural 
wealth. Such ownership thus far relates more to forests than 
to mineral areas, but minerals and water powers are coming to 

Fig. 153. Agricultural experiment stations in the United States 

be recognized as public utilities in whose use and enjoyment all 
citizens should be protected from monopoly and private greed. 

With each generation usage among civilized nations becomes 
more and more settled and crystallizes into what is known as 
international law. International conferences and arbitration tri- 
bunals are common in all important questions of difference or 
of mutual interest. 

217. Aids to production. The agents of the Department of 
Agriculture, who are seeking new fruits, grains, and fibers in 
various parts of the world, are opening opportunities for the 
American farmer. Of similar use is a new breed of draft 

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horses or of sheep, whose value is thus shown at public expense. 
The testing, breeding, and improvement of plants and animals 
is carried on at many federal and state experiment stations (figs. 
153-154). The suppression of animal disease and the checking 

Fig. 154. Barley, rye, buckwheat, and flax raised at the United States 
Experiment Station, Sitka, Alaska 

of insect pests need only be mentioned, as also the regulation of 
fisheries, the maintenance of hatcheries, the stocking of streams 
and lakes, and the regulation and patrol of oyster fields. Here 
also we may add government protection of the interests of in- 
ventors, through the United States Patent Office ; and also 
national and international copyrights, by which the rights of 
literary production are secured. 

Permanent museums and temporary expositions bring together 
the commercial products and resources of all nations, and thus 

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by education and by personal association trade is favored and 
extended. Such exhibitions are often organized by government 
or are aided by grants of money and by the cooperation of 
government experts and government departments. 

218. Duties and internal revenue. Perhaps no government 
act affects the geography of commerce so much as the laying of 
taxes on exports, imports, and articles of domestic trade, for the 
currents of trade are often turned away from channels which 
would otherwise be followed. Taxes on exports and imports are 
known as duties, and are collected at various customhouses, 
which are chiefly but not always on the frontier. Important 
goods may be taken " in bond " to certain interior points, and 
there, on payment of duties, be delivered to the importer. 
Places where such goods are stored are known as bonded ware- 
houses. A schedule of duties is known as a tariff, and reference 
to a tariff is commonly made by the year of its enactment by 
Congress, or, more commonly, by a representative name, as the 
McKinley, Dingley, or Payne tariff. Tariffs are known as pro- 
tection or as revenue tariffs, according as their chief purpose is 
to foster home industry or to provide by indirect taxation for 
the expenses of government. 

The heaviest duties are supposed to be collected upon articles 
of luxury and objects desired by people of wealth ; but, on the 
other hand, it is claimed that the necessities of ordinary living 
are often taxed, and that monopolies flourish behind a tariff wall. 
The United States taxes hundreds of import commodities and 
stands for a high degree of protection. Great Britain taxes a 
few objects, for revenue only, and is in effect the representative 
of free-trade nations. 

Liquors and tobacco are the chief products upon which internal- 
revenue taxes are collected in the United States. These articles 
are selected because their ordinary use is not to be regarded as 
a necessity, and restriction would not work public harm. In time 
of war many other things may be subjected to internal taxation. 
Examples in the recent war with Spain are found in commercial 
paper and proprietary (patent) medicines. 

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219. Consular service. A consul is, strictly speaking, a com- 
mercial representative of his home government in a foreign land. 
A diplomatic representative, such as an ambassador or minister, 
usually resides at the capital of the country to which he is sent, 
and deals with political questions that arise between the two 
nations. No hard-and-fast line can be drawn, for a diplomat 
often has to do with matters of commerce, and a consul often 
must step outside the field of trade. The consul is, in practice, 
often an adviser and helper of his fellow countrymen, especially 
in the centers of tourist travel, such as Paris, London, Dresden, 
Geneva, Florence, Rome, or Naples. 

The consular service of the United States was formerly very 
imperfect, because consuls were given places as political rewards 
and were removed with a change of administration at Washing- 
ton. Much progress has now been made toward an efficient 
and permanent service, the policy of promotion being followed. 
More and more, merit and experience prevail, and many consuls 
are familiar with foreign languages. Because there is oppor- 
tunity for a permanent and dignified occupation, young men of 
ability and training are likely to seek the consular service and 
follow it as a profession. In some of the higher schools, also, 
courses of study are provided to give suitable training for gov- 
ernment service in foreign lands, whether as diplomatists or in 
the consular department. In such courses emphasis is placed 
upon the modern languages, economics, commercial geography, 
and international law. 

Among other duties consuls assist in carrying out the tariff 
laws. They also seek information concerning local agriculture, 
mining, manufacturing, and the commercial conditions of the 
city and district to which they are assigned, and make frequent 
reports to the Consular Bureau of the State Department, by 
which annual, monthly, or more frequent reports are issued and 
distributed to interested persons at home. It is particularly the 
duty of the consul to consider all matters of interest to Ameri- 
can trade, such as the conditions of markets and the crops, and 
all possible openings for the sale of American goods. Thus a 

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recent monthly Commerce and Trade Report, picked at random, 
has, among many other topics, information on the following : 
diversity of purchases of foreign goods at Rangoon, Burma ; 
business opportunities in Honduras ; demand for fountain pens 
in British India ; procedure for introducing American goods 
in Syria ; trade possibilities in the Sinii Basin of Colombia ; 
American steam pumps in Hamburg ; investments in Cuba ; 
why American brands of cement are not imported by Brazilian 
consumers ; official estimate of the nitrate-of-soda supply in 
Chile ; Bristol's storage facilities ; mosquito extermination in 

Each consul works for his own land, but the consular system, 
like modern trains, ships, and telegraphs, promotes the unity 
and progress of the world. 

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220. Foreign and home trade. The foreign trade, great as it 
is, is but a small part of the total commerce. There are nearly 
fifty states and territories, the country is vast in size, and its 
products, owing to differences of soil, climate, and history, are 
diverse. Hence there is much occasion for internal commerce. 
Cotton goods are distributed from New England, iron from 
Pittsburg, flour from Minneapolis, rice from Louisiana, fruit 
from California, and lumber from Washington. This trade is 
like that of Europe as a whole, rather than the trade of a single 
European nation. The chief differences are that we have a 
smaller population than Europe, and that there are no trade 
restrictions among states as there are among nations. In prod- 
ucts Maine and California are as different as Norway and Italy. 

221. Growth of foreign commerce. American commerce was 
small during the first half of the last century. The energies of 
a young people were absorbed in subduing the land. The fol- 
lowing statement shows the totals at certain times. Both imports 
and exports are included. 

Total Commerce, i 800-1 908 

1800 $31,000,000 

1850 317,000,000 

1900 2,244,000,000 

1905 2,778,000,000 

1908 3,029,000,000 

The figures for 1908 place the United States third among nations 
in amount of foreign trade, the United Kingdom and Germany 
being first and second. The United States was the fourth in 
exports in 1880, but since the beginning of the twentieth century 


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has surpassed all others in this respect. This is largely due to 
the resources of the United States in raw materials which are 
required by all civilized people. These are iron, coal, copper, 
cereals, wood, wool, and cotton. The United States is first in 
the production of most of these. 

The growth in manufactures has been great, especially during 
the past quarter of a century, and exports of manufactured goods 
have increased accordingly. As the country has grown older, 
1870 ^880 1890 loop 1 910 power has been de- 
veloped, machinery 
has been invented, 
and labor has gained 
skill. Thus a sur- 
plus has been made 
in the mills and fac- 
tories, which finds 
a larger and larger 
market among the 
nations. Exports of 
manufactured goods 
reached the amount 
of $23,000,000 in 
1850, and of $70,- 









—._.— IMPORTS 







pfr — 




SP 8 ** 

Fig. 1 55. Growth of foreign commerce of the United 

States in millions of dollars, in five-year periods, 

1 860-1 90 5, and for 1908 and 1909 

000,000 in 1870; they now average more than $500,000,000 
per year. If partially manufactured products are included, the 
last figure would be much greater. 

222. Character of exports. As this is still a comparatively 
new country, raw materials lead in exports. Such are foodstuffs, 
as wheat or cattle, raw cotton, and crude petroleum. But manu- 
factures are growing both absolutely and in percentage of ex- 
ports, of which they constituted 15 per cent in 1880 and 40 
per cent in 1906. The export of manufactures doubled in the 
ten years preceding 1906. Foodstuffs in 1890 made 42 per 
cent, and in 1906 only 31 per cent, of the total exports. In 
that year the United States was third among nations in export 
of manufactures. 

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Exports of Manufactures in 1906 

United Kingdom $1,400,000,000 

Germany 1,000,000,000 

United States 700,000,000 

France 500,000,000 

Cotton is the largest item of exports, followed by breadstuffs, 
meat and dairy products, iron and steel, mineral oils, and copper. 
Each of these exceeded $100,000,000 in value for the year 
1 907- 1 908. The export of copper has increased many times 
since 1890, because abundantly found, and in great demand in 
the recent electrical development. Another typical export is 
agricultural machinery. Here the American has been success- 
ful in invention, and exports have increased sixfold since 1890. 
The progress of the country is seen in machinery of high grade, 
which now enters into export trade. The list includes clocks and 
watches, printing presses, sewing machines, typewriters, electri- 
cal machinery, and scientific instruments, the value of the latter 
rising from $1,500,000 in 1890 to $11,000,000 in 1906. As 
population grows and skill increases, more of the foodstuffs and 
other crude products will be needed at home, and more manu- 
factured goods will seek the markets of the world. 

223. Character of imports. Three chief classes may be named: 
1 . The United States belongs to the temperate belt. Its sub- 
tropical regions, as Florida and southern California, produce but 
a small part of those things which we must obtain from warm 
countries. Hence the United States each year imports tropical 
and subtropical products to the value of about $500,000,000. 

Imports from Tropical Regions 

Sugar $75,000,000 to $100,000,000 

Coffee 75,000,000 to 100,000,000 

Rubber 40,000,000 to 50,00.0,000 

Fibers 40,000,000 

Fruits, nuts, and spices . 35,000,000 

Tea 15,000,000 to 18,000,000 

Other items are tobacco, hides, cabinet and dye woods, gums, 
and silks. 

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2. Manufactured products of high grade, chiefly from Europe, 
make another class of imports. Chemicals, drugs, and dyes are 
a large item, particularly from Germany. Manufactured cottons, 
woolens, and silks figure largely, though cottons and silks of high 
grade are more and more made in this country. Fine glass, china, 

Bs issip pi Sound , ^ asa ^ 

U .1, 

/-> ^ V ^>f^C\^ ; "?° ^Isle.u Breton 


Port E»di 

(^ 2 F.W. 

FW; C7 

:' 10| 

Fig. 156. New Orleans and the Mississippi delta (United States Coast Survey) 

jewelry, books, maps, engravings, and the finer manufactures of 
wood are obtained from Europe, where labor is often cheap and 
skill has been acquired through centuries of practice. 

3. A further class of imports is found in those mineral sub- 
stances in which this country is lacking. Such is tin, amount- 
ing in value to about $25,000,000 per year. Diamonds and 
other precious stones make a large item of imports when 
times are prosperous. 

224. Commercial ports of the United States. The streams 
of trade flow out and in at a number of ports from which radiate 

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the trunk lines of railway and the ocean routes. On the north 
and south there are also long lines of land frontier with their 
customhouses. Most of the foreign trade, however, is by water. 
The Atlantic coast has now about two thirds of our foreign 
trade, the Gulf coast about one seventh, the Pacific coast about 
one seventeenth, and the northern boundary about one tenth. 
For the financial year 1907- 1908 the percentage of foreign 
trade passing through 

seven leading ports was 

as follows : 

New York . 


Boston . . 




Baltimore . 


New Orleans 


Galveston . 


San Francisco 


Seattle,Tacoma, and Port- 
land are also important 
ports on the Pacific coast ; 
Mobile, Pensacola, Tam- 

2F.W.Q * i 
(Submarine Bell Signals 2-2) 

\ 6 1.. 

Fig. 157. Galveston and its harbor (United 
States Coast Survey) 

pa, and Key West on the Gulf coast ; and Savannah, Charleston, 
Newport News, and Portland on the Atlantic coast. Some of 
these smaller ports have their foreign trade chiefly with the 
countries of the Caribbean region. 

225. Balance of trade. This is said to be in favor of the 
nation which sells more than it buys. In recent years the bal- 
ance has been about #500,000,000 in favor of the United States, 
but rose to $637,000,000 in 1901 and $640,000,000 in 1908. 
Imports were usually of more value than exports down to 1876, 
but since that time the balance has in most years been in our 
favor. This balance is not entirely an addition to national wealth 
and it must not be taken as an accurate measure of national 
prosperity, for over against it may be set such expenditures as 
the cost of freight in foreign ships and the interest on much 
capital borrowed from Europeans. 

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226. Commerce with territories and colonies. Alaska has its 
chief industries in salmon and seal fishing and in mining. The 
annual catch of salmon is worth over $8,000,000. More than 
$18,000,000 in gold was mined in 1907, and in copper nearly 
$1,500,000. In the year 1907- 1908 Alaska took $16,000,000 
in general merchandise from the United States and sent back 

Fig. 158. Ports of Puget Sound region (United States Coast Survey) 

products amounting to nearly $1 1,000,000 in value besides gold. 
There are important beds of coal and considerable timber lands, 
including nearly 12,000,000 acres of national forest. 

The Hawaiian Islands are smaller than Massachusetts and 
contain about 200,000 people. The export trade, however, shows 
values between $30,000,000 and $40,000,000, a thirtyfold gain 
during thirty years of American influence and investment of 
capital. The islands were annexed to the United States in 1898 
and organized as a territory in 1900. In the year 1907- 1908 
they imported from the United States merchandise to the value 

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of $15,000,000 and sent to this country exports having a value 
of $46,000,000, of which sugar covered $40,000,000. 

Porto Rico reported, in 1906, $23,000,600 in trade with the 
United States. Both import and export trade with this country 
increased tenfold in ten years of American rule following the 
Spanish War. Sugar, coffee, tobacco, citrous fruits (oranges, 
lemons, etc.), pineapples, bananas, and vegetables are the chief 
commodities. In 1905 vegetables, $4,000,000 in value, were 
sent to the United States. Thus the winter markets on the 
North Atlantic coast of the United States can be supplied with 
vegetables within one week from the time of gathering in 
the fields. 

The Philippine Islands are eighteen times as great as Hawaii 
and thirty-two times as great as Porto Rico, and have 8,000,000 
people. Their exports in recent years have averaged only about 
$33,000,000 per year. The exports for Hawaii and Porto Rico 
already stated should be put in comparison. It is further pointed 
out by the Bureau of Statistics that Java and Sumatra, in the 
same part of the world, but less than half as large as the Philip- 
pines, supported 30,000,000 people and had surplus products 
for export valued at $100,000,000. The chief item in Philip- 
pine exports is hemp, followed by sugar, coffee, and tobacco. 
Little else is sent out, yet there remains a vast field for pro- 
duction and the United States offers a ready market. 

Transportation is the great need. Roads and ships are fun- 
damental to commerce. When these are provided in the Philip- 
pine Islands more sugar can be raised, coffee culture revived, 
and it is believed rubber can be largely grown. All these are 
in heavy demand in the United States. There are large forest 
resources, and minerals, lignite, iron, and gold. 

227. Other countries of North America. The United States 
exported to Canada in 1907 merchandise to the value of about 
$155,000,000. Iron and steel give the largest total, Indian 
corn, swine products, copper, cotton, and coal being important. 
From Canada in the same year merchandise worth $79,000,000 
was received. Forest products, fish, and minerals supplied the 

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greater items. Commercial relations with Canada may be ex- 
pected to grow, since the common frontier is long, the people are 
kindred, and the resources considerably different. Northwestern 
Canada is continuous with the interior plain of the United States, 
and is far from the mother country. Many citizens of the United 
States are moving to the Canadian prairies, thus making strong 
social and commercial ties between the two countries. 

On the south Cuba is the most important of the island coun- 
tries, and, excepting Porto Rico, is in closest relation to the 



gi2.612,2i2 1 
101,157,343 [ 


10,639, 162 



7,576,617 1 

1,296,447 J 


7,390,782 l^H 

1,460,445 1 


6,350,534 1 
4,481,290 j 


7.325.229 !■ 



3. 336,100 

1,003,857 1 


1,560,105 | 

471,976 1 

Fig. 159. Foreign trade of Cuba, — imports and exports by countries of 
origin and destination, — for fiscal year 1908-1909 

United States. The total foreign trade of this small republic 
amounts to more than $200,000,000 per year, owing to the 
richness of its resources. This trade is about equally divided 
between imports and exports. The United States sends about 
half the imports and takes nearly all the exports, of which sugar 
and molasses made more than half in 1907, and tobacco made 
one fourth. It will thus be seen that this country receives most 
of its sugar from Hawaii and Cuba. 

The United States holds about two thirds of both the import 
and export trade of Mexico. One of the largest items is Ameri- 
can machinery, for which there is demand because Mexico 
has large resources and is now beginning to develop them. 

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Curiously, most of the cotton goods sold in Mexico are made 
in England, Germany, and France. The cotton goes, it may 
be, from Texas, just over the Rio Grande, across the Atlantic, 
is manufactured, and brought back to Mexican markets. 

Central American countries are small, often ill governed, and 
rich in tropical products, but poorly developed. The United 
States has a considerable trade with all of these countries, and 
it may be expected to grow, owing to new ship lines and to 
American enterprise on the Isthmus. Coffee, tropical fruits, par- 
ticularly bananas, and mahogany, are the leading products of 
these regions at present. The United States in recent years has 
had about half of the foreign trade of these five republics. The 
banana trade is also shared by the West Indian islands. Thus 
Jamaica, under British rule, sends to the United States nearly 
all of its crop of bananas, which amounts to over $5,000,000. 

228. South America. The republics and European depend- 
encies of South America, with Central America and Mexico, 
are often called Latin America, because settled and controlled 
by people of Latin origin, now speaking Spanish, Portuguese, 
and French. From Mexico to Cape Horn are found twenty 
Latin-American republics, and these, with the United States, 
maintain the Pan-American Union, whose seat is in Washing- 
ton. Its governing board is made up of the .diplomatic repre- 
sentatives of the republics in Washington, with the Secretary 
of State as chairman. Its objects are to promote friendly inter- 
national relations and foster trade. 

Latin America has a foreign trade of about $1,800,000,000. 
Of this total the United States has about $500,000,000, but 
the balance of trade is much in favor of the southern repub- 
lics. Brazil may be taken as an example. In 1907 our im- 
ports from Brazil were valued at $85,000,000 and our exports 
to that country only reached $21,000,000. This means that 
the money received from the United States is paid to Eng- 
land and Germany for their manufactured products. Even 
France and Argentina send to Brazil almost as much merchan- 
dise as the United States. Several reasons are given for this 

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one-sided trade. Brazil is Portuguese in language, and by tra- 
dition is in closer relations to Europe. The only fast steamship 
lines from the North Atlantic are from European ports. Freight 
ships are likely to make a triangular voyage. They load at 
Brazilian ports with coffee and other products for New York. 
There they take on bulky freights for England, Germany, or 
other parts of western Europe. Having discharged these, they 
are ready to load with manufactured products from European 
mills, to return to South America. Still further, American busi- 
ness men have usually tried to do business in South America 

without acquiring 
one of the native 
languages. There 
is therefore need 
of better transporta- 
tion,- education in 
Spanish, in Portu- 
guese, or in French, 
and study of South 
American character 
and methods. The 
resources of that 
continent are vast, 
and our foreign trade is gaining there in spite of the difficulties 
named and the strong pressure of European competition. 

On the west coast of South America conditions are becom- 
ing favorable to the trade of the United States. The several 
republics which border the Pacific and stretch back into the 
Andes have much agricultural and mineral wealth. They are 
not manufacturing countries, and the opening of the Panama 
Canal will give American goods the advantage of a short line. 
Already the sanitary improvements at Panama prevent long 
quarantine and hasten the transit of goods by ship and by the 
Panama Railroad. Much American capital is now developing 
railroads and mines in the countries of the west coast, and the 
two western continents are coming into closer relations. 

Fig. 160. San Francisco and San Francisco Bay 

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1900 19Qg 

Our chief exports to the South American countries include iron 
and steel products, such as steel rails, locomotives, and cars, and 
a great variety of agricultural and other machinery ; also wheat 
flour, cotton, leather, lard, oil, and lumber. The American Pacific 
coast has largely the trade in flour and lumber. Coffee and rub- 
ber are the largest imports from South America. 

229. United Kingdom. Great Britain and Ireland contain 
about 43,000,000 people. The larger share of their food and 
of the materials of manufacture must be drawn from abroad. 
The United States produces much that 
the United Kingdom needs, and trans- 
portation across the North Atlantic has 
become the largest and swiftest offered 
on any ocean route. No other two nations 
trade together so largely. Great Britain 
is by far the greatest market of the United 
States, having taken her products to the 
extent of $582,000,000 in 1906 and 
$650,000,000 in 1907. In 1907 also the 
United States took from Great Britain 
goods to the value of $282,000,000. Food- 
stuffs and cottons are much the largest 
items in the exports from this country 
to Great Britain. Cotton exports were 
valued at $228,000,000 in 1907, or 70 
per cent of British imports of this prod- 
uct. The butter and cheese trade has been lost to the United 
States, partly because of fraudulent brands placed on the English 
market, and more recently because of growing demand at home. 
Canada has taken a large share of this trade with the mother 
country. Cotton, linen, woolen, and iron goods are the leading 
exports from Great Britain to the United States. 

230. Germany. This country is second in the foreign trade 
of the United States. One seventh of our exports go thither and 
about one ninth of our imports come from that country. Recent 
years have seen much growth in German- American trade. From 

Fig. 161. Total com- 
merce in commodities of 
domestic origin and con- 
sumption, of the United 
States, Germany, and the 
United Kingdom (1890, 
1900, 1905), in millions 
of dollars 

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1897 to 1907 imports from Germany rose from $98,000,000 
to $161,000,000, and exports to Germany from $136,000,000 
to $274,000,000. As in the case of England, raw cotton is our 
largest export to Germany, giving a value of $135,000,000 in 
1908. We also send considerable amounts of copper, bread- 
stuffs, lard, and oils. Chemicals, 
drugs, and dyes are large and 
characteristic imports from Ger- 
many, and point to the high scien- 
tific attainment and technical skill 
of that people. 

231. Other countries of Europe. 
Exports to France amounted to 
$122,000,000 in 1907. Raw cot- 
ton made nearly one half, and 
copper, machinery, and petroleum 
were next in value. The charac- 
teristic returns from France are 
in products requiring the high 
degree of skill and taste which 
belong to the advanced classes of 
that nation. Silk goods, fine glass, 
garments, feathers, artificial flow- 
ers, novelties, and works of art 
may be enumerated. Large num- 
bers of Americans visit or live in 
France, and it is estimated that 
more than $100,000,000 is annually spent by these people. This 
does not appear in statistics of trade, but is an important element 
in international expenditure. 

The greater part of our exports to Spain is raw cotton, again 
emphasizing the vast importance of this product of southern 
farms. From Spain come cork, fruits, wines, nuts, olives, and 
olive oil. American exports to Italy in 1907 were valued at 
$72,000,000, of which $38,000,000 were credited to raw cotton. 
Only Great Britain and Germany sent more goods to Italy than 


1900 1905 










Fig. 162. Exports of domestic mer- 
chandise in millions of dollars 

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we, and only Switzerland and Germany took more of her mer- 
chandise. Switzerland in 1907 sent $ 30,000, 000 in merchandise 
to the United States. A surprising item in this is embroideries, 
to a value of $17,000,000, one of the specialties of a small 
nation. Silks, cheese, and watches are also to be named. Silk 
importation from Switzerland has 
decreased, owing to the growth of 
this industry in the United States. 
Our exports to Switzerland nearly 
all go through French, Belgian, 
and German ports, and hence are 
credited to those countries. 

Thus two thirds of the imports 
of the Netherlands from the 
United States are only on their 
way to Germany, Switzerland, 
and other parts of central Europe. 
A special feature of Netherlands 
trade with this country is in cut 
diamonds. In 1907 this trade ran 
low because financial conditions 
in America were disturbed. Dia- 
monds, as a luxury, soon felt the 
loss of buying power on the part 
of Americans. The leading prod- 
uct going from the United States 
to the Netherlands is tobacco. 

Of the three northern lands, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, 
our trade with Denmark is much the greatest, our exports to that 
country being valued at $22,000,000 in 1907. Oil cake and oil 
meal for the dairy were the leading item ($7,000,000), and corn 
was sent to the value of $3,000,000. The largest item of Nor- 
wegian exports to the United States is a characteristic product, 
wood pulp. Turning to Austria- Hungary, we again meet our 
greatest export, raw cotton, of more than $30,000,000 in value. 
Even Russia received $12,000,000 in raw cotton from us in 



00 1905 


















Fig. 163. Imports for consumption 
in millions of dollars 

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1907, — one third of her importation, notwithstanding her rela- 
tive nearness to Egypt and India. American agricultural imple- 
ments are largely sold in Russia, as in several other European 
countries, though German and other imitations of our products 
are now competing. 

In general Europe offers a market for the peculiar devices of 
American ingenuity, of which examples are found in agricultural 
machinery, sewing machines, and typewriters. American foot- 
wear has also gained a large place in the appreciation of the 
European consumer. 

232. Specialism of countries. The trade relations of other 
parts of the eastern hemisphere with the United States will be 
noted in the study of countries. Enough examples have now 
been given to illustrate the basal principle of specialism as essen- 
tial to commerce. A country produces what it best can, with its 
climate, soil, minerals, power, skill, and traditions. It can ex- 
change what it makes with other countries of special production, 
by means of suitable transportation, and the process of trade is 
greatly helped by modern swift communication. Fine handicrafts 
and advanced manufactures are usually found in the older coun- 
tries, and agricultural and mineral raw products prevail in the 
new. Thus constant adjustment and change take place, and 
these are affected by new discoveries, new inventions, and by 
the immigration of people, with consequent changes in capital 
and labor. Not only natural conditions, but government restric- 
tions and tariffs, shape industries everywhere. The ideal points 
to perfect adaptation, perfect transportation, and unfettered 

233. The United States as a self-sufficient nation. The va- 
riety of resources in the United States suggests that it might 
become almost a self-sustaining country. The foodstuffs now 
imported are largely tropical. It is believed that much of the 
fruit might be raised in the Gulf region and in the Southwest, 
while the rest might come from such dependencies as Porto 
Rico and the Philippine Islands. It is also believed that if the 
labor problem could be solved, tea could be made a domestic 

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product. The capacity of the Philippines for coffee growing has 
already been mentioned. Sugar is largely imported, but the 
beet-sugar industry is growing and might take the large place in 
the United States which it has in Germany. There also seem 
to be no natural conditions which prevent the raising of silk. 
The most important mineral in which we are deficient is tin, 
and our temperate-latitude food products are abundant. It is 
not urged that self-support in this sense is desirable. When our 
own resources have been worked to their full measure, there 
will remain products which can be better or more cheaply made 
by others, and in the high fields of literature and the fine arts 
no nation could desire to be shut within itself. 

The table on page 286 shows the changes that have taken 
place in recent years in our dependence on foreign countries for 
some of the most important commodities. Many show marked 
increase of importations. Among these are breadstuffs, coffee, 
diamonds and other gems, India rubber, meat and dairy prod- 
ucts, oils, paper, raw silk, tobacco, vegetables, wood, and raw 
wool. The increases are partly due to growth of population and 
partly to greater wealth and purchasing power. 

Unmanufactured fibers show little increase, while there has 
been great growth of importation of manufactured fiber prod- 
ucts. On the other hand, raw silk shows a heavy increase and 
silk products exhibit a slight decrease, marking the develop- 
ment of the silk industry in the United State's. Wood affords 
an example of large growth in importation both of raw and 
finished products. Wool is like silk in increased purchases of 
raw material, while imports of woolen manufactures have grown 
but slightly. Hydraulic cements, including Portland, exhibit, in 
1909, less than one fourth of the importations of 1900. Inex- 
haustible raw materials and the establishment of many plants 
have nearly stopped the demand for the foreign product. Glass 
importations have increased but slightly, as have those of leather 
and of iron and steel. The heaviest imports on the list are 
those of sugar, and these have fallen off somewhat, a change 
due, no doubt, to the growth of the beet-sugar industry at home. 

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Increased purchases of vegetables and of manufactured cotton 

seem to be a needless concession to the interests of the foreign 

producer. As a whole the facts do not show an increasing 
measure of self-sufficiency on the part of the United States. 

Comparison of Important Imports in 1900 and 1909 

1900 1909 

Breadstuffs $1,803,729 $9,454,414 

Cement, hydraulic 3,270,916 712,628 

Chemicals, drugs, and dyes . . . 53,705,152 78,378,634 

Cocoa 5,970,844 15,222,523 

Coffee 52,467,943 79,112,129 

Cotton, manufactures of ... . 41,296,239 62,010,286 

Diamonds and other gems . . . 14,859,018 29,373,070 

Fibers, unmanufactured .... 26,337,805 29,748,353 

Fibers, manufactured 31,152,363 49,312,392 

Fish 7,472,057 12,403,012 

Fruits and nuts 19,263,592 31,110,683 

Glass 5>°37,93i 5.262,190 

Hides and skins other than furs . . 19,408,217 23,795,602 

India rubber, unmanufactured . 33,041,928 64,710,370 

Iron and steel 20,478,728 22,439,787 

Leather and manufactures of . . . 13,292,196 13,933,134 

Meat and dairy products .... 3,028,216 9,121,804 

Oils 6,817,780 20,458,940 

Paper and manufactures of . . . 3,795,^45 11,632,571 

Silk, unmanufactured ..... 45,329,760 79,903,586 

Silk, manufactures of 31,129,017 30,718,582 

Spirits, wine, and malt liquors . . 12,758,582 23,168,845 

Sugar 100,250,974 9 6 >554,99 8 

Tobacco, leaf 13,297,223 25,400,919 

Vegetables 2,935,077 12,999,797 

Wood and manufactures of . . . 14,635,340 32,351,665 

Wool, unmanufactured .... 20,260,936 45, 171, 994 

Wool, manufactures of .... 16,164,446 18,102,461 

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834. Chief regions. Canada and the United States alike span 
the continent and face the chief nations of Europe and Asia. 
On the east both have an indented shore, with many harbors. 
Tidewaters enter more deeply into Canada, but this advantage 
is offset by the freezing of the St. Lawrence in the winter. In 
the west the Canadian shore line is more broken, and, as the 
Pacific climate is mild, harbors are available far to the north. 
Canada has the advantage of short degrees of longitude in her 
more northern position, and thus offers a shorter route between 
Europe and the Orient. The land is not nearly so arctic as many 
suppose. It is limited, however, to products of temperate lati- 
tudes, while the United States raises much that belongs to sub- 
tropical regions. This difference must always affect the import 
trade of Canada. 

Canada may be divided into five regions. 

i. The Archaean wilderness, a region of ancient rocks and 
much-worn mountains, taking in Labrador, northern Quebec, 
much of Ontario north of the Great Lakes, and a broad belt 
west of Hudson Bay, running northward and including the 
islands of the arctic seas. Mineral deposits, furs, and forests 
are nearly all that is of interest to commerce, except water 
powers, in this region, and all of these but minerals are absent 
when the barren lands of the far north are reached. 


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2. The lowlands and low mountains of the Maritime Prov- 
inces, — Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward 
Island, — whose geological formations are younger, softer, and 
suited to soil making. Here farms, forests, and mines prevail, 
and the irregular coast line offers harbors and easy communica- 
tion with the Old World. 

3. Southern Quebec and southern Ontario, lying along the 
St. Lawrence River and forming the rich peninsula between 
Lake Huron on the west and Lake Erie and Lake Ontario on 
the southeast. Here are undisturbed rocks whose wasting makes 
good soil ; and here also is a cover of glacial drift and lake muds, 
which offer a permanent basis for agriculture. Here Canada 
comes down to 42 degrees north latitude, and is like the best 
parts of New York, Ohio, and Michigan. 

4. The plains lying between Lake Winnipeg and the Rocky 
Mountains, and stretching thence northwest to the Arctic Ocean. 
The southern part, running northward from Minnesota, North 
Dakota, and Montana, has in the main enough water for crops, 
and has vast areas of rich prairie soil. It is believed that agri- 
culture of some types will be highly successful as far north as 
the Peace River region, as soon as there is good transportation. 

5. British Columbia, comprehending most of the Canadian 
Cordilleras and including the Rocky Mountains in the east, 
the Selkirks and gold ranges in the center, and the North- 
ern Cascades on the west. The coast is deeply broken, harbors 
are abundant, the climate is genial through the influence of 
warm Pacific winds, and the coast and many interior valleys 
are hospitable to grains, stock, and fruit raising. Fisheries 
and a great variety of minerals add to the range of commercial 
possibilities in this province. 

235. Forests and forest products. The commodities will be 
taken somewhat in the order of their development. The forest 
areas of Canada amount to about 835,000 square miles, or 
almost one fourth of the country. Before the white man came, 
the unforested regions were the prairies of the great western 
plains, the barren lands of the Arctic, and the high mountain 

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'1* - 


J fll 



t 1 


i \ yd-- 






: ! - j . 


«I ' r 






• ■ 




y - 


»i. ■ • 



'r C.!<tS/7" "TV 

■- **. -1 

Fig. 164. Douglas firs, British Columbia 

areas of the west. There still remain considerable forests in the 
Maritime Provinces and the Great Lake region, especially in New 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The subarctic forest belt runs from 
Quebec and Labrador south and west of Hudson Bay, in a north- 
west direction toward Alaska. On the plains this belt is about 
200 miles wide, between the prairies on the south and the barren 

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grounds on the north. The coast regions of British Columbia 
share the Douglas spruce and other big trees with similar forests 
extending through the Pacific states of the republic to the south. 
British Columbia has about one third and Quebec about one 
fourth of the Canadian forests. 

Eastern Canada has large supplies of hard woods. Pine is 
the most valuable soft wood, and has been largely removed. 
Other soft woods, especially spruce, find increasing use for pulp 
and paper in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Quebec ; and 
with proper use this industry may be permanent, as a crop of 
pulp wood is said to grow in thirty years. Although a young 
people, interest in forestry is strong, and there is a Canadian 
Forestry Association which distributes literature, holds conven- 
tions, and provides lectures. It is proposed to reforest certain 
older districts as well as to plant forests on the prairies. A con- 
servation commission has recently been formed by the Dominion 
Parliament, and there are departments of forestry in the uni- 
versities of Toronto and New Brunswick. 

236. Furs and fisheries. The early history of Canada is al- 
most the same as the story of its fur trade. The discoveries 
and first settlements in its unending forests were due to zeal in 
the quest of the fur-bearing animals, — ermine, sable, mink, 
and beaver. The Hudson Bay Company, founded in 1670, was 
for generations the real government of the colony, and as late 
as 1869 sold large rights to the Dominion of Canada, It still 
exists as a commercial company, with large houses in all the 
principal cities. Edmonton is the point of supply and departure 
for hunters, and Winnipeg is a depot for furs. 

Fisheries are developed on the Atlantic and Pacific borders 
and on many inland waters. Since early days the maritime region 
in the east has been an important fishing ground for England, 
France, and America. The shallows of the Newfoundland 
Banks, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and the borders of Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick are the home of cod, mackerel, 
shad, halibut, haddock, and lobster. Eastport, in Maine, has a 
large industry in preserving New Brunswick herring, which are 

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sold as sardines. British Columbia now surpasses even Nova 
Scotia in its fishing output. It has sea fishing in its fiords and 
deep bays, with salmon, trout, and char in its inland waters. 
Best known and most profitable is the salmon industry. The fish 
are caught as they run far up the Fraser and other rivers, are 
then canned, and modern transportation gives them a wide mar- 
ket. Seal fishing is also, in particular, an industry of British 
Columbia and thus contributes another item to the fur trade. 

Fig. 166. Salmon catch, Fraser River, British Columbia 

The lakes and rivers of Canada on its southern border and 
throughout its interior offer vast fishing grounds. Manitoba, 
best known as a wide wheat-growing prairie, has 20,000 square 
miles of fishing waters, an area as large as Lake Huron, worked 
by 2000 regularly employed fishermen. 

237. Mineral wealth of Canada. The country has vast re- 
sources, largely unexplored, and the known regions but partially 
worked. The mineral product in 1907 amounted to $86,000,- 
000. In this coal led, with $24,000,000 ; while of iron, the 
other basal mineral of commerce, the output (pig iron) was 
$9,000,000, and this in part was from imported ores. Of native 
material, iron was exceeded by copper, nickel, silver, and gold. 

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In the nickel of Sudbury, near Lake Huron in Ontario, and in 
the asbestos of eastern Quebec, Canada leads all other countries. 

Three regions contain most of the coal, — (i) Nova Scotia 
and Cape Breton Island in the east, (2) Vancouver Island and 
other parts of British Columbia in the west, (3) widespread 
deposits of lignite underlying the plains east of the Rocky 
Mountains. Thus all important sections are near coal, except 
the settlements and cities along the Great Lakes. Toronto and 
other cities, even as far west as Winnipeg, import supplies of 
anthracite coal from Pennsylvania. It comes by rail to the 
southern ports of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, and thence 
by water as near as possible to its destination. Anthracite coal 
occurs at two Canadian localities, one in southern Alberta 
and the other on Queen Charlotte Island. 

Iron is most worked in Nova Scotia, but there are ores in the 
Lake Superior region and in British Columbia which are im- 
portant and will come into use with growing population, better 
transportation, and the improvement of methods of mining and 
reduction. Gold is worked in Nova Scotia, in the Lake Supe- 
rior district, in British Columbia, and in the Yukon region, 
especially the Klondike district, and thus has a wide distribu- 
tion in the Dominion. The copper output in 1907 was over 
$11,000,000, derived chiefly from the Great Lake region and 
British Columbia. This metal will be useful in the electrical 
development of Canadian water power, and this in turn may 
atone for the lack of coal in the Great Lake region, serving 
in the smelting of iron and for general manufacturing and 
domestic use. 

238. Agriculture. The value of Canadian field crops in 1908 
was $432,000,000. The somewhat surprising fact is that oats 
surpassed in value the wheat, and hay and clover exceeded 
either of those grains. Barley and potatoes are large products, 
but far below any of the first three named. 

The country may best be taken by regions. The Maritime 
Provinces have long been cultivated in some favored parts, such 
as Prince Edward Island, the district around Annapolis in 

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Nova Scotia, and the St. John valley of New Brunswick. 
Apples and potatoes are typical products in the east. South- 
ern Quebec along the St. Lawrence, and especially all south- 
ern Ontario, are the regions of an advanced and diversified 
agriculture in Canada. Ontario has been an important wheat 
province, but the increase of wheat in the west has diminished 
the product in the east, which sees a corresponding growth in 
live stock and the dairy. The lower lake region of Ontario raises 

Fig. 168. Canada; isotherms for the year. Broken lines are conjectural 

apples, peaches, grapes, and other fruits in abundance and per- 
fection, and this is the one part of Canada which can most suc- 
cessfully grow Indian corn. 

Wheat growing is now extending rapidly from the United 
States boundary across Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, 
and in its beginnings has gone as far north as the Peace River 
district. Owing to northern latitude daylight is prolonged in 
the summer, and the climate is softened by the " Chinook " 
winds, which descend from the Rocky Mountains, the air being 
warmed by compression as it descends. The effect is seen in 
the bending northward of the isotherms, as may be observed in 
fig. 168. At the same time the Canadian Experimental Farms 
devote much attention to breeding early ripening wheats suited 

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to these provinces, and the crop is already an important factor 
in the world's markets. 

British Columbia is a large province, almost 400,000 square 
miles in area. Although so largely mountainous, abundant lands 
in the valleys are suited to tillage. The coastal parts are so moist 
and warm that all kinds of temperate-latitude fruits are favored, 
and this type of agriculture will rule. Apples, peaches, pears, 
as well as grapes and other small fruits, flourish, and at the 
same time there is room for grain, stock, and poultry, making 
a typical mixed agriculture. The growth of the coast cities, 
such as Vancouver, and the new Pacific trade will afford an 
increasing commerce. 

The Canadian government keeps seven experimental farms, 
the central farm being at Ottawa. Besides the wheat breeding 
already mentioned, every kind of investigation that could be use- 
ful to the farmer is carried on. The extent of this work can be 
understood when it is stated that in a single recent year nearly 
100,000 letters of inquiry were received, and were answered 
either by letter or by printed information. 

239. ' Manufactures. Manufacturing industry is successful 
when there is plentiful raw material, available power, good 
transportation, and a large home and foreign market. Canadian 
raw materials, drawn from forests, mines, and the soil, are 
ample. The distribution of coal has been noticed, and of water 
power it may be said that it is abundant everywhere except on 
the great prairies of the central lowland. Canada has its share 
of the power resources of Niagara, while British Columbia and 
the wilderness between the Great Lakes and Hudson Bay is 
full of falling water. The province of Quebec alone is estimated 
to have 1 7,000,000 horse power. 

Much of the manufacturing is relatively simple, as is proper 
to a new country. Examples are butter and cheese making, flour 
milling, the canning of fish, and the sawing of lumber. Iron 
manufacture is in its infancy, but is sure to increase, since ma- 
chinery, steel rails, and tools are precisely what a new land must 
have for its development. Cotton, woolen, and leather work, 

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furniture making, and sugar refining have attained importance 
in the older provinces. The manufactures even of the young 
city of Winnipeg gave a total of $22,000,000 in 1907. Manu- 
factures are most developed in the older and larger centers of 
the east, as at Montreal, Toronto, Quebec, Kingston, Hamilton, 
and St. John. 

240. Cities. These may be conveniently divided into four 
groups, — Atlantic, Pacific, lake, and interior cities. 

1. Atlantic cities. Halifax and St. John are by the open 
sea, while Quebec and Montreal, on the deep estuary of the St. 
Lawrence, are, for the purposes of commerce, marine cities. By 

Fig. 169. Halifax harbor 

reason of good harbors or commanding sites all were founded 
in early days. Halifax has been called the most English city 
in America. Its population is about 55,000, it has a superior 
harbor, and until recently was occupied by a British garrison. 
It is the eastern terminus of the Canadian Pacific and of the 
Intercolonial Railway, and has long had transatlantic steamship 
communication. St. John is the chief shipping point for New 
Brunswick products, and is the winter port of some Atlantic 
lines. It has coastwise connections with Halifax, Portland, 
and Boston. 

Quebec stands on a noble promontory on the north bank of 
the St. Lawrence, and is perhaps the most historic city in North 

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America. The Indian town Stadacona preceded it, and here 
Quebec was founded in 1608 by Champlain. In 1759 the vic- 
tory of Wolfe over Montcalm forever transferred Canada from 
the French to the British flag. Much of its former sea trade 
went to Montreal when the St. Lawrence was deepened to re- 
ceive large ships, but it is believed that the increasing size of 
vessels may bring back some of the city's former importance as 
a port. It was formerly a center of timber industry, and the 
development of wood pulp is reviving its importance as a depot 

Fig. 170. Montreal harbor 

of forest products. The bridge over the St. Lawrence, whose 
completion was delayed by a disaster, will give Quebec the ad- 
vantage of being on a direct line of traffic from the west to 
St. John and Halifax. 

Montreal, having 454,000 people, is the largest city in Can- 
ada. It is at the head of navigation for large ships, but for 
smaller vessels its waterways lead up the St. Lawrence to the 
Great Lakes, and up the Ottawa River to Ottawa. It is a ter- 
minal, present or prospective, of all the transcontinental lines 
of railway, and has easy communication with New York City 
by way of the Champlain and Hudson valleys. Its immediate 
hinterland is the most fertile parts of the provinces of Quebec 

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and Ontario. The steamships of the Allan, Dominion, Canadian 
Pacific, and other lines begin at the docks of Montreal their voy- 
ages to Liverpool, Glasgow, Havre, and Antwerp. Here are the 
chief offices and shops of the Canadian Pacific and Grand Trunk 
railways. The manufactures are in metropolitan variety, and the 
Bank of Montreal claims to have the largest capital of any bank in 
America, and has important branches in other Canadian cities. 

Fig. 171. Canadian Pacific Railway station and docks, Vancouver, 
British Columbia 

2. Pacific cities. The chief of these is Vancouver, with a 
population of about 85,000. Until 1886 its site was covered 
with a dense forest of big trees. It is on a narrow peninsula 
between two bays, of which the northern is the harbor. The ter- 
minal parts of the peninsula, west of the city, are still covered 
with such forest, which, under the name of Stanley Park, is 
the public park of the city. The place grew up as the terminal 
and port of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and is a marked 
example of the swift growth of life and trade in America. From 

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its piers on the northern border of the city run regular lines of 
steamships to Yokohama, Shanghai, and Hongkong ; to Alaska, 
Honolulu, Fiji, and Australia ; to California, Mexico, and Cen- 
tral America ; and, by way of the Suez Canal, to Liverpool. It 
has, besides, constant water traffic with Victoria and with Seattle 
and other ports of Puget Sound in the United States. 

Victoria is the capital of British Columbia and occupies a 
position of great beauty at the south end of Vancouver Island, 
eighty miles from Vancouver. It is a much older city, with 

I ,1 \ 1 J Li 

wm ' m 

Fig. 172. Sealing fleet in Victoria harbor, British Columbia 

important but not great commercial interests, and is a tourist point 
and a calling port for Pacific steamships. Close to the south 
end of Alaska, near the north end of the shore line of British 
Columbia, a little above latitude 54 degrees, is Prince Rupert, 
the newly founded city which will be the western terminal of 
the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. 

3. Lake cities on Lake Ontario are Kingston, Toronto, and 
Hamilton. The first is near the opening of the St. Lawrence 
at the foot of the lake. It communicates with Ottawa by the 
Rideau Canal, is reached by the chief railways, is a considerable 
manufacturing point, and is a center for tourists. Toronto, on 
the north shore,* is the capital of Ontario and the second city in 

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Canada in population and in commerce. It not only has con- 
nection with the upper Lakes by the Welland Canal, but, by a short 
line of railway, is joined to the ports of Georgian Bay, and thus 
with' the Canadian steamship lines on Lake Huron and Lake 
Superior. Toronto and Montreal have special distinction among 
the educational centers of Canada. Hamilton is at the west end 
of Lake Ontario, is on the line of railway communication with 
the United States, and its hinterland is the garden ground of 
eastern Canada. Niagara power is now being utilized, and here, 
no doubt, as on the American side, an important industrial 
center will develop. Similarly, on the Canadian as on the 
Michigan side of the St. Marys River, industry already estab- 
lished will become important, since the place has water power, 
and transportation both by lake and rail. Port Arthur and 
Fort William on the north shore of Lake Superior, side by 
side, are the lake terminals of the Canadian Pacific and Can- 
adian Northern railways, and are towns of swift growth and 
increasing commercial and industrial importance. 

4. Interior cities. Of important inland centers the oldest is 
Ottawa, the capital of the Dominion. Its growth, like that of 
other seats of government, is not due especially to its position 
as a capital city, for geographic conditions give it an industrial 
and commercial character. It is at the head of navigation on 
the Ottawa River and is joined by the Rideau Canal to King- 
ston and Lake Ontario. The Chaudi&re Falls furnish water 
power, which is applied especially in the lumber industry. A 
single plant cuts yearly 1 1 0,000, 000 feet of lumber, and others 
from 35,000,000 to 60,000,000 each. 

Winnipeg was long the chief post of the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany, bearing the name of Fort Garry. It is at the junction of 
the Assiniboine and Red rivers, both navigable streams. More 
important than this is its position on the border of the prairies 
between the international boundary and Lake Winnipeg. North 
of the lake is a country which must remain a wilderness. Every 
transcontinental Canadian railway therefore must pass through 
Winnipeg, and all central Canada must be tributary to it. It has 

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about 1 30,000 people, and it has been said that it has " the largest 
undisputed mercantile territory in the world " ; it already rivals, 
on about equal terms, Minneapolis as a primary wheat market. 
Nearly 1000 miles to the northwest is Edmonton, the capital 
of Alberta, on the Saskatchewan River. It has 30,000 people, 
and will soon be joined to three transcontinental railways. It 

Fig. 173. Winnipeg, looking west along Portage Avenue 

has a varied agriculture, plentiful coal, and the Peace River 
country will be tributary to it. It already has fourteen banks 
and is the second distributing center in western Canada. 

241. Waterways. Canada opens on the east and west to 
the oceans and continents of the northern hemisphere. Within 
eastern Canada protected waters bear ocean ships 1000 miles to 
Montreal. Thence smaller vessels may proceed up the Ottawa to 
the capital, avoiding rapids by canals. Forty-six miles below Mont- 
real, boats may go by river and canal to Lake Champlain. Up 
the St. Lawrence, avoiding the rapids by canals, a fourteen-foot 

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passage is gained to Lake Ontario, and the Welland Canal by 
like depth conducts to Lake Erie. The Sault St. Marie Canal 
joins Lake Huron to Lake Superior, and the lake terminals for 
Canada are found at Port Arthur and Fort William. 

An important canal is planned to lead from Georgian Bay 
by an old glacial channel and by present streams to the Ottawa 
River, giving in the summer months the shortest passage from 
the upper Lakes to tidewater. 
The St. Lawrence from Que- 
bec up to Montreal has been 
deepened to 30 feet, and the 
work has been sixty years in 
progress. It is proposed to 
build a railway to join Mani- 
toba and the west with Hudson 
Bay, touching its shore either 
at Fort Churchill or Fort Nel- 
son, thus bringing Winnipeg 
800 miles nearer Liverpool 
than by the present route 
through Montreal. Naviga- 
tion would here be open but a 
part of the year, but it is be- 
lieved that much of the ex- 
ported wheat might take this 
route. It seems possible in future development to open a water- 
way from Lake Superior to Winnipeg and Edmonton, using the 
numerous rivers and lakes, and thence to the Arctic sea by the 
Athabaska, Peace, Stone, and Mackenzie rivers. 

242. Railways. The Canadian Pacific crosses the continent 
from Halifax to Vancouver, with many spurs and with a network 
on the prairies. When one sees the long line of Canadian 
Pacific piers at Antwerp he is at the eastern terminus of a route 
that leads by ship and rail from Europe to China, more than 
two thirds the circuit of the globe. 

Fig. 174. Snowsheds, Selkirk Moun- 
tains, Canadian Pacific Railway 

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The old Grand Trunk Railway is merged with the new 
Grand Trunk Pacific, and thus will run from Moncton, New 
Brunswick, via Winnipeg, 3600 miles to Prince Rupert on the 
Pacific. The Canadian Northern is a new system begun in 1896, 
and operating about 5000 miles of road at the present time. It 
is chiefly in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, where its 
network occupies a belt north of the Canadian Pacific main line. 
Its trunk line runs from Edmonton to Port Arthur and a branch 
joins Duluth to the system. It has lines in central Ontario and 
will ultimately join the two oceans. Its eastern terminal will be 
at Quebec. There are nearly 1500 grain elevators in western 
Canada, and the capacity of the Port Arthur and Fort William 
elevators is about 15,000,000 bushels. Before the days of the 
Canadian Pacific road the freight on a bushel of wheat from 
Winnipeg to Liverpool was six shillings. It is now ninepence 
and the distance is 4500 miles. A vast population can live across 
an ocean and across half a continent from the fields where their 
bread is grown. 

243. Foreign commerce. The total foreign trade of Canada in 
1908 amounted to $650,000,000. Of this sum $280,000,000 rep- 
resented exports and $370,000,000 imports. By far the greater 
part of this trade is with the United States and Great Britain. 
Canada sends to Great Britain a great supply of foodstuffs ; 
hence these exports are larger than to the United States. On 
the other hand, the United States sends more than twice as 
much merchandise into Canada as the mother country. This is 
done, although a preferential tariff admits goods from Great 
Britain on more favorable terms than from the United States. 
The reason is that a kindred people, with similar problems and 
needs, is our close neighbor along an extended boundary. Iron 
and steel, coal, woolen and cotton goods, sugar, drugs, and chem- 
icals are the larger items in Canadian imports, while the chief 
exports are cheese (nearly $23,000, 000 in 1908), cattle, bacon, 
wheat, wood and wood pulp, silver, gold, and copper. Montreal 
is the leading city both for exports and imports. Toronto has a 
large import trade but almost no export business. 

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244. Basis of commercial greatness. The name " Great Brit- 
ain " is correctly used of England, Wales, and Scotland, but 
the designation " United Kingdom " is better, if Ireland be 
included. By usage, however, the adjective " British " may 
be correctly applied to the United Kingdom in general. " Eng- 
land " and "English" are often incorrectly used concerning the 
United Kingdom. 

The islands are substantially included between the parallels of 
50 and 60 degrees north latitude, and the mild climate is to be 
contrasted with the stern conditions of the same latitudes in the 
Labrador and Hudson Bay regions west of the Atlantic. The 
area of the United Kingdom is 1 2 1 ,000 square miles. The insu- 
iar position is important for defense and commercial progress. 
The United Kingdom is so close to continental Europe that 
commercial exchange is easy, and a short ocean track joins it 
to the United States and Canada. 

There are other reasons for commercial growth, as is shown 
by Chisholm. The areas of good soil are relatively large and 
the. climate is favorable for labor and productiveness. Neither 
the heat of summer nor the cold of winter is such as to check 
endeavor. The rainfall is ample, being above 60 inches in the 
highlands of the west, and from 25 to 30 inches on the eastern 
lowlands. Coal and iron are the most important raw materials 
produced. Good harbors are many, and Britons have for cen- 
turies been keen sailors. In the interior, England has physical 
unity, and close communication binds together all parts of the 
kingdom. Bays and estuaries run far inland and their heads 
connect by short routes with each other and with interior cities. 
Colonies lie in every part of the world. 


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British character and hereditary qualities, as well as British 
geography, explain the march of industry and trade. It is these 
which make labor effective and invention strong. This inner 
quality early developed thrift and progress, accumulated capital, 
built up markets and held them, perfected shipping, and diffused 
the English language. British character took possession of 
North America against odds, and in regions whose sovereignty 

it lost it yet finds the largest 
market for its manufactures 
and the greatest source of its 
raw materials. Geographic 
conditions but partly explain 
how a country less than half 
as large as Texas supports 
44,000,000 people, and has, 
of all nations, the largest 
shipping, the largest total of 
foreign commerce, the great- 
est colonial system, and of- 
fers the largest market for 
the world's merchandise. 

245. Metropolitan Eng- 
land. It is useful in this 
study to follow Mackinder 
and make a distinction be- 
tween " metropolitan " and 
" industrial " England. The former is the southeastern or lowland 
part, whose center is London. It is the side of England which 
faces the continent, having little coal and little water power. 
Outside of London it has no cities of the first order, and but few 
containing as many as 100,000 people. A line drawn from the 
Severn to the Wash is substantially its northwestern boundary. 
Its present life is of more ancient origin than the life of in- 
dustrial England. Wealth, conservatism, and social development 
are here, and these culminate in London, the seat of government, 
the financial and literary center of the Empire. 

Fig. 176. Eddystone Lighthouse, 
English Channel 

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246. Industrial England. From the Scottish border, midway 
between seas, an upland runs south and descends to the plains 
in the center of England. This broad, low mountain ridge, 
nowhere rising to 3000 feet and usually of much less height, is 
the Pennine Range, often called the " backbone " of England. 
Around this range — on its east side, about its south end, and 
on its west side — lies industrial England. It is the region of 
coal and iron. On the east are Newcastle and the county of 
York. Here is a group of industrial cities, — Leeds, Bradford, 
Halifax, Huddersfield, and Sheffield, in the basin of the Hum- 
ber and back of the ports, Hull and Grimsby. South of the 
Pennine Range are Derby, Stafford, Dudley, Wolverhampton, 
and, above all, Birmingham with its smoking chimneys and 
endless rows of the brick cottages of its laborers. On the west 
is the county of Lancashire, with Manchester and its cluster 
of satellite towns humming with spindles and looking toward 
Liverpool and the Atlantic. 

In industrial England life is new, and there is more toil and 
less leisure than in southern England. On the inventions of the 
past century and a half, and on the coal and iron development 
of the last century, industrial England is founded. It lives in 
the atmosphere of trade, its feeling is democratic, and its uni- 
versities are the outgrowth of present times. It is perhaps 
typical of the life of the two regions that metropolitan England 
has one center and industrial England has many. 

247. English agriculture. For the American student it is 
less important to know the details of farm products than to see 
the relation between agriculture and industry. To 1850 British 

. food, so far as the nature of climate and soil permitted, was- 
raised at home. Now the greater share of it is imported. In 
1850 there were in England and Wales less than 18,000,000 
people. In 1908 the population was more than 35,000,000. 
The population has thus almost doubled, and in many agri- 
cultural products the movement is backward. With modern 
methods of tillage and transportation new countries can lay 
down wheat and meat in English cities more cheaply than the 

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306 commercial geography 

English farmer can raise them. The land is more and more 
occupied by roads and houses, and labor is better rewarded in 
the factory than on the farm. Iron and coal, with skill and 
industry added, enable the Englishman to support himself by 
manufacturing and commerce, selling his goods to those who 
raise his food, and who raise also most of the raw material for 
his factories. 

Oats, barley, and wheat are the largest grain crops. The last 
is most raised on the eastern lowland, and shows larger aver- 
age yield per acre than the wheat of most countries. Potatoes 
and turnips are large crops, and market gardening increases 
for the supply of the city populations. There is much pasture 
and meadow, and for a small area the animal industry is large. 
Dairy interests are important, but the chief supply is from 
foreign lands, — Denmark, Canada, and Australasia. Less than 
4 per cent of the United Kingdom is in forest, and the wood- 
lands serve less for timber than as pleasure grounds for the rich. 

248. English cotton industry. The cotton working of the 
United Kingdom centers in Manchester and the surrounding 
towns in Lancashire, on the west slope of the Pennines. The 
moist, warm winds from the sea maintain a high degree of 
moisture in the air and favor the handling of the cotton fiber. 
The power for machinery is supplied from the Lancashire coal 
field. The raw material from the United States, Egypt, and 
other lands comes in by the neighboring port of Liverpool, and 
in smaller part direct by the Manchester Ship Canal. By the 
same means the product of the mills is sent to all parts of the 
world in British ships. The country supplies everything but 
the raw cotton. 

Manchester and the adjoining Salford have nearly 1,000,000 
people. This center is called by Mill mercantile rather than 
manufacturing, being full of warehouses and being the financial 
center, while the mills and spindles are in neighboring towns. 
Of these Oldham has nearly 150,000 people and is said to hold 
one third of the cotton spindles of England. Bolton, Black- 
burn, Burnley, and Preston are important centers for cotton 

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goods. At Preston, Arkwright set up spinning frames in 1768. 
Outside of this district Nottingham is the chief town devoted 
to cotton, specializing in lace and cotton hosiery. It has 260,- 
000 people, and, like the towns above named, directs the 
American student's attention to the size and importance of 
foreign towns of which he often knows no more than the name. 

Fig. 177. Card room showing drawing and roving frames; cotton mill 

in the Lancashire region 

Brooks and Doxey, Manchester 

The sources of England's supremacy in cotton manufacture 
were noticed in sect. 28. Her advantage of an early beginning 
will be smaller as time passes. Other nations are gaining skill 
and experience in this industry, and the amount of cotton milled 
in the United States, France, Germany, and Italy shows that 
these nations will increasingly supply their own markets. Much 
will depend on the energy with which the cotton-working peoples 
seize and hold the market in the populous but backward coun- 
tries. No doubt the leadership of Lancashire will become less 
conspicuous, but whether it will pass to some other part of the 
world depends on many conditions and cannot now be told. 

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3 o8 


249. English woolen industry. About forty miles northeast 
of Manchester, on the other side of the Pennine upland, is 
Leeds. About Leeds are Bradford, Halifax, Huddersfield, and 
other large towns, and here in Yorkshire is the chief center of 
the world's woolen manufacture. The population of Leeds was 
estimated in 1908 at 477,000. Bradford had nearly 300,000 

Fig. 178. Picker room, Lancashire cotton mill 
Brooks and Doxey, Manchester 

and is but eight miles from Leeds. Halifax, with 111,000, is 
more than twice as large as the Halifax with which the Ameri- 
can student is familiar. On the neighboring Pennine pastures 
sheep have been raised for centuries, and in the villages among 
the hills handwork in wool was the forerunner of the factories 
of to-day. The supremacy of Yorkshire in woolen goods is due 
to a number of causes, among which are the early keeping 
of sheep in the region, the persecution of skilled weavers 
on the continent and their immigration to England, the prior 
invention of machinery and adoption of the factory system, 
and the concentration of capital and skill which always favors 
a locality when its industry has been long established and is 

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known throughout the world. According to Chisholm, Leeds 
is first in the wholesale clothing trade in Great Britain, prob- 
ably first in leather, and is important in iron and steel. It is 
natural that such centers as Manchester and Leeds should meet 
their own demands for textile and other machinery. Many 
towns in this district engage in special forms of woolen manu- 
facture, and Bradford works in silk, velvet, and plush goods. 

Scale of 0i 

Woolen industries 

K E V 

O Cotton industries 

t'.^."l Altitudes above 1000 feet 

Fig. 179. English centers of cotton and woolen manufacture 

Leicester lies some distance to the southward, in the center of 
England. Woolen hosiery is more largely made here than else- 
where. The population in 1908 was 240,000. 

250. English mineral industry (sects. 56 and 66). Except- 
ing iron, the mining of metals is a small industry in England. 
Cornwall and Devon are the chief European source of tin, and 
the output in 1907 was 4407 tons of metal, worth nearly 
$4,000,000. In the same year the exports of tin from the 
Straits Settlements in British India were valued at more than 
$82,000,000. Some lead and zinc are mined in the north of 
England, the product for the United Kingdom in 1907 being 
worth a little over $3,000,000. The production of copper is 
not important, and even smaller is the output of gold and silver. 
Of the nonmetals, building stones and pottery and other clays 

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are abundant. Staffordshire, Worcester, and Derby are centers 
of potteries, and ornamental stoneware is made in London. 
Glass is made in some of the coal fields, and salt deposits are 
well distributed. The total mineral product of the United King- 
dom in 1907 was valued at $676,000,000. Of this England 
produced $448,000,000. Of the total for the United Kingdom 
coal is credited with about 89 per cent. 

251. British fisheries. Reference is here made to this in- 
dustry for the United Kingdom as a whole. Irish production 
is small, and British waters are sought mainly by English and 
Scotch fishermen, this being due to the greater markets of 
Great Britain and the superior richness of North Sea waters. 
These waters, like those of the Newfoundland Banks, are shal- 
low. Yarmouth and Lowestoft are among the old fishing towns 
of the east coast, but the industry is concentrating in larger 
ports, as Grimsby and Aberdeen. The total product of the fish- 
eries of the United Kingdom in 1908 was valued at $50,000,- 
000, and about 107,000 persons were employed. With short 
distances and swift trains fresh fish make an important part of 
the food in Great Britain, and express passenger trains have 
been sidetracked to allow fish trains to move toward London, 
where, at Billingsgate, is the largest fish market in any land. 

252. Wales. This region closely adjoins England and is 
near to such industrial and commercial centers as London, 
Birmingham, and Liverpool. Here is a land of ancient rocks, 
much deformed, still mountainous, and often rugged. Agricul- 
ture is limited and of purely local interest, and coal far out- 
weighs in value all other products, being found in the South 
Wales coal field, adjacent to Bristol Channel and extending 
northward from Swansea and Cardiff. The population of Cardiff 
in 1908 was about 190,000, and its industries were in iron, steel, 
tin plate, and shipbuilding. Swansea has about 1 00,000 people, 
and its industries are in tin plate and the smelting of copper. 
Wales has some iron, but the ores are mainly imported from 
Spain, and the copper ores are brought to Swansea from many 
countries. Roofing slates are much quarried in North Wales. 

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253. English and Welsh seaports. The seaports will be taken 
in groups, and first those of the east coast. London is the first 
of British ports. It is the center of the British Empire, the 
focus of the railroad systems of Great Britain, and opposite the 
mouths of the Rhine and Scheldt, important navigable rivers 
of the continent. Not being in the industrial district, its imports 
are greater than its exports. It is a distributing center. First, 
its own population requires large supplies. Second, it distributes 
foreign commodities to all 
parts of Great Britain by the 
railways and by the coast- 
ing trade, having more of the 
latter than any other port. 
Third, it reexports merchan- 
dise from all parts of the 
world to continental coun- 
tries, but this business is now 
somewhat narrowed by the 
growth of foreign trade at 
Bremen, Hamburg, and other 
ports of the continent. Like 
most great British ports, 
London is inland, being on 
the estuary of the Thames, 
at the head of navigation. 

The next deep reentrant going north is the Wash, but this is 
commercially unimportant. Then comes the estuary of the Hum- 
ber, leading to Grimsby and Hull. The latter is the third port of 
the United Kingdom in the importance of its shipping. It is an 
outlet for the woolen and iron of the Leeds and Sheffield regions, 
and reaches across the Pennines and carries out some of the cot- 
ton of Lancashire. Its foreign connections are with continental 
nations, India, Australia, and the United States. Newcastle upon 
Tyne is the great port of the north of England. It is eight miles 
from the sea, from which the docks are continuous, and the trade 
is in coal and iron, shipbuilding being a large industry. 

Fig. 180. Looking south across the land- 
ing stage and the Mersey, Liverpool 

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Of ports on the west coast Liverpool is the first. It is on the 
estuary of the Mersey, which receives the largest ships. The large 
city of Birkenhead, south of the Mersey, belongs to the same 
commercial center. Liverpool is the great port for the United 
States, and has a vast import trade in foodstuffs, cotton, iron, 
lumber, and tobacco. Its lines connect with Africa, the Medi- 
terranean, Australia, and India. Liverpool and Birkenhead had 
in 1908 about 900,000 people. 

Bristol is an ancient port, and is said to have been, in the 
fourteenth century, second only to London. It has declined in 
recent times, but new docks have been built in an effort for the 
revival of its foreign trade. Cardiff and Swansea have already 
been named as places of industry. Their importance in foreign 
trade lies especially in exports of coal, which are very large, and 
imports of ores of iron and copper. Holyhead on the Welsh 
coast is significant as a point of transfer for London mails to 
America, via Queenstown and the Atlantic mail ships. Recently 
also Fishguard has been made a port of call for some of the 
fast ships of the Cunard Line. 

Southampton is the most important port on the south shore. 
Several Atlantic lines make this port for London, and some 
White Star Line ships now come to Southampton in place of 
Liverpool. Plymouth, in Devonshire, has considerable foreign 
trade, and has long been one of the chief British naval stations. 
Transfer to the continent is made from New Haven, Folkestone, 
and Dover on the English Channel, and Harwich on the North 
Sea. Dover lines run to Ostend in Belgium and Calais in 

254. English railroads and canals. Where the Romans planted 
civilization in England nearly 2000 years ago, they used many 
of the routes of travel over which modern roads now pass. 
Such routes ran out from London, and to-day in a marked way 
the railways radiate from the metropolis. On the south and 
east they are short because the sea is nearer, but on the west 
and north they run to Lands End, to Bristol and the Welsh 
ports, to Liverpool, the great industrial towns, and the Scottish 

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border. The roads are well built, there are no grade crossings, 
on many through lines great speed is made, and owing to the 
dense population and many large cities passenger travel is enor- 
mous, but the number of accidents, by reason of careful mainte- 
nance and management, is small. The railway mileage of England 

j j— to Quebee 2S03m. 


A*«£ » -J2^ 

g*kfl>ndonderry\ ' 

fl^t Gal way ,1 
f* DubN>d£ 


London to /Halifax 2723 m. 

j ^"^*ii lajfTyni' ni out h/ ^ ^""^J*** 

\ flSuiidt-rlantf £ ^^^Lfc, 

J 1 r^^Middlrsboro ^""v^ 

l \ \ h 

/ *n| (Ci 

1 ^^if Birmingh 
y F i » h t? 11 a rdy**"'^. 

iTmmith > 


Brest V' , '^i|^ i » 

C herbouriA \<"£i- 
f3^ \ j,rt><««**^ Dieppe 
i 1 MlHavre 
\ ^^^^^ KEY 

Approximate boundary, 

•* industrial England. 

• Taints 0/ /arge f ron fnduaf r# 
> r ai«€« 0/ chief port 3 underscored 

Fig. 181. Chief British railways, ports, and sea routes 

and Wales was 15,897 at the beginning of 1908. The total for 
the United Kingdom was 23,108. The freight or "goods" traf- 
fic of England differs from that of the United States in the 
small cars used. These better suit the short-distance carriage, 
the local trade, and vast number of small consignments. 

England and Wales have 3641 miles of canals, of which 
1 184 miles are either owned or controlled by the railways. 

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England had its era of canal building a hundred years ago, and, 
as in America, such waterways have declined, the railways are 
charged with destroying their usefulness, and present agitation 
looks toward their revival. Most of the commercial rivers are 
joined by canals crossing the central plains of England. 

The Manchester Ship Canal is an important modern con- 
struction opened in 1894. Its length is 35^ miles and its depth 
28 feet. It connects both with the sea and with the large canals 
of the interior, and is designed to release the cotton and other 
trade of Manchester from subjection to the shipping interests 
of Liverpool. Both post and telegraph are under government 

255. Scotland and Scottish agriculture. Scotland has a cen- 
tral lowland and two highlands. The lowland stretches from 
the North Sea to the Atlantic, and is deeply indented by the 
Firth of Forth and the Clyde. The greater highland is on the 
north, is cut by deep glens, and has on its northern and eastern 
fringe some areas of fertile lowland. Like the lowland, it is 
deeply indented by fiords and sea lochs, and is bordered, espe- 
cially on the west, by innumerable islands. The higher grounds 
in the south may be called the Scottish upland, leaving High- 
lands as a distinctive term for the north. This region is less 
high and rugged than the Highlands and is largely used for 
sheep pastures. Railways from England follow the east and 
west coasts and also thread the center of this upland. 

The higher grounds and islands of Scotland make 70 per 
cent of its territory and contain but 23 per cent of the inhabit- 
ants. Most of the agriculture as well as the industry is in the 
thickly populated central lowland extending into the interior 
from Edinburgh and Glasgow. Three fourths of the grain 
crops are in oats, barley being the remaining cereal of impor- 
tance. Here is seen the influence of a northern latitude with 
damp and cool climate. The days of summer sunshine are, 
however, long. Most of the plowland is in the central lowland. 
Potatoes, turnips, and swedes are grown, and roots are said 
to be as important for stock as corn is in the United States, 

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In the mountainous districts the population is scattered and 
the grazing of sheep and cattle is the chief interest. 

256. Scottish industries. As in England, textiles have a 
large place, and this applies to cotton, woolen, and linen goods. 
The Scottish Lowlands have in close association coal, iron, and 
shipping facilities, with intelligent and industrious labor and in- 
ventive skill, a description which answers precisely for indus- 
trial England. The cottons center about Glasgow. The words 
"tweed," "tartan," and "plaid" suggest types of Scottish 


^~l la 


Forth and Clyde Canal 


TZ\ Altitudes above 500 feet 

Fig. 182. Industrial and commercial map of the Scottish Lowlands 

woolen manufacture which are everywhere known. The distil- 
ling of whisky is a large industry, and a third class of manu- 
factures relates to iron and steel. To the last belongs the 
shipbuilding of the Clyde, which is unequaled. Another in- 
dustry of the Lowlands is made possible by the occurrence of 
shales containing mineral oil, the extraction of which affords 
a considerable product. 

257. Scottish seaports. The greatest of these is Glasgow, 
which in 1908 contained about 860,000 people, and is the 
second city in the United Kingdom. The development of 
adjacent coal and iron and the deepening of the Clyde have 
gone on together during the past century of new use of fuel, 

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machinery, and ocean trade. As with Liverpool, the trade of 
Glasgow has grown largely out of commercial relations with 
America, and many steamships from the St. Lawrence make 
port there. Looking at a general map of Scotland, Glasgow 
seems to be in the heart of the country, so far does the Clyde 
penetrate the interior. This in less degree is true of Edinburgh 
and Leith, and thus the two centers of Scotland are in close 
relations both with the sea and with the Scottish lowlands. 

Leith is on the south shore of the Firth of Forth, two miles 
from Edinburgh, of which it is the port. The combined popu- 
lation is nearly 450,000. Edinburgh is not an industrial city, 
but the importance of the port is considerable, and it has ship- 
ping relations with Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands, and 
other countries. Considerable exports of coal and iron here 
reach the sea. Dundee also has an estuarine harbor along the 
Tay, fifty miles from Edinburgh to the northeast. It is third in 
importance, of Scottish ports, having industrial work in linens, 
jute, confectionery, and jams, and is the center of considerable 
foreign trade. Its population in 1908 was 168,000. Aberdeen, 
on the east coast, north of Dundee, has its chief industries in 
cotton, iron, paper, and the quarrying of the local granite. Of 
the last the city is built, and it forms an important part of its 
outgoing freight. Thus Leith, Dundee, and Aberdeen, though 
smaller, compare with London, Hull, and Newcastle on the east 
coast of England, and Glasgow dominates the west coast, as 
does Liverpool in England. 

258. Ireland. This part of the United Kingdom holds small 
place in the world's commerce, since its trade is mainly with 
Great Britain. This appears in the fact that its two chief sea- 
ports, Dublin and Belfast, are on the east coast. Ireland has 
had its largest effect on commerce and industry by the multi- 
tude of emigrants sent to other lands. This is especially true 
of the United States, to which Irishmen formerly came in 
great numbers as laborers. Their descendants are now widely 
engaged in trade, manufacturing, and agriculture, and form an 
important element in the American population. 

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Ireland consists of an interior, well-watered lowland, bordered 
about the sea with low mountains. Some rivers penetrate the 
lowland to its center and several are joined to each other by 
canals, giving a complete passage of the island, as in England. 
The river Shannon flows from the north, southward through 
the heart of Ireland to the Atlantic on the west. Its upper 
waters are canalized, and there is canal and river connection 
with Belfast in the northeast, Dublin in the east, and Waterford 
in the southeast. 

Agriculture rules in Ireland, with potatoes, oats, and roots 
for home consumption and stock raising; cattle, horses, and 
poultry being exported to Great Britain, as also eggs and dairy 
products. Flax is grown in the north in connection with the 
linen industry. Manufactures are limited, owing partly to ancient 
social and governmental conditions, and partly to small supplies 
of iron and coal. 

259. Commerce of the United Kingdom. The United King- 
dom is essentially a free-trade country. Customs duties are 
collected only upon the following articles : tea, coffee, spirits, 
wine, tobacco, sugar, dried fruits, cocoa, and chicory. In 1907 
the imports on which duty was paid amounted to about one 
twelfth of the total imports. The raw materials of manufacture, 
manufactured products, and foods and food materials nearly all 
enter free. The total imports and exports in 1908 amounted 
to ;£ 1, 050,000, 000 sterling, or over $5,000,000,000. The im- 
port trade is considerably greater than the export trade and is 
different in character. The following classes of merchandise 
were imported to values above ^10,000,000 each; grain and 
flour led with ^72,000,000 ; then followed cotton, wool, sheep 
and lambs, meat, sugar, butter, wood and timber, silk manu- 
factures, coir, flax, hemp, jute, tea, chemicals, dyestuffs, fruits, 
and hops. 

The exports tell a different story. Far in the lead are tex- 
tiles, including cotton manufactures and cotton yarn, with a 
value of ^94,000,000 sterling. Woolen and worsted come 
next with ^28,000,000, and linen and other materials make 

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;£ 1 7,000,000. Metal work, ships, machinery, and hardware 
contribute ^77,000,000 in value, and coal adds ^41,000,000, 
being so far the world's greatest export of coal, and much the 
largest export among native products of the United Kingdom. 

Many facts concerning the distribution of British commerce 
among the nations have already been given in the chapters on 
wheat, cotton, animal industry, iron, coal, and in the chapters 
on Canada and the foreign trade of the United States. It may 
now be stated that the United Kingdom, with its mercantile 
marine surpassing that of all nations, with colonies in every 
part of the world, with the need of importing most of its food 
and raw material, and with high industrial persistence and skill, 
has built up the most widely distributed and largest trade of any 
nation. Whether this position can be maintained, can only be 
revealed by the future. It is significant that in recent years the 
United States has exceeded the United Kingdom in the total 
value of manufactures and in the total of exports. This is not 
surprising in view of the size of the republic and the vast 
resources found within home territory. 

Some causes of British supremacy in industry and commerce 
may here be summarized. The discovery of America placed 
Great Britain at a pivotal point between the Old and New 
Worlds. British character and skill in handicraft became effec- 
tive during the modern centuries. Britain at the critical period 
was the pioneer in the invention and use of machinery, and was 
the first to develop coal and iron. Transportation was favored 
by her insular position, her harbors, tidal rivers, and early de- 
velopment of canals and railroads. Her mastery of the ocean 
gave her raw materials from all countries and made the world 
her market. Her adoption of the free-trade system resulted in 
cheap food and raw materials, and enabled her long to under- 
sell competitors in the great lines of manufacture. The exten- 
sion of the Empire made her shipping safe, gave outlet to her 
surplus people and capital, and added security to her markets. 

Britain's competitors, the United States and Germany, now 
share with her many of these advantages and at present surpass 

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130 160 1J0 120 


South Gem _-j,v 



South Shetland^'.., 

| jg'Oriiliaiu Land 

ltO 1(10 

120 100 Longitude 80 West CO from 4Q Greenwich 20 

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C •}■>■ Town 






1000 2000 30<)0 4000 50 00 

Scale of Miles along the Equator 

2V ?M R 



20 Longitude -10 East 60 from 80 GreenwidilOO 

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her in rate of growth. Whether one nation or another is su- 
preme is perhaps more important to national pride than to the 
world's progress. The high rate of British taxation required to 
meet the interest "of her debt, the support of her navy, and for 
other public ends, may handicap progress. There is need also 
of a more thorough and general technical education, in which 
both Germany and the United States are at present more ad- 
vanced. The future also will decide how far the Empire can 
have real unity, and to what extent great and remote states, like 
Australia and Canada, will hold to the mother country not only 
in sentiment but in trade. Great Britain being a small country 
with a large population must buy the world's raw material and 
sell in the world's markets. So long as her stores of iron and 
coal last she may continue to be a great industrial nation, 
whether supreme or as one among others. 

260. British Empire. The chief British dependencies are 
here noticed because they give to the United Kingdom large 
commercial opportunities. Some have a temperate climate and 
are largely settled by Britons ; such are Canada, Australia, New 
Zealand, and, to some degree, South Africa. These colonies 
are peopled and developed by men born in the British Isles 
or of British ancestry. They give the mother country favorable 
terms of trade and supply her with food and various raw mate- 
rials in exchange for the manufactures which they need. Such 
trade stimulates navigation and meets all the great needs of the 
homeland. Keltie refers to colonies of settlement, like the above, 
and colonies of exploitation. The latter are usually tropical, are 
unfitted for the permanent homes of Europeans, and are there- 
fore only governed by the British, while the work in field and 
factory is done by natives. Such is India, a region of vast popu- 
lation and large resources, giving the United Kingdom wheat, 
cotton, and other things, and buying her manufactures. In the 
same class is Ceylon, sending tea, coffee, coconuts, spices, and 
graphite. Here belong the United Kingdom's colonies in the 
East Indian Islands ; also the island of Mauritius and colonies 
and dependencies in central and northern Africa, including 

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Egypt. We must add also British possessions in and about the 
Caribbean Sea, British Honduras, British Guiana, with Jamaica 
and other islands. 

A third class of colonies is of commercial importance. Here 
belong small islands and other posts of defense and supplies. 
A vast merchant marine and navy need coaling stations in every 
part of the world. Such are Gibraltar and Malta in the Medi- 
terranean ; Bermuda, St. Helena, and the Falkland Islands in 
the Atlantic ; the Fiji and many other islands in the Pacific. 

These outposts are strongly fortified and give to the navy of 
Great Britain convenient bases of supply in all parts of the world. 
They are also in communication with London by telegraph lines 
and ocean cables, and thus promote the unity and cooperation of 
all the countries of the empire. 

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261. The French land. France has an Atlantic shore and 
ports (Bordeaux, Nantes) facing America ; it borders the Eng- 
lish Channel and the North Sea, and thus reaches Great Brit- 
ain and all other countries of northern and central Europe ; 
it also has a shore line and its largest port (Marseilles) on the 
Mediterranean, and thus has a way to every Mediterranean coun- 
try of Europe and Africa, and, by the Suez route, to the Orient. 
Concerning the land borders of France one of her geographers 
has said that the country is " encircled but not imprisoned." 
The high and unbroken Pyrenees set a wall on the side of 
Spain, but roads follow the sea at the ends of the range. The 
Alps stand on the borders of Italy and Switzerland, and 
the western Alps, with Mont Blanc, are in France. Railways 
follow the sea along the Riviera and pierce the Alps by the 
Mont Cenis Tunnel, thus leading to Genoa, Turin, and Rome. 

Lower mountains lie on the east and north. The Jura is be- 
tween France and northern Switzerland, the Vosges is on the 
border toward the middle Rhine country of Germany, and the 
Ardennes is the bounding upland between France and Belgium. 
The ways of commerce lie through gaps between the mountains. 
A railway passes from Paris and Lyons up the Rhone to Geneva 
and the heart of Switzerland. Railways and a canal go north 
of the Jura and south of the Vosges, by Belfort to Germany 
and the Rhine. Other gaps lead across the northeastern Ar- 
dennes and the Rhine highlands. 

The central plateau is more in the southeast than in the real 
center of the country. It rises boldly in the C6vennes, west of 
the Rhone, culminating in Mont Loz&re at an altitude of be- 
tween 5000 and 6000 feet. It slopes westward and northward 


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and interposes an area of poorer soil and thinner population 
in the heart of France. It is the divide between the Atlantic 
and Mediterranean rivers of France. The Saone and Rhone 
flow at its base on the east, and the Garonne and Loire flow 
down its western slope. The Seine is the river of northern 
France, while the Moselle and the Meuse are important streams 
finding their lower courses in Germany and Belgium. 

The latitude ranges from 42.5 degrees to 51 degrees, Paris 
standing at about 49 degrees, — as far north as the boundary 
between the United States and western Canada. Marseilles has 
about the latitude of Boston, and the contrast in their temper- 
atures shows the varied control of climate. The presence of 
seas moderates the climate and gives an average rainfall of 
about 30 inches. 

262. Agriculture. Mild climate and good soils give France 
a high position in the tillage of the ground, the chief interrup- 
tion being in the central plateau and the mountain borders. 
About one half of the country is cultivated, and of this, one 
half, or one fourth of the whole, is given to cereals. Halving again, 
one eighth of the land is devoted to wheat. In sect. 10 it was 
shown that in the years 1901-1905 France raised 97 per cent 
of the wheat used. In 1907 the crop was 368,000,000 bushels, 
which supplied home needs and left 25,000,000 to 30,000,000 
bushels for export. This yield is about half that of the best 
years in the entire United States, and shows how highly each 
French farmer cultivates his few acres. The invasion of low- 
priced wheat from new countries is prevented by a prohibitive 
duty of 37 cents per bushel on wheat and $2.75 per barrel on 
flour. Thus the duty is much higher on flour, which, when im- 
porting is necessary, favors the French miller. France contrasts 
with the United Kingdom, which admits wheat and flour freely, 
raises little wheat at home, and buys it with the products of the 
mill, the factory, and the shipping. The farms of France are 
commonly small and worked by the owners. This leads to more 
effective cultivation than in lands where holdings are large and 
cultivation is by tenants. It is nevertheless true that on the 

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selected lands devoted to wheat in England the yield per acre is 
much larger than in France. Agricultural education is carefully 
promoted in France under government direction. 

Fruits next to cereals are typical products of French soil, and 
among these the grape is chief, flourishing almost everywhere 
except in the north. Even to this there is an interesting excep- 
tion, for champagne 
wines are produced 
at about 49 degrees 
north latitude ; and 
the vice consul at 
Rheims, the center 
of this trade, re- 
ported, for 1907, ex- 
ports of this wine to 
the United States 
valued at $S,3S7r 
000. Champagne is 
the name of an old 
province, now mak- 
ing several depart- 
ments. From this 
district one may go 
south by the Sadne- 
Rhone valley to the 
Mediterranean and 

T$V 2° 0* ^ ! 

p^ \SdI*fc*J\ /m 

| LDto°A. (-^ ? / ¥§& 

4 I ^**T' 

/ *"* - ' Am 

-U/ - v 

^ *. V_ ^'t^rij^*'"*^*^* 1 ^^^ A c5?l^. / /"j-i 

rwt ^^" 

tS ~Jiy e arl»V wj^ei t,\ v^M / \w\ 


I V'lC^s*^ j*Y^/^Z**Zs'/ )l-, I'M \ "i^fs^PLr^l^" 

1 ^ *w9 


4fi- 1 

14? — L 

— ■ — h-j ^ N ^^^^ / IV-f J \d 


^^>-*<y \ 1 ]W tfZf^ 


t ""-\ _ l /TV K^i 

■ Toaiar 7 *' 



2° 0° 2 d > 


Fig. 183. Chief wine-producing areas of France 
Names of wine and brandy centers underscored 

be ever in the domain of the vine. Going around the south end 
of the central plateau, he may then follow the Garonne past Tou- 
louse and Bordeaux to the sea and he will find vineyards abound- 
ing. Burgundy, Medoc, and Bordeaux are French geographic 
names better known through wines than for any other reason. 
Olives are also raised in the south, and many nuts, chestnuts, 
and walnuts, the latter being an important item of the export 
trade to the United States. Mulberry trees are grown, the 
leaves serving as food for silkworms, and the growing of sugar 
beets is in an advanced state. 

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1 jpic 

} • - - ^ 

; - 

H H| 

! I-' 1 

■ ■!'■' 

■ ! • 


ft V ■ m It ~ ^> 

— ftL. <* \ \ i— |j 






3 2 4 

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263. Minerals. Coal and iron, the two substances basal to 
industry, form larger interests than in any other European 
countries except the United Kingdom and the German Empire. 
There are many deposits of iron, but the most important are in 
the extreme north, along the Moselle adjacent to Belgium. The 
principal centers for making iron and steel are Lille in the north 
and Le Creuzot in east-central France. Of the coal 60 per cent 
is likewise mined in two northern departments adjacent to the 
English Channel and the Belgian border. Another coal field is 
in the department of Loire, in the central plateau, west of 
Lyons and tributary to the industrial center, Saint-fitienne. The 
coal fields of France occupy 2100 square miles. A considerable 
amount of coal is imported each year. More than 10,000,000 
tons of British coal were brought to France in 1907. Building 
stones and cements are abundant, and the clays suggest the 
well-known centers for fine pottery, — Sevres near Paris and 
Limoges in west-central France. 

264. Fisheries. More than 150,000 people are engaged in 
this industry, and nearly every port on the Channel, on the At- 
lantic, and on the Mediterranean has a fishing trade. French 
boats ply on the Channel and the North Sea, and go far across 
the Atlantic to Iceland waters and to the Banks of Newfound- 
land, where Frenchmen have fished since the time of the early 
voyages of discovery and the first planting of settlements in the 
New World. In these two distant fisheries 142 French vessels 
were engaged in 1907. Their cargoes were chiefly discharged 
at Bordeaux and amounted to 5 5,000,000 pounds. Oyster grow- 

' ing is an increasing industry along the Atlantic coast. 

265. Manufactures. Like the United Kingdom, France im- 
ports considerable iron ore, but, unlike her northern neighbor, 
she also imports much coal. Iron manufacture, therefore, while 
advanced, is not of the first order. Wine offers a manufacture 
simple in kind but large in quantity. The same may be said of 
flour making, which is a great industry, since so much wheat is 
raised and consumed ; and if any is imported, the greater duty 
on flour insures the importation in the form of grain. 

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The textile and clothing industries reach a high total, the tex- 
tiles alone making about $600,000,000 per year. The woolen, 
cotton, and linen industries are found more largely in the northern 

Fig. 185. Principal railways, sea routes, and industrial centers of France 

departments. As much of the coal and iron is here, we have 
a field of general industry comparable to northern England, 
while in the south, as in England, agriculture prevails. The 
district in and about Lyons, however, offers an exception, since 
it lies toward the southeast. Lyons is the third city in France 

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in population and is the first of all centers in the silk industries 
of the world. It is at the eastern base of the central plateau, at 
the junction of the Saone from the north and the Rhone from 
the east. The Rhone-Saone valley has, since ancient times, been 
a highway from the Mediterranean to northern Europe ; hence 
Lyons occupies a natural position for a city. Much raw silk is 
produced in the Rhone valley, but more is brought from Italy 
and the Orient. Lyons has been an important industrial city 
since Roman times, and in addition to silk has trade in grain 
and wine. It is a railroad and financial center, and is the focus 
of much interior navigation. The making of garments, orna- 
ments, and notions is the characteristic part of French industry, 
drawing upon the taste and hereditary skill of the people. For 
such products Paris is preeminent. An interesting change seems 
to be taking place by the use of water power for electrical de- 
velopment in southeastern France. In a single recent year 
150,000 horse power was thus distributed, effecting a needed 
saving in coal and making it possible to divide the work even 
among homes instead of massing it in factories. It is said that 
8000 such purchasers of power are at work in the manufacturing 
center of Saint-fitienne in the uplands west of Lyons. 

266. Transportation. With one exception the chief railroads 
of France radiate from Paris much as those of England center 
in London. The most important road is known as the Paris- 
Lyons-Mediterranean line, and as it reaches Marseilles it joins 
the three great cities of France, threading the heart of the 
country, receiving the produce of its greatest industrial centers 
and many of its richest fields. From it branch lines to Geneva 
and central Switzerland, also to all parts of Italy. 

From Paris other lines reach Toulouse in the south, Bordeaux 
and Nantes on the Atlantic, Havre and all other Channel ports, 
and the industrial centers of northern France, while to the east 
lines pass across the German frontier. 

All the chief rivers have been improved, and they afford 
5 300 miles of navigation. There are also 3000 miles of canals, 
and these are so placed as to join the headwaters of the chief 

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rivers and offer a complete network for crossing the country from 
east to west and from north to south. Thus a canal boat could 
go from Lyons {a) down the Rhone to the sea ; (b) to Strassburg 
and the Rhine ; (c) to Antwerp or Rotterdam ; (d) to Paris and 

Fig. i 86. Interior waterways of France 

Rouen ; (e) to Tours, Nantes, and the Atlantic. One fourth of 
the internal trade is by waterways. Tributary to railways, water- 
ways, and cities, the public highways of France have been highly 
developed and are kept in an exceptionally perfect condition. 

267. Paris. The capital city is in northern France, near the 
sea and the industrial districts. At the same time it commu- 
nicates readily with the south and east, and is on the usual 

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route between French and English ports of the north and west, 
and the interior and southern countries of Europe. It is on the 
Seine, below the junction of the Marne, and is surrounded by 
the rich country known to geologists as the Paris Basin. Its 
local hinterland is one of the richest in France, and the popu- 
lation of the city in 1906 was 2,763,000, making it the third 
of the world's great cities. It-w the first of the industrial and 
commercial cities of France and is characterized not by one in- 
dustry but by many. Thus as a center of general industry it is 
like New York and London. Fashionable clothing and articles 
of luxury belong to the industry and trade in a special manner. 
In 1907 Paris sent to the United States merchandise to the 
value of $63,000,000, or almost half of all French exports to 
this country. Among the chief items were the following : works 
of art, costumes, fancy goods, laces and embroideries, lingerie, 
millinery goods, perfumery and soap, precious stones and imi- 
tations, veilings, and hides and skins. All but the last bear the 
peculiar stamp of French and especially Parisian industry. 

268. Seaports. The greatest is Marseilles on the Mediter- 
ranean, having a population in 1906 of 517,000. The ground 
at the mouth of the Rhone is not suitable for a city ; hence the 
port has grown up on the coast to the eastward. The clearances 
of 1907 gave a tonnage of 5,879,000. The chief Atlantic ports 
are Bordeaux and Nantes. The wine production of the Bordeaux 
consular district in 1907 was 325,000,000 gallons and the ex- 
ports of wine amounted to $23,000,000. This is the chief 
center of French foreign trade in wine. In 1907 the total ex- 
port and import trade of Bordeaux with the United States was 
$13,000,000. It ranks second only to Havre in French trans- 
atlantic trade. As Bordeaux is the port of the Garonne, so 
Nantes is the port of the Loire, the two great river basins form- 
ing the hinterlands, while the Atlantic opens to the west. 

Havre, at the mouth of the Seine, is the port of Paris and 
the second center of sea trade in the republic. It is the chief 
port for trade with America, — cotton, petroleum, tobacco, 
cereals, and other products being here entered. A new line 

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of vessels has recently been established between this port and 
Montreal, and harbor improvements are planned, to receive the 
largest ships. Vessels of 5000 tons go up to Rouen and smaller 
craft follow the Seine to Paris and beyond. Atlantic liners call 
at Cherbourg and Boulogne, and Dieppe and Calais are French 
terminals of boats crossing the Channel to England. Dunkirk 

Fig. 187. Marseilles and harbor 

is on the Channel near its opening into the North Sea, and 
has grown rapidly in its shipping until it is now fourth in 
importance among French marine cities. 

269. Foreign trade. The total in 1907 was $2,236,000,000, 
imports being about $100,000,000 in excess of exports. Like 
the United Kingdom, France brings in raw materials largely, 
but differs in the small imports of foodstuffs, as also of coal. 
Raw cotton is a heavy import from the United States, amount- 
ing to $55,000,000 in 1907. Raw copper was next, with 
$17,000,000; then machinery and tools, $11,000,000; and 
petroleum with its products, $7,000,000. Wood was the next 

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item, with nearly #5,000,000. Exports of French manufactures 
to all countries in that year were valued at $629,000,000. France 
is not a country of the richest raw materials, and much of its 
prosperity is due to the spirit of its people, who make their land 
both attractive and productive. To the natural wealth which it 
has, "France adds the advantages of an industrious, frugal 

Fig. 188. Exchange and wharves of Bordeaux 

people, a scientific monetary system, and an army of artisans 
trained by education and inherited tradition to produce the high- 
est artistic forms of manufacture, which compel the patronage 
of other nations." l 

270. French colonies. The various colonies and dependen- 
cies occupy 4,000,000 square miles and contain over 50,000,000 
people. They are mainly colonies of " exploitation," and are 
found in Asia, Africa, South America, and the islands of the 

1 Trade of France for the year 1907, Consular Reports, Annual Series, 
No. 13, p. 14. 

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sea. Their total trade with France amounts to about $250,000,- 
000 per year. While this is important, it would seem that the 
colonies add more to the prestige of the country than to its 
commercial life. The home population has in recent times 
varied little. Home resources are diligently used, and there 
has been little colonizing, in the way in which men of the 
United Kingdom have gone forth to other lands. 

W3M 1 


" ^ 

Fig. 189. Havre and the mouth of the Seine 

Algeria and Tunis are the most closely related to France and 
have the most trade with it. Wheat and other cereals are large 
crops, as are grapes and tropical fruits. Much more than half 
the colonial trade is with these countries of North Africa. Vast 
areas of the western Sahara, the northern Kongo, and the 
island of Madagascar are under French dominion. French Indo- 
China lies on the China Sea, east of Siam, and has a population 
of over 1 8,000,000. Its annual trade with France is $2 5,000,000 
to $30,000,000. A few small islands and French Guiana alone 
remain of the empire once held by France in the New World. 

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271. Belgium. Belgium is about one fourth larger than the 
state of Vermont and had an estimated population, at the close 
of 1907, of 7,317,000. This gives 643 persons to the square 
mile, probably equaled by no other country of Europe. Here is 
proof of the industrial and commercial capacity of a small land 
controlled by a diligent and skillful people. The country is here 
studied with France, because of close relations both of land 

Fig. 190. Shipping in the harbor of Antwerp 

and people. About half of the Belgians use French as their 
native tongue, the rest employing Flemish, which is related to 
the Dutch language. The highlands of the Ardennes continue 
from France into Belgium. They are rich in minerals in both 
countries, and the industrial part of Belgium is therefore con- 
tinuous with similar territory in France. Iron and glass work 
are the special manufactures based on the minerals, and zinc is 
produced abundantly and is an important export. 

Northern and western Belgium is a lowland adjoining Hol- 
land, and resembling that country in its surface and its carefully 

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cultivated fields, yielding hay, cereals, and such special crops 
as sugar beets, chicory, flax, and hops. Besides the native 
minerals, imported diamonds make a great industry, with 5000 
diamond cutters in Antwerp alone. So largely is the diamond 
market of the world centered in the United States that nearly 
one half of these workmen were idle during the financial depres- 
sion in the United States in 1907, luxuries being the first to 
suffer when trade is slow. 

Liege, in eastern Belgium, near the coal beds, is a center both 
for woolens and for metal work, particularly firearms and machin- 
ery. More centrally placed is Brussels, which, like other great 
capitals, is a home of general industry, lace making being the 
best known. The ancient Ghent, in the west, is a place of 
cotton manufacture ; and Ostend, on the sea, marks a point of 
departure for England. The great commercial city is Antwerp, 
on the Scheldt, whose estuary crosses a corner of Holland before 
Antwerp is reached. Antwerp is one of the ports of the world, 
dating from the seventh century. The total of entrances and 
clearances of ships for 1907 was more than 12,000, and Ham- 
burg alone of continental ports surpassed Antwerp in tonnage in 
that year. Of regular steam navigation lines no engage in the 
Antwerp trade, and 9 of these ply to ports in the United States. 

Belgium illustrates the importance of transit trade. Her gen- 
eral commerce for 1907 amounted to $2,183,000,000. Of this 
$1,000,000,000 represents transit trade. The special commerce 
of Belgium amounted to $1,177,000,000, a vast sum for so 
small a country. Imports for use in Belgium made a total of 
$661,000,000, and exports of Belgian products of farm, fac- 
tory, and mine made $515,000,000. This points to industry, 
skill, and ample resources, but it should also be said that wages 
for common and for skilled labor are very low. The condition 
of the worker is inferior to that of his fellow in Canada, the 
United States, or Australia. And another result of low wages 
is the ability to manufacture at low cost and thus to offer for- 
midable competition in foreign markets. 

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272. Central position. The commercial growth of a country 
depends upon its position, its natural resources, and the char- 
acter of its people. In each of these respects the empire is 
favored. Seven countries border it, and all are progressive or 
have vast resources. The United Kingdom, Norway, and Sweden 
are distant but a short sail, and Italy and the Mediterranean 
are accessible by the passes of the Alps. Turkey, Greece, and 
the Iberian peninsula are the only parts of Europe more removed, 
and none of these has a first place in modern commerce. 

This close relation will be clear if the surface of the land be 
studied. In the south is the northern border of the eastern Alps. 
North of this is the Bavarian highland, — around and north of 
Munich and drained to the eastward by the Danube, — which 
passes into Austria, giving an open road to Vienna, Budapest, 
and Constantinople. To the north nearly all of central Germany 
is upland, not of the plateau kind, but a region of many low 
mountain ranges and hills rarely too high or too rugged to be 
occupied by forests or highly tilled fields, and bearing innu- 
merable villages and cities and supporting a dense population. 
Northern Germany is the Baltic lowland, to which Berlin is 
central. From the Baltic and the North Sea it stretches south- 
ward to Breslau, Dresden, Leipzig, Hanover, and Cologne, 
where it is replaced by the mountains of Bohemia and the 
central uplands of Germany. 

This lowland opens the empire to the far-reaching plains of 
Russia on the east, and merges with the plains of Holland and 
Belgium on the west. Four great rivers drain northward large 
parts of the empire. Beginning in the west, these are the 
Rhine, the Elbe, the Oder, and the Vistula. The Rhine passes 


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from the Swiss Alps through western Germany and enters the 
sea through Holland. It is bordered by a fertile land. Strass- 
burg, Cologne, and Diisseldorf are its chief cities, and it leads 
down to the sea at the port of Rotterdam. The other three 
rivers rise beyond the boundary and flow across the German 
plain, — the Elbe into the North Sea, the Oder and the Vistula 
into the Baltic. Upon the Elbe is Dresden and on its estuary 
is Hamburg, greatest of continental ports. Breslau is the chief 
interior city of the Oder and Stettin is its port. The Vistula is 
less a German river than the others, but has Danzig at its mouth. 
Berlin lies on the plain between the Elbe and the Oder and 
is joined to each by a canal. The southern plateau, the central 
highlands, the northern plain, and the five major rivers with 
their cities afford a framework upon which further knowledge 
of the country may well be placed. The climate of the west is 
like that of France, moderate in heat and cold, but the eastern 
or Baltic region has greater extremes and is continental in its 
climate. The area is 208,780 square miles, about the same as 
that of France. The population in 1905 was a little more than 
60,000,000 and the density was 290. 

273. Forests and forestry. One fourth of the country is 
covered with forests, two thirds being coniferous, chiefly fir 
and pine. The forests are strictly controlled by law and receive 
assiduous care, the art of forestry standing here as a model for 
all nations. While in the United Kingdom forests cover but 
small areas and belong to a few, in Germany they are extensive 
and are so managed as to meet the daily needs of the people. 
No wood is wasted, and even private owners are not at liberty 
to cut timber except under wise restriction and with due pro- 
vision for replanting. The remaining one third of German 
forests consists mainly of hard woods, among which oak and 
beech are most abundant. 

274. Minerals and mining. The leading facts concerning 
German iron and coal have already been given in sects. 57 and 
67. To the development of these minerals the empire largely 
owes its industrial growth and also its position as the second 

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commercial nation of Europe. Silver, copper, zinc, and lead are 
the metals which, in addition to iron, are mined in considerable 
quantities. Deposits of salt abound beneath the northern plains. 
Stassfurt, which is in Prussian Saxony not far from Magdeburg, 
has not only rock salt but unique deposits of potassium and 
magnesium sulphates and chlorides and other salts, from which 
are derived many substances used in the arts. This small city 
has thus become one of the great centers of chemical industry. 
The mineral product of the empire for 1907 was valued at 
about $450,000,000. This may be compared with the product 
of the United Kingdom for the same year, $675,000,000, 
and with the output of the United States, $2,069,000,000. 

Fig. 191. Average annual production of rye in millions of bushels, for the 
years 1903-1907 inclusive 

275. Agriculture. The productive land in Germany is con- 
sidered to include 91 per cent of the whole. Remembering 
that land is required for roads, houses, parks, and various pub- 
lic purposes, it will be seen that the amount of waste land is 
small. The character of German farming will be well seen 
by comparing the areas under certain crops. A hectare is 
equivalent to 2.47 acres. 

Area of Certain German Crops in 1907 

Rye 6,042,000 hectares 

Hay 5,970,000 hectares 

Oats 4i377> 000 hectares 

Potatoes 3,297,000 hectares* 

Barley 1,701,000 hectares 

Wheat 1,746,000 hectares 

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The large amount of rye points to the fact that this is still used 
as a bread cereal by a great mass of the poorer people. In the 
relative use of wheat and rye Germany is in strong contrast with 
France, though it must be remembered that Germany imports 
considerable wheat. Another feature is the crop of potatoes, — 
more than is produced by any other country. The greater part 
of the land is in small farms. About six sevenths of the agri- 
cultural land is cultivated by the owners. Intensive culture of 
small plots by owners results in a large total product. 

Besides the special features of German agriculture named 
above, two others must be given. One is the cultivation of the 

Fig. 192. Production of potatoes in millions of bushels 

sugar beet, which is found chiefly on the northern plains. 
Under government bounties both breeding and culture of the 
sugar-producing beet have been brought to high perfection, and 
the empire provides its own sugar and exports large quantities. 
Thus dependence on tropical cane sugar is removed and a 
larger degree of self-support is gained by intelligence and in- 
dustry. As potatoes and beets are among the distinctive crops 
of north Germany, so the vine is typical of the middle Rhine 
region in the south and west. Here the empire shares an in- 
dustry which continues on a larger scale through Italy, France, 
and southwestern Europe in general. 

276. Manufactures. Manufacturing industries in the empire 
have grown rapidly during the past thirty years. The number 

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of people thus engaged has increased in proportion to the num- 
ber tilling the soil. This does not mean abandonment of the 
soil, but rather the great growth of cities, the centers of industry 
and commerce. Of European nations Germany is second only 
to the United Kingdom in its manufactures, and is speedily 
coming to resemble it in making manufactures and trade pri- 
mary, and in consequent importations of food and raw materials. 

Fig. 193. Sugar-beet map of central Europe 

The two leading groups in German industry are (a) iron- 
working, including machinery and instruments ; (b) textiles. 
In making instruments of precision the thoroughness and the 
scientific training of the Germans find play. The textiles are 
of all the great kinds, — cotton, woolen, linen, and silk. For 
these all of the cotton and raw silk and much of the wool and 
flax must be imported. 

Other kinds of manufacture may be noted as typical of the 
country. One of these, already named, is the making of beet 
sugar. Another is the making of chemicals, where again are 
seen both the high scientific training of the people and the 

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varied mineral resources of the land. A third is woodwork, 
which employs several hundred thousand people. It is depend- 
ent on the abundant forests and reflects the patience and hered- 
itary skill of the people. There is also high development in 
the working of precious metals and in the processes of printing 
and lithography. 

277. Routes of trade. The railway system exceeds in mileage 
that of any other European country and is mainly under the 
management of the several German states. As with Paris and 
London, Berlin is the chief center of the network of lines, which 
reach thence to the chief ports and to all interior points. Viewed 



> ^^kj^ OF 2,240 POUNDS 

Fig. 194. Average annual production of beet sugar in thousands of tons of 
2240 pounds, 1904-1905 to 1908-1909 inclusive 

in their continental relations, several lines may be singled out. 
Those following the Rhine are not only the channel of home 
trade, but offer passage of men and goods from Great Britain 
via Rotterdam to Switzerland, the St. Gothard Tunnel, Italy, 
Egypt, and India. The express service from Paris to Constan- 
tinople crosses the Rhine at Strassburg and passes through 
Munich eastward. Likewise Cologne and points in France and 
Belgium find outlet through Berlin to Warsaw, to other Rus- 
sian centers, and to the Siberian railway. From Hamburg lines 
run to Berlin and Dresden and through Bohemia to the heart 
of the Austrian Empire. The interior waterways are among 
the most highly developed in Europe. The five major rivers 
already named are improved for navigation and are joined to 

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each other by canals, making 7500 miles of navigation, one 
fifth being by canals. North Germany is best supplied, owing 
to the greater depth of the rivers and to the ease of constructing 






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J / 












^ ] ! 








IZ!^*.^ 2 








s'.'ff. V 





- s. 





-r ■- ■- ■- -jr ■- 1 - 1 
:i ~ ".; ."-r !r 5S X' " 

7 7 7 7. 7 7, 7 

- -■ :: — .- - . - j- 

~«-l- 1 - > - 

>«g|J ~;i;i J: 


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5 / 











Fig. 195. The world's production of beet and cane sugar, for the years 
1 857-1 8 58 to 1 903-1 904 

canals across the plains. The Main is a branch of the Rhine, 
and a canal joins it to the Danube, so that a small craft may 
go from the North to the Black Sea. Another canal joins the 
Rhine to the Rhone. The greatest of German artificial water- 
ways, the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal, joins the North Sea to Kiel 
and the Baltic, and is of naval and commercial importance, 

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making a saving of two days' time as compared with the passage 
to the north of the peninsula of Denmark. 

278. Centers of trade. The greatest German port is Ham- 
burg, on the estuary of the Elbe. At enormous cost the harbor 
has been fitted for large ships, and here is the German terminal 
for ships of the Hamburg-American Line. It is the natural 
Atlantic port for Berlin and much of the German interior, and 
is the greatest seaport of the continent of Europe. Next to 

Fig. 196. Harbor of Hamburg 

Hamburg is Bremen, on the estuary of the Weser, the terminal 
of the North German Lloyd Line. Excepting certain British 
lines, this and the Hamburg-American are unrivaled in the 
extent of their tonnage and the world-wide importance of their 
shipping. Stettin and Danzig are the chief Baltic ports. Stettin 
is near the mouth of the Oder and is a naval station and commer- 
cial mart. River and canal give to it a share in the commerce 
of Berlin and make it an outlet for much of the northern plains. 
Danzig is less important for Germany, but offers outlet for grain 
and lumber from Russian Poland. 

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Of interior centers the first is Berlin, the third of European 
cities and the sixth of the world. It has been a place of trade 
for several centuries, but has seen its greatest growth in the 
few decades during which it has been the capital of the em- 
pire. Here we add to London, New York, and Paris another 
city of the first order, which is a center of general rather than 
of special industry. About 150 miles southeast of Berlin, on 
the Oder, is Breslau, the capital of the province of Silesia, with 
470,000 people. Here are exchanged the raw products of Russia 
for the more advanced products of Germany, and adjacent coal 
fields supply power for many industries. 

Southward from Berlin, in the small but densely peopled 
kingdom of Saxony, are three great cities, Dresden, Leipzig, 
and Chemnitz. The first is on the Elbe, not far north of its 
passage through the border range of Bohemia. It has over half 
a million people and is a place of art and of artistic production. 
Near at hand are the porcelain works of Meissen. The second 
city is Leipzig, nearly as large, and also on the southern border 
of the German plain. It is the chief center of German books 
and printing, and the leading mart of the world for furs. In 
both of these lines of trade the United States is a large customer 
of Leipzig, but many Americans know the city best for its uni- 
versity and its music. Chemnitz has been called the Manchester 
of Saxony, and its quarter of a million people have chiefly to do 
with its machine shops and its mills for cotton, woolen, and linen. 

On or near the Rhine are Diisseldorf, Cologne, Frankfurt 
am Main, and Strassburg. Diisseldorf, with a population of 
250,000, is in close relation with the textile centers Barmen and 
Elberfeld. In the lower Rhine region are also Essen, the iron 
town, and Krefeld, second only to Lyons among cities of Europe 
for silks and velvets. Munich, the third city of the empire, is 
the capital of Bavaria. It stands on the plateau not far from 
the Alps, is a railway center and the headquarters of Bavarian 
trade. Largely through the influence of some of the kings of 
Bavaria, Munich is nobly built and has become a center of art 
and of artistic manufactures. 

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279. Foreign trade. The total exports and imports of the 
German Empire in 1907 amounted to about $4,000,000,000, 
placing the nation second only to the United Kingdom. Imports 
amounted to nearly $500, 000,000 more than exports, the bal- 
ance being made up by the income from foreign investments, 
the profits of German shipping, and the expenditures of for- 
eigners in home territory. It will be remembered that French 
and British foreign trade illustrates the same conditions. In 
1907 Germany imported breadstuff s to a value of $250,000,000 
and the cotton importation amounted to $127,000,000. Other 
large items were wool ($94,000,000), raw silk, coal, copper, 
iron ore, rubber, hides, coffee, and eggs. 

The exports form a larger number of items and consist mainly 
of manufactures. Coal ($62,000,000) was the only large export 
of raw material in 1907. Silk, woolen, and cotton goods, ma- 
chinery, gold ware, glass, electrical materials, vehicles, aniline 
dyes and other chemicals were the leading items. The United 
States has larger trade relations with the empire than with any 
other nation except the United Kingdom. 

280. German colonies and dependencies. With the exception 
of a small town on the coast of China, and a few islands in the 
Pacific, the German foreign domain is limited to west, south- 
west, and east Africa, the population of all dependencies being 
a little over 12,000,000. This number includes but a few thou- 
sand Germans ; hence all are colonies of exploitation. The 
Germans who have emigrated have settled under foreign flags, 
particularly in the United States. The total annual trade be- 
tween the empire and its dependencies amounts only to about 

281. Causes of growth. In 1833 the German states formed 
a Zollverein, or tariff union, which opened a free home market 
and gave a degree of common or national policy. Full union 
was achieved in the organization of the empire following the 
war with France in 1870. That war strengthened the unity 
of interest, added productive territory along the Rhine, and 
enriched the nation with $1,000,000,000 of war indemnity. 

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The Germans are descended from a hardy northern race and 
show vigor and persistent activity of body and mind. The birth 
rate is high and the population increased from 56,000,000 
to 60,000,000 between 1900 and 1905. This increase has pro- 
vided a large laboring class and has stimulated a great number 
to seek efficient training and higher standards of living. Thus 
leadership, skill, and expansion of markets have resulted. 

Compulsory service in the army has given German youth 
strong discipline of body and mind, has widened their observa- 
tion, made their national feeling strong, and promoted that 
obedience to law which is a marked character of the people, 
and which effectively aids good government, commercial hon- 
esty, and industrial progress. No country has organized so 
thorough a system of technical and commercial schools as Ger- 
many. Her factories, laboratories, and mines are filled with 
graduates of universities and higher technical schools, and men 
of the same training and efficiency sell her goods and promote 
her business in foreign lands. Contrary to the usual policy of 
trade in the United States, foreign representatives go equipped 
with the language of the country in which they are to work, 
and carry goods carefully adapted to local needs and tastes. 
Men of university training teach in common schools, and the 
direct influence of education in science is seen in industries 
such as textiles, mining, and metallurgy, the applications of 
electricity, and the making of a vast variety of chemicals. 

With the consolidation of the empire, shipping has grown 
until Germany is second in the foreign carrying trade and has 
the two largest shipping companies in the world. Uniform 
tariff policy has been possible since 1870, for a single small 
state could no longer defeat the will of the majority. In 1879 
Germany passed from a policy of virtual free trade to that of 
protection. In recent years she has added to her general tariff 
a treaty tariff policy, by which favors are given to countries fa- 
voring German trade, and specially high tariffs are put upon 
countries which discriminate against German products. With 
industry and commerce a general banking and financial system 

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has grown, which is effective not only in the empire, but facili- 
tates trade in many foreign centers. 

The canals, railways, telegraphs, and telephones are chiefly 
under government ownership and are managed for the general 
welfare. The railways and canals work in harmony ; each car- 
ries freight suited to the mode of transportation ; and the rail- 
ways cannot, as under private ownership, conspire to cripple 
water traffic. Secret rebates are not given to favored shippers, 
and industrial combinations are said to be comparatively free 
from stock watering and speculation. 

Thus Germany in forty years has passed from the state of an 
agricultural people and become one of the industrial and com- 
mercial powers. With this change, as in the United States and 
Great Britain, has come migration to cities and the building up 
of great urban populations, joined to each other and to the out- 
side world by every modern means of communication. 

282. Germany and the United States. Raw materials must 
always constitute the bulk of German purchases from the United 
States. So long as the latter country has a surplus of raw cotton, 
copper, foodstuffs, and fertilizers, a German market is assured. 
The German effort to raise cotton in Togoland, in Africa, 
cannot be expected in any near future to cut off the demand 
for Southern cotton. Manufactured goods, however, will find a 
less certain sale. Often a temporary market is found, as for 
American machinery, but a German domestic product is soon 
forthcoming, built on the foreign model. It is as a competitor 
in manufactured goods that Germany compels the most serious 
attention of American industry and commerce. Her skill, cheap 
labor, shipping facilities, and her persistent promotion of foreign 
trade require equal skill and energy from those who would share 
the commerce of Latin America and the Orient. 

283. The Netherlands. This country has about the same area 
as Belgium and is chiefly a low plain, continuous with the 
plains of northern Belgium and western Germany. Much of 
its surface belongs to the Rhine delta, and the several branches 
or " distributaries " of this river are the main avenues of 

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transportation. Rotterdam is the principal port of the Rhine and 
ranks with Hamburg, Antwerp, London, and other seaports of 
the first order. Amsterdam is the largest city, being on the 
Zuyder Zee and communicating by canal and river with the 
North Sea and the Rhine. This country is mainly commercial 
rather than industrial. It has little coal and iron, and hence is 
different from all countries thus far studied in not having the 
basal materials of manufacture. It is open everywhere to the 

Fig. 198. Harbor of Rotterdam 

sea and to the interior of Europe, it has a vigorous people, and 
has therefore for centuries been one of the important shipping 
and trading nations of the world. Like all densely populated 
European lands, it imports much of its food and other neces- 
sities, but the tillage of its plains, often reclaimed from marshes 
and the sea itself, is intensive and agriculture shows some im- 
portant exports. Among these are live animals, butter, cheese, 
eggs, flowers, bulbs, and vegetables. The vegetables often go 
to England and the bulbs are sent to all countries. 

Three things may be observed : (1) the commercial rather 
than the industrial life, resulting from favorable position and 

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water routes, with small natural resources; (2) that a great 
share of the trade is in goods which are in transit between the 
sea on the one hand and the German Empire and other coun- 
tries on the other ; (3) that the Netherlands has held, since 
the early modern discoveries, important and rich colonies with 
which there is a vast trade. Java alone of the East Indian 
possessions has about 30,000,000 people and is rich in almost 
every tropical product. The country has possessions in Sumatra, 
Borneo, Celebes, and other parts of the East Indies, and also 
in the Caribbean region. The chief exports of these colonies 
go to the Netherlands and are thence distributed to other 
lands, making up the greater part of Dutch foreign trade. 

284. Denmark. Denmark is but little larger than Belgium 
or the Netherlands and has a much smaller population than 
either of those countries. Like the Netherlands, it has no im- 
portant mineral resources. For fuel it must depend on peat, 
wood, and imported coal. Its merchant marine is considerable, 
but much inferior to that of the Netherlands. It has, however, 
been recently extended by regular sailings from Copenhagen to 
Baltimore and to Argentina. Copenhagen is the only large city, 
and the colonies, while somewhat extensive, are unimportant 
commercially ; they are Iceland, Greenland, and a few small 
islands in the West Indies. The home country is preeminently 
agricultural, but the educational system is good, industry is 
carefully encouraged, the people are prosperous, and Copen- 
hagen, with nearly a half million people, is one of the impor- 
tant cities of Europe. Oats, hay, and roots, including the sugar 
beet, are the chief crops, and dairying is the preeminent occu- 
pation. Butter is produced in the most sanitary and scientific 
manner, and the reputation of the Danish product is jealously 
guarded. Meat and eggs are large products, and horses are 
bred for export. The leading imports are coal, maize, oil cake 
and meal, lumber, iron, and steel, hardware and machinery being 
also important. The exports for 1907 made a total of $99,- 
000,000. Of this butter was credited with $43,000,000 and 
bacon and ham with nearly $26,000,000. 

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285. Norway. Norway is slightly larger than the United 
Kingdom, but has a smaller population than Denmark. Being 
a high and rocky country, agriculture is limited to the dairy, 
poultry, vegetables, and hardy grains, the whole coming short 
of feeding the population. The resources of the country are in 
its forests, its fisheries, and its shipping. Copper, lead, zinc, 
and iron are found, and the mining interest may increase. A 

Fig. 199. Harbor and fish market of Bergen 

vast amount of power now goes to waste in innumerable water- 
falls, and as electrical application of power has now been under- 
taken, future industries may be large. The Norwegians are 
sailors by tradition and training, and, for a small nation, have a 
remarkable share in the world's carrying trade, their fishermen, 
whalers, and merchant ships being found in all waters. About 
15,000 craft are engaged in Norwegian fisheries, and the catch 
of 1907 was worth over $12,000,000. The forestry output, in- 
cluding wood pulp, was worth $25,000,000. The merchant 
marine contains nearly 2000 steamships and nearly 6000 sail- 
ing vessels. The broken shore of Norway with its islands and 

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fiords favored the growth of a maritime people. Breadstuff's 
come principally from Russia and Germany. As with so many 
European countries, the balance of trade is against Norway; 
but it finds its 
compensation in 
the proceeds of 
shipping and of 
the tourist traf- 
fic, and in money 
sent by Norwe- 
gian Americans 
to their relatives 
at home. Fish 
and wood prod- 
ucts (under this 
head come lum- 
ber, pulp, paper, 
matches) are the 
leading exports. 
Christiania and 
Bergen are the 
chief commer- 
cial and indus- 
trial cities. 

286. Sweden. 
Sweden is about 
two fifths larger 
than Norway or 
the United King- 
dom and con- 

L . ,. , Fig. 200. Chief railways and certain industries of Sweden 

tains a little over J 

5,000,000 people. It has much more plain and arable land than 
Norway, is equally abundant in forest, but does not from its posi- 
tion fill so large a place in the world's shipping. Like the United 
Kingdom and other countries of northwestern Europe, Sweden 
has a mild climate for its high latitude. It has important mineral 

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resources, and thus in its variety resembles Belgium or the United 
Kingdom, but it is new in development as compared with either 
of these countries, and may be expected to make large advances 
in the coming years. 

Railway building is favored by the abundance of wood and 
iron, and the mileage is over 8000, forming a network in the 
southern half of the kingdom and sending one line to the far 
north and a branch westward to Trondhjem in Norway. Bar- 
ley, rye, and oats are the chief grains, potatoes are widely 
raised, and the dairy is so extensive that exports of butter to 
England are large. Manufactures of wood and iron furnish the 
largest industries, but others are growing by the enterprise of the 
people, and foreign trade is promoted by permanent exhibitions 
held in Cape Town, Valparaiso, Tokyo, Yokohama, and Hong- 
kong. This activity is said to have led to the establishment of 
steamship lines to Chile, Japan, and South Africa ; and it shows 
how surely a vigorous people with rich natural resources takes 
its place in the commerce of nations. The coal supply is small, 
and limited to the south, but compensation is found in abundant 
wood, in peat supplies believed to be equivalent to 4,ooo,ooo,cxx) 
tons of coal, and in the available water power. 

Stockholm is the largest city and is the capital, having 337,000 
people in 1907. Goteborg is the second city, having, in 1907, 
160,000 people. Being in the southwest, on the shore opposite 
Denmark, it is well placed for foreign trade. Both cities have 
large industries, among which are iron, cotton, and sugar. Great 
Britain and Germany hold much the larger share in the foreign 
trade of Sweden. 

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287. Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Greece. None 
of these countries is of the first commercial magnitude. Switzer- 
land, though small, is one of the most advanced nations, and is 
thus closely related to France and Germany. It is also geograph- 
ically joined to them quite as closely as to Italy. The other coun- 
tries in this group are peninsular, and all but Portugal border 
the Mediterranean. Although neither Spain nor Italy nor Greece 
extends to 3 5 degrees north latitude, they all have in parts a 
subtropical climate, the productions differing from those of any 
European country thus far studied except southern France. 

Italy, like Germany, was unified out of several smaller sover- 
eignties during the nineteenth century, and is taking its place 
in modern commerce. Germany revives the commercial life of 
medieval and early modern centuries. Italy looks back not only 
to a medieval but to an ancient period, in which her peninsula was 
the commercial center of the world. Spain is rich in resources 
and is backward not by nature but through man. She once pos- 
sessed vast colonies of exploitation and sluggishly relied on them. 
Shorn of these, with little shipping and small progress at home, 
Spain now begins to arouse herself to her needs and possibilities. 

288. Switzerland. Switzerland is often considered as synon- 
ymous with the Alps. It must be remembered that the western 
Alps, including Mont Blanc, are in France, the eastern Alps 
are in Austria, and the southern Alps are largely in Italy. 
The central Alps are Swiss, and from their northern base a 
hilly upland stretches to the French and the German Jura. 
This upland and the Rhone valley are the chief regions of tillage. 

A Swiss geographer has called his country an economic par- 
adox, because it is so poor by nature and yet stands in the front 


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rank of European foreign commerce in proportion to its popu- 
lation. For this result several reasons may be given. 

i . Switzerland is poor in minerals but abundant water power 
more and more takes the place of coal. The latest figures show 
over 200,000 horse power used and ten times that amount in 
reserve. It would be possible to operate the entire Swiss rail- 
road system and still have a considerable surplus for industry. 

Fig. 201. Montreux and vineyards, Lake Geneva 

2. The frugality, industry, and intelligence of the people pre- 
serve and increase the national wealth, and skill in various indus- 
tries has accumulated through generations of experience. 

3. Excellent markets are found among the populations of 
several adjacent countries, particularly France and Germany, and 
even in a land so remote as the United States. 

4. These markets are accessible by good roads, in whose 
building the Swiss people have had a full share. By advanced 
road building they also make their country one of the chief 
channels of trade between the commercial nations in the north 
and the entire Mediterranean region and the Orient. 

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5. Nature has endowed Switzerland with attractions of scenery 
arid made it a field for rest and sport, which attracts travelers 
of all nations and swells the national income. 

Milk products, especially cheeses, are the chief substances 
belonging to agriculture which figure in the export trade. The 
greater industries are in cotton, silk, and watchmaking. Both 
in silk and watches the trade with the United States has declined 



■firfj ; ^ fl 


^^^B ' i%2k 


Fig. 202. Spiral tunnels of St. Gothard railway, Switzerland 

because of the growth of these industries in the latter country. 
The cotton trade between the two countries, however, continues 
large. Like Germany, Great Britain, or Italy, Switzerland im- 
ports most of her raw cotton from the United States and sends 
to us half of the Swiss output of embroideries, or a value of 
nearly $18,000,000 in 1907. Embroidery may be called a typi- 
cal Swiss industry, employing 6000 power machines and 16,000 
hand machines, while the United States has of both but 616 
machines. Zurich, Basel, and Geneva are the largest centers 
of industry, while Lucerne, Interlaken, Geneva, and many smaller 
places attract the traveler. 

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The chief routes of transportation are as follows : 
i. By the St. Gothard railway and tunnel, from Brussels, 
Antwerp, and Rotterdam, following the Rhine or coming to it 



Navigable parts 
m ' of rivers 

. Contour of /ooo/eet 

Fig. 203. Chief routes, centers, and industries of Italy 

at Basel ; thence to Lucerne and by the tunnel to Milan and 
the south. Traffic from Berlin and eastern Germany and from 
Munich centers likewise upon the St. Gothard Tunnel. 

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2. From Paris to northern Switzerland and Italy. Railways 
cross eastern France and pass through the Jura, and one line 
goes between the Jura and the Vosges, all centering upon the 
St. Gothard. The Loetschburg Tunnel, now under construction, 
will lead directly from Bern to the Simplon Tunnel, through the 
Bernese Alps, and give a more direct passage from Paris to Italy. 

Fig. 204. Southern entrance to the Simplon Tunnel, Iselle, Italy 

3. From Paris to Geneva, and thence up the Rhone valley 
to Brieg and the Simplon Tunnel, leading down to Milan. Of 
these two great Swiss tunnels, the St. Gothard is over nine 
miles long and was first opened ; and the Simplon is over 
twelve miles long, is much nearer sea level, and was opened 
in 1906. 

289. The Italian land. Broadly based on the Alps, the pen- 
insula extends to the southeast 700 miles, almost bisecting 
the Mediterranean. In the north the plains of the Po -continue 
from Turin past Milan to Venice and the Adriatic shore. 

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North and west are the Alps, which south of Turin curve 
to the east and pass into the Apennines. This Italian range 
rises like a wall on the south border of the northern plain, 
and thence southeastward nearly fills the peninsula. Italy com- 
municates with nations of north-central Europe : (i) along the 
Riviera between Genoa and Marseilles ; (2) by the Mont Cenis 
Tunnel route from Turin to Paris ; (3) by the Simplon and 

Fig. 205. Drying macaroni, Amalfi, Italy 

St. Gothard routes from Genoa and Milan ; (4) by passes across 
the eastern Alps into Austria ; (5) by a coast route around the 
head of the Adriatic to Trieste. 

Lines of railway border the Po plain at the base of the Alps 
from Turin to Venice, and at the base of the Apennines (the 
Emilian Way of the Romans) through Parma and Bologna. 
They also follow the east and west coasts to the end of the 
peninsula, and cross the Apennines at many points from sea to 
sea. The Apennines are so rugged that there are numerous tun- 
nels not only on the crosslines but in parts of the coastal routes. 

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The forests are poor, much mountain ground is denuded and 
washed, and the prevalence of goat keeping is often unfavorable 
to the renewal of forest growth. Mineral resources are small. 
There is little coal, and this fuel comes from Germany by the 
St. Gothard and from Great Britain by sea. Petroleum must be 
had from the United States and Russia. There is some zinc, 
lead, and quicksilver, a little iron, and the marble of Carrara is 
well known. Sulphur, which is largely mined in Sicily, is the 
most important native mineral.. The entire mineral output, exclud- 
ing quarry products, in 1907 was worth less than $18,000,000. 






Fig. 206. Production of raw silk in thousands of pounds 

290. Italian agriculture. This is the prevailing industry, and 
land which would remain wild in many countries is improved 
by fertilizing and laborious terracing. Wheat is the first of 
Italian cereals, and maize is also much raised for human food, 
the warm climate being suited to its culture. More rice is raised 
than in any other European land. Vegetables are an important 
share of the food, and help to show how a large population 
(over 30,000,000) can live in a country of small resources. 
The climate, however, is mild, little fuel is needed, and the 
standards of living for the poorer classes are low. 

The characteristic products of Italian climate and soil are 
grapes and wine ; olives and olive oil ; lemons, oranges, and 

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mandarins ; figs, nuts, and silk. Wines are annually made to 
the value of $200,000,000, of which much is exported. The 
mulberry tree is a common feature of the landscape, its leaves 
serving as food for the silkworms. China and Japan alone sur- 
pass Italy in the amount of raw silk produced. The climate is 
too warm for the potato to do well. Hemp, flax, and cotton are 
grown to some extent, but the raw cotton is chiefly imported. 
Irrigation is much practiced, modern machinery is introduced 
on the northern plains, and the culture, whether carried on by 
antiquated or by modern methods, is so intensive as to awaken 
admiration. It demonstrates that land need not be " run out " 
or unproductive even after it has been under crops for two 
thousand years. 

291. Italian cities. Milan and Turin are the great cities of 
the northern plain, and the former, in the center of rich lands 
and fed by the routes across the Alps and the streams of trade 
from Genoa and the sea, is the most important commercial 
center of the kingdom. On the east, Venice represents the 
commerce of the Middle Ages, and in the west, Genoa is the 
first Italian seaport of to-day. Leghorn, on the west coast, has 
taken commercially the place of Pisa, also of medieval renown, 
and has a highly important foreign trade. Naples is the largest 
Italian city, but is largely a place of call for passenger traffic. 
Palermo, the port of Sicily, is an Italian city of the first rank, 
while Rome and Florence are centers of varied trade, but find 
their chief interest in matters of art, history, and government. 

292. Italian foreign trade. The total for 1907 was about 
$900,000,000, the imports as usual largely exceeding the ex- 
ports. This foreign business is the result of vigorous develop- 
ment almost confined to a single generation, and is the largest 
example of the new life of the Mediterranean region. The 
Italian peninsula is central and therefore well situated for both 
oriental and western trade. Suez, Gibraltar, and the Alpine 
passes are the outlets to regions beyond the Mediterranean, 
and these are used by growing railway traffic and a rapidly 
increasing merchant marine. The tourist traffic from America 

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to Naples and Genoa direct is large and is conducted by 
English and German steamship lines. Italian steamships ply 
to the United States, Brazil, Argentina; and in the East to 
Egypt, Syria, and Constantinople. Commerce with both Amer- 
icas is stimulated by the emigration of millions of Italians 
to the United States and Argentina, for these people desire 
some products of their native land. The raw-cotton import from 
the United States in 1907 was nearly $40,000,000, and this 
illustrates the keen industrial life which is springing up in the 
progressive parts of Italy, especially in such cities as Milan and 
Turin. More than 5,000,000 cotton spindles are now at work 
in Italy. Goods worth $40,000,000 were landed in Genoa from 
America in a single recent year. The Italian government has 
promoted trade by shipping subsidies, by extending the railroads, 
and by taking part in American and other foreign expositions. 

293. Spain. This country is shut off from the continent by 
the Pyrenees, which, though not so high as the Alps, are a 
more complete barrier. Railroads enter Spain at the ends of 
the range. Except on the side of Portugal, Spain is elsewhere 
washed by the sea. Ports are few and the rivers for the greater 
part are not navigable, presenting conditions opposite to those 
of the United Kingdom or the German Empire. Still the isola- 
tion of Spain must be ascribed more to the spirit and history of 
the people than to the facts of her physical geography. Two 
thirds of the people can neither read nor write, and until recently 
there has been more reliance on the wealth of colonies than on 
the use of home resources. A standing army of 100,000 is 
maintained. Methods are backward and taxes are heavy. 

In natural resources perhaps no European country is better 
endowed. The mineral wealth is great and in remarkable va- 
riety, including coal, iron, copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, mercury, 
sulphur, gold, and silver. There is coal in many provinces, 
but it is little developed and much is imported, especially from 
Great Britain, in ships which carry back iron ore from the Bil- 
boan region. Bilboa is the center of this traffic and has also 
begun the making of iron and steel. 

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The agriculture will be best understood if it is remembered 
that central Spain is a plateau of more than 2500 feet of alti- 
tude, crossed by east-and-west mountain ranges. It is lacking 
in rainfall, is cold in winter, hot in summer, and thinly peopled. 
Railway communication is difficult and waterways are impos- 
sible. Between this plateau and the Pyrenees are important 
lowlands. In the basin of the Douro, the region around Valla- 
dolid, is the most important wheat region, and this cereal nearly 
meets the needs of the people, though some is imported. To 

Fig. 209. Harbor of Barcelona 

the east the basin of the Ebro is agriculturally productive, as 
is the coastal border along the Mediterranean east and south. 
As the north has a rich lowland, so has the south, in the prov- 
ince of Andalusia. These lands lie in the valley of the Gua- 
dalquivir, south of the central plateau and north of the lofty and 
snow-clad Sierra Nevada range. 

Barcelona, well to the north, is the chief Mediterranean sea- 
port of Spain, and is the center of the industrial region of 
the province of Catalonia. Farther down the coast is Valencia, 
the center of the orange trade, and thence are shipped many 
onions, a crop whose total value for the country is from 

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$10,000,000 to $20,000,000 per year. In this region irrigation 
is practiced and several crops are raised each year. Irrigation has 
long been used, and in much of the country is essential to pro- 
duction. Mineral industries are tributary to Almeria, a port of 
the southeast, and to Huelva, a port on the Atlantic. The 
ancient Cadiz is of declining importance. Wine, fruits, nuts, 
and raw ores of iron, copper, and other metals are the larger 

Fig. 210. Wharves at Oporto 

items of export. Quite unlike the advanced countries of Europe, 
this venerable nation exports raw products and imports manu- 
factures, and yet there is, as stated, coal ; and there is in many 
provinces a considerable amount of water power that could be 
used. In 1907 the total foreign trade was $3 10,000,000, equally 
divided between imports and exports. Spain has an area of about 
190,000 square miles and a population of nearly 20,000,000. We 
may compare it with Switzerland, having an area of less than 1 6,000 
square miles, with small natural wealth, with less than 4,000,000 
people, and having a total foreign trade of $564,000,000. 

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Spain is, however, awakening; efforts are made towards 
higher standards of education, industry is slowly rooting itself, 
and this backward people, with a country that is rich and varied 
in resources, will in time take its proper place in the work and 
trade of the modern world. 

294. Portugal. This country occupies 34,345 square miles, 
or a little more than one seventh of the Iberian Peninsula, and 
contains about 5, 000,000 people. All that has been said of the 

Fig. 211. Wharf and shipping of Piraeus 

backwardness of Spain is true of Portugal. Its glory is in the 
explorations and colonial extension of the past, though it still 
retains the Azores, Madeira, and important territories in 
Africa. It is mainly agricultural, but imports a part of its food- 
stuffs and most of its manufactures, though there is, as in Spain, 
some awakening of industry. Its largest trade is with Great 
Britain. It imports from the United States chiefly corn, cotton 
manufactures, petroleum, stoves, and wheat. Its part in the 
world's trade is small, the total foreign commerce amounting 
annually to about $100,000,000, the imports being double the 
exports. The resources of the country are increased by the return 

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of persons of wealth from Portuguese colonies and from Brazil, to 
take up residence, especially in Lisbon. This city, the capital of 
the republic, and Oporto, are the chief seaports ; the latter is the 
seat of the wine trade, wine and cork being characteristic exports. 
295. Greece. The area is about 25,000 square miles and the 
population is between 2,000,000 and 3,000,000. This ancient 

Fig. 212. The Corinthian Canal 

land feels also the new impulse of modern life. In spite of emi- 
gration the population has quadrupled in the past seventy-five 
years. Electric tramcars ply in Athens and the Piraeus, and sur- 
veys are being made for irrigation works. During a single recent 
year 277 building permits were issued in Athens, and dry-docks 
costing $1,000,000 are under construction at Piraeus, the port 
of Athens. In several mills millstones have been replaced by 
modern milling machinery brought from England. Automo- 
biles for freight and passengers are in use in Athens and in 
Sparta. The total foreign trade of Greece is about $50,000,000 

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per year. The mineral output is considerable, including Pentelic 
marbles exported to New York and other parts of the United 
States. Fruit, olives, tobacco, and wine are among the principal 
items of the export trade. The Corinthian Canal has not be- 
come a great highway of commerce, but is of much interest 
because it marks the realization of a project cherished since the 
classic period. Greece shares in large measure the awakening 
which is seen in southern Europe. It is most conspicuous in 
Italy and least marked in the countries of the Iberian peninsula. 
The Greek immigrant has become almost as well known to 
Americans as the Italian, and his capacity for trade is seen not 
only in the great cities but in many of the smaller towns of the 
United States. 

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296. General survey. Here are included Austria-Hungary, 
European Russia, and several small countries in the Balkan 
region and on the lower Danube. In several respects this part 
of Europe may be called continental : (i) in extent, for con- 
siderably more than half of the area of Europe is embraced in 
the countries named ; (2) in its relations, for it is joined to. Asia 
by a long land boundary, and its waters are either inland, arctic, 
or comparatively closed, as the Baltic, Adriatic, and Black seas, 
— these waters being somewhat isolated from the greatest ocean 
routes ; (3) in climate, since open oceans are remote, their 
ameliorating influence is not felt, and cold winters and hot sum- 
mers prevail. Still the rainfall is nearly everywhere enough 
for crops. 

This part of Europe is partly Asiatic in its types of men. In 
the west, however, especially in Austria, the German branch 
of the Teutonic family prevails, and in the parts bordering Italy 
and even on the lower Danube are people of Latin origin, offer- 
ing a mixture of races and languages unknown farther west. 
The northern parts are flat and undisturbed ; the southern parts 
are broken into mountains of many ranges, all belonging to the 
great system which extends from the Atlantic Ocean through 
southern Europe to eastern Asia. Agriculture is the ruling 
occupation, Austria alone belonging largely to the industrial 
side of Europe. 

297. Austria-Hungary and the Danube. The river is the 
best key to these countries. It has already been described as 
crossing the plateau of Bavaria. At Passau it passes into Aus- 
tria, and a short distance below Vienna, at Pressburg, it becomes 
a Hungarian stream. Approaching the heart of Hungary, it 


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turns to the south past Budapest, and in southern Hungary it 
receives the Drave from the west and turns eastward, leaving 
the empire at Orsova, through the Iron Gate. It is the second 
river of Europe and the main artery of the empire. The gov- 
ernment has improved navigation at Vienna, and at the Iron 
Gate one of the channels entering the Black Sea has been 
deepened by jetties, and the navigation is free to all nations. 
The Ludwigs-Kanal in Bavaria joins the Danube to the Main 
and the Rhine. 

Along the Danube runs the great route from western Europe 
to Constantinople, and it would have even higher importance if 
the Black Sea were nearer the centers of trade. Germany and 
the Rhine, or the United States and the Mississippi, offer 
natural comparisons, but in neither case is the river so impor- 
tant to the country as the Danube is to this empire. The two 
capitals are upon its banks, fertile plains border it, and great 
rivers flow into it. 

298. Austria. The provinces of this kingdom will be best 
understood if Vienna is taken as the point of view. It is at the 
gateway where the Danube passes between the west end of the 
Carpathians and the east end of the Alps. In fact, Vienna is at 
the northeastern corner of the Alpine territory which belongs 
to Austria. Thence Austria stretches west 300 miles to the 
border of Switzerland and south to the Italian boundary. Tyrol 
is the western division, and across it runs one of the great 
commercial routes from central to southern Europe. It passes 
from Bavaria up the Inn valley, over the Brenner Pass, and 
down the Adige to the plains of north Italy. We recall the 
St. Gothard and Simplon routes in Switzerland and the Mont 
Cenis route from France, making the four great international 
highways across the Alps. On the southern slopes of the Aus- 
trian Alps wine and silk link Austrian industry to Italy. At 
Eisenerz in Styria is a very important mass of iron ore, worked 
since Roman times, and much of it is carried northward down 
the valley of the Enns to the iron town Steyr, not far from 
the Danube. 

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Southward from Vienna, by the Semmering Pass, a railway 
crosses a mountainous country to Trieste, the only important 
seaport of Austria. It is 367 miles from Vienna, has about 
200,000 people, and its commerce is large and is growing 
under the fostering care of the government. Its trade is over 
#400,000,000 per year, about equally divided between imports 
and exports, textiles and raw cottons being the largest items. 1 
Over 14,000 vessels make up the Austrian merchant marine. 

Fig. 214. Harbor of Trieste 

Northward from Vienna, Bohemia is the most important 
part of Austria. Its capital is Prague, with 500,000 people, on 
the Moldau, a branch of the Elbe. Bohemia is the basin of the 
upper Elbe, and is walled in from Germany on the west and 
north by low mountains, a part of which is called the Erzgebirge, 
because full of useful minerals. Bohemia has ample coal, is 
densely populated, and is a most productive industrial region. 

1 Austria-Hungary, Trade for the Year 1907, in Consular Reports, Annual 
Series No. 19, p. 17. 

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Its communications are largely southward to Vienna, and north- 
ward following the Elbe through the mountains to Dresden and 
Hamburg. Mining, textiles, Bohemian glass, the beer of Pilsen, 
iron, and steel all represent large industries and make Bohemia the 
chief manufacturing region of Austria. In the west are Karlsbad 
and Marienbad, known among the watering places of Europe. 
More than one third of the population of Bohemia is German. 

Fig. 215. The Danube Canal, Vienna 

Eastward from Bohemia and north of the Carpathians and of 
Hungary, Austria includes Moravia, Silesia, Galicia, and Buko- 
wina ; the last two a part of the plain continuing through Russia. 
Through the first two runs one of the chief routes of Austria, 
from Vienna to the valley of the Oder and eastern Germany. 
In Galicia, at Wieliczka, near Cracow, are salt mines of high 
value and widely known. They have been worked for 600 
years, and the beds are said to be 500 miles long, 20 miles wide, 
and 1 200 feet thick. These and other salt deposits in Austria- 
Hungary and Roumania offer inexhaustible supplies. 

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299. Vienna. This is the gate city between central and south- 
eastern Europe, and its routes lead east and west, south to the Adri- 
atic, and north by the Elbe and the Oder. It is therefore at the 
crossing of great ways, surrounded by varied resources, and is the 
capital of the empire. Like most of the larger capitals, it is a center 
of varied industry, as of art and education, and contains 2,000,000 
people, thus being one of the seven largest cities of the world. 

Fig. 216. Budapest 

300. Hungary. This is one of the most compact countries 
of Europe, rimmed by mountains and traversed by a master 
river. Beginning at Vienna the long curve of the Carpathians 
shuts it in on the northwest, north, east, and southeast, coming 
down to the Danube again at the Iron Gate. Stretching broadly 
are the plains of Hungary, smooth and fertile as the prairies of 
the Mississippi Valley. It is an agricultural country and is more 
fully such than any European country yet studied, excepting 
perhaps Denmark. Its chief cultures are in wheat, barley, oats, 
rye, maize, potatoes, sugar-beet root, fodder-beet root, and grapes. 

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The raising and export of animals is also of high importance, 
and the forests and timber interests are large. The mineral 
resources are rich and include coal and iron. 

The government vigorously aids manufacturing, granting low 
rates of transportation for machinery, offering subsidies and free- 
dom from taxation to certain industries, and providing for tech- 
nical education. The improvement of the rivers is undertaken, 

Fig. 217. Harbor of Fiume 

and canals are projected for joining the greater streams and 
thus shortening routes. There are 12,000 miles of railway, the 
main lines centering in Budapest, a splendid capital standing on 
both banks of the Danube and containing over 700,000 people. 
Its largest industry is the manufacture of flour, for which the 
city has the highest appliances and an international reputation, 
being well placed in reference to wheat fields and markets. 

In the southwest Slavonia and Croatia belong to Hungary 
and give access to the Adriatic and to Fiume, which is the^poit 
of Budapest as Trieste is the port of Vienna. 

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301. Foreign trade of the empire. The population is about 
45,000,000 and the total foreign trade in 1907 was $924,000,- 
000, imports and exports being about equal. This total scarcely 
varies from that of Italy. There is, however, a vast trade between 
the two kingdoms of the empire, which does not appear in this 
figure. The same is true in the United States, where the trade 
among states is several times greater than the foreign trade. 
Hungary has fully two thirds of its trade with Austria, and the 
two countries supplement each other, one being agricultural, 
the other largely industrial. Hungarian flour is sold widely in 
the markets of central and western Europe. The largest single 
import of the empire is raw cotton, and about two thirds of 
this is from the United States. Much of it comes by way of 
Bremen, but much also by Trieste, and the latter route is favored 
by the authorities. Among imports from America are character- 
istic mechanisms such as tools, typewriters, cash registers, and 
sewing machines. Through kinship and a common boundary 
the empire has a heavy trade with Germany. 
k 302. Roumania. This country has 50,720 square miles, 1 being 
& little larger than the state of New York. It extends along the 
Banube from the Iron Gate to the Black Sea, having the Car- 
pathians and Hungary on the northwest and the plains of Russia 
<J& the northeast. Except on the Carpathian slopes it is a plain 
country; and like Hungary is agricultural. The population is 
about 6,000,000, and Bucharest, the capital, has more than a 
quarter of a million. Salt, coal, and petroleum are considerable 
products. One hundred thirty million tons of coal were mined 
in a recent year, and salt and petroleum furnish noteworthy 
exports. Wheat and corn are large crops grown on the plains 
of the lower Danube, and Roumania is one of the important 
wheat-exporting countries. 

Belgium, Italy, Holland, and the United Kingdom take most 
of the exports, Belgium alone taking about $30,000,000 in 1906, 
of which nearly $28,000,000 was in cereals. The largest im- 
ports are from Austria-Hungary, Germany, and the United 

1 Statesman's Year-Book, 1909. 

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Kingdom, textiles and metal manufactures being the leading 
items. The total foreign trade in 1906 was $176,000,000, the 
balance of trade being in favor of the home country. 

Fig. 218. Principal routes, centers, and industries of Russia 

303. European Russia. The industries and trade of Russia 
are in sharp contrast to those of western Europe. European 
Russia embraces almost half the continent, and had, in 1907, 
111,000,000 people, a little more than a quarter of the Euro- 
pean population. Viewed in relation to the Russian Empire, 
European Russia, great as it is, has less than one fourth the 

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area, but contains nearly three fourths of the population, so vast 
is Asiatic Russia and so scattered are its people. 

Russia may be compared with the central plains of Canada. 
Both have barren tundras in the polar territory; in each is a 
great belt of forest as one goes southward; and in both the 
forests are succeeded by vast plains of fertile soil chiefly devoted 
to tillage. The forest belt has coniferous trees in the north and 
deciduous growth on its southern side. About 40 per cent of 
the country is in heavy forest, and, considering the vast area, 
this points to large resources in timber. About two thirds of 
this land is state property, and its development will be slow. 

Fig. 219. Flax fiber; average annual production in millions of pounds, 
1 903- 1 907 inclusive 

Russia is, next to the United States, the greatest producer of 
petroleum, and the fields of Baku on the Caspian Sea offer a 
unique example of a vast product from a small area. Other 
mineral resources are great, but are imperfectly developed. 
Iron occurs in Russian Poland, in the vicinity of Moscow, in 
the Urals, and in the basin of the Donets. This river is a 
branch of the Don, in southern Russia, in the region of the in- 
dustrial and trading city of Kharkov. Here and in Poland coal 
is found, and the conditions for iron manufacture are present. 
Industrial progress is shown in the protection extended by gov- 
ernment to domestic work in coal and iron, and in the estab- 
lishment in the Donets region of a life-saving school to provide 
for safety in mining. Platinum should be named here because 
nine tenths of the world's supply of this rare but important 
metal comes from the European slope of the Urals. London 

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and Paris firms buy nearly all that is mined, and thus are able 
to hold a monopoly and fix prices. Salt occurs largely, and the 
Galician deposits of Austria lie close to the Russian border. 

304. Russian agriculture. Large as the arable lands are, 
they are limited by extensive tundras and forests in the north, 
swamps in the west, and salt steppes in the southeast. We may 
picture the agriculture by placing oats, rye, and barley in the 

Fig. 220. Average annual production of flaxseed in millions of bushels, 


north, wheat on the central and southern plains, and rice and 
vines in the south. Rye is more largely grown than wheat, 
because it is the home bread crop. Wheat, however, is better 
known, because it is the export crop. Poland and the black- 
earth region of central and southern Russia devote 1,000,000 
acres to sugar beets, supplying all the home needs and export- 
ing largely. Hemp and flax are grown in the Polish and 
Baltic districts and in central Russia, Russia leading all other 
lands in these crops. 

Potatoes are much grown, and by considering Russia, Scan- 
dinavia, Germany, the United Kingdom, and other lands it is 

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3 8o 

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again seen that the fortunate finding of this plant in the New 
World has largely changed the food supply of Europe. The 
live-stock interests of Russia are superior to those of any other 
European country. Vast as Russian agriculture is, the methods 
are primitive, and the improvements now begun may be expected 
to cause great growth of products in the future. 

305. Cities and the routes of trade. We begin in the central 
region, where the plain is a few hundred feet, higher than on 
the borders. Here the great rivers rise, the Volga flowing to 
the Caspian Sea, the Don and the Dnieper to the Black Sea, 
the Diina to the Baltic, and the Dvina to the Arctic Ocean. 
Astrakhan is at the mouth of the Volga ; Taganrog, the wheat 
market, at the mouth of the Don on the Sea of Azov ; Odessa, 
near the entrance of the Dnieper upon the Black Sea ; while 
Riga is the port of the Duna, and Archangel of the Dvina. 
There is fishing trade at Astrakhan, and Odessa deals in the 
cereals of southern Russia and has flour mills, sugar refineries, 
and many other industries. Cereals, flax, and lumber go out from 
Riga, and cotton, coal, and machinery come in, and there are many 
industries. Lumber and flax are exported from Archangel. 

The rivers named and many others are navigable, offering 
over 16,000 miles for steamships, 8000 more for small sailing 
vessels, and 26,000 miles for rafts. These waters lose part of 
their value because of ice in the winter both in the streams and 
at the ports to which they lead. 

We may now view the land traffic, and here we begin also 
in the central region, at Moscow, with a population of 1,350,000, 
the chief center of industry in Russia. Not only are there many 
factories, but house industries are carried on throughout the re- 
gion. Not far south of Moscow are fields of coal and iron. Mos- 
cow is the center of the railways. The chief lines run as follows : 
westward to Riga ; northwest to St. Petersburg ; north to Arch- 
angel ; eastward to Siberia and the Pacific coast ; southward to 
Kharkov, Kief, and Black Sea ports ; and west-southwest to 
Warsaw, Germany, and western Europe. From the Baku oil 
region on the Caspian Sea a road runs to ports on the Black Sea. 

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Warsaw, the third city of Russia, with 750,000 people, is the 
industrial and commercial center of Poland. Lodz, also in Poland, 
is a textile center and is nearly half as large as Warsaw. 

Nizhni Novgorod, east of Moscow, is the seat of the greatest 
of Russian fairs, formerly the great means of the interior trade 
of the empire, and even yet transacting business to the extent of 
many millions of dollars. St. Petersburg, last to be mentioned, 
is the first city of Russia, has about 1,700,000 people, is second 
only to Moscow in industries, has a large foreign trade, and is 
the financial center and the capital of the empire. 

306. Foreign trade. The foreign commerce amounts to about 
$1,000,000,000. This is little more than that of Austria-Hun- 
gary or Italy, but Russia is the awakening giant of Europe. It 
must also be said that the internal trade is vast, and that no 
other nation of Europe has resources that may make it so nearly 
self-sustaining as Russia. Russia buys in foods chiefly tea, 
coffee, wine, and fish. Other imports are rubber, coal, cotton, 
wool, chemicals, stationery, and machinery. She sells chiefly 
breadstuffs, butter, eggs, flax, hemp, hides, oil cake, petroleum, 
and timber. Much the greatest trade is with Germany, Great 
Britain and the United States standing second and third in 
Russian commerce. 

307. Southeastern Europe. The Balkan region toward the 
Adriatic belongs to Austria-Hungary ; and Greece, the southern 
part of the peninsula, has been studied with southern Europe. 
There remain Bulgaria, Servia, Montenegro, and Turkey in 
Europe. Much of the region is rugged and barren, but the 
lowlands are genial and fertile, and, but for the misuse of man, 
might be of importance at home and abroad. Bulgaria and Ser- 
via raise wheat, and indeed rank among the countries of eastern 
Europe which export this cereal. Both of these countries have 
also the advantage of the Danube on the north as an artery of 
communication, and the valley of the Morava offers an easy 
route through Servia toward the important port of Salonica. Silk, 
tobacco, and wine are products of Bosnia and Servia, and min- 
erals are abundant, but not much developed in the mountainous 

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lands of the Balkan Peninsula. These regions play a small part 
in international trade, and for the purposes of this book may be 
passed with brief mention. Even Constantinople, city of the 
ages though it is, the gateway of Europe and Asia, has small 
industrial significance, and its commerce has declined in recent 
times because the two continents have opened other avenues, — 
through Russia in the north and by the Mediterranean and Suez 
in the south. Recent political changes, however, are introducing 
more modern and liberal conditions. Shipping from all ports 
on the Black Sea must pass through the Bosporus, and the city 
may again gain in the world of commerce a place suitable to its 
antiquity and its fame. 

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308. The continent as a whole. Asia has about four times 
the area of Europe, and contains more than twice as many 
people, yet its entire foreign trade is much less than that of the 
United Kingdom, which is smaller than Japan. Europe has a 
central lowland and its mountain barriers are toward the Arctic 
and Mediterranean seas. Asia has a central highland of plateaus 
and mountains, and its major rivers flow outward to the Arctic, 
Pacific, and Indian oceans. The form of Europe gives it com- 
mercial unity. Its longest railroads cross its central parts, and 
many of its greatest ships anchor almost at the heart of the 
continent. In Asia the high central areas are mainly unpro- 
ductive, and trails and caravans form the only means of com- 
munication. The productive countries are on the edge of the 
continent and the chief communication is by sea. The com- 
merce of Europe might be called centripetal, while that of 
Asia is centrifugal. 

Much of western and central Asia is desert because removed 
from the ocean. This remoteness is due both to the size of the 
continent and to the presence of Europe and Africa between it 
and the Atlantic. The southeast and east are within the belt of 
the monsoons of the Indian Ocean, and both temperature and rain- 
fall aid in making these parts productive. This part of Asia has 
been exploited by Europeans since ancient times for its spices, 
silks, dyes, and precious stones, and now affords European nations 
a commerce much more varied and capable of great growth. 

309. Types of commercial development. At least five regions 
may be named. 

i. Turkey in Asia includes some of the most ancient seats 
of commerce, — in Mesopotamia and about the eastern shore 


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ASIA 385 

of the Mediterranean. After prolonged desolation these regions 
begin to revive and to adopt the ways of modern times. 

2. India and the East Indian islands are regions of tropical 
climate, of metallic and plant wealth, where the natives have little 
initiative and are ruled by European and American powers. 
Under such rule development has been large, and we have the 
most important examples of colonies of exploitation. 

3. China has a larger population than any other nation and 
represents one of the most ancient civilizations. It is tied to cus- 
tom and slow to move, but is beginning to learn the vastness of 
its resources and to awaken to industry and to international trade. 

4. Japan is the only oriental nation of great initiative, swiftly 
learning its lessons from western countries and now taking its 
own part in industry and in the world's trade. 

5. Siberia represents the expansion of Russia eastward dur- 
ing modern centuries. The resources are limited by the high 
latitudes, but still are large. The country is now opened by one 
trunk line of communication. It is the chief example in Asia of 
a new or frontier land, comparable with lands in North America 
during the period of exploration and westward movement. 

Asiatic commerce, ancient and modern, is shaped by physical 
conditions, but even more by the spirit and traditions of its people. 

310. Turkey in Asia. Following the Balkan parts of Europe, 
it is natural to take the Asiatic provinces of the Turkish empire. 
In this region one is ever reminded of ancient literature and his- 
tory. Smyrna, Tarsus, Antioch, and Damascus, Palestine, Arabia, 
and the empires of Mesopotamia are brought again to view. 

Smyrna is the chief port and city of Asia Minor, having 
200,000 people. Over 5000 vessels entered here in a recent 
year. Figs, licorice, olive oil, opium, tobacco, and emery stones 
are among the exports to the United States. It is a sign of 
progress that the government of the province recently distrib- 
uted more than 1,000,000 grape cuttings, remitting for ten 
years taxation on new vineyards. A large American commission 
house has set up a branch in Smyrna, helping to relieve the 
difficulties of American trade, which may be enumerated as 

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long transit, lack of banking facilities, lack of direct shipping 
lines, and the unwillingness of American dealers to give credit 
until goods are received. A Greek company has started a line 
between New York and the Levant, removing the necessity of 
transfer at Liverpool, Hamburg, or Naples. 

There are three chief ports at the east end of the Medi- 
terranean, — Alexandretta, Beirut, and Haifa. The consul at 

Fig. 222. Smyrna and its harbor 

Alexandretta reports the establishment of agencies by an Ameri- 
can sewing-machine company, and a strong trade. Alexandretta 
is visited by steamships of nine lines and by many tramp ships. 
The exports of Beirut are over $6,000,000, including silk to 
France, barley to the United Kingdom, and wool to the United 
States (from which the largest import is sewing machines). 
Safes and roll-top desks sold in Beirut show the modern 
movement. Here is a center of education due to the work of 
American missionaries. There is also at Beirut a government 
industrial college. 

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In the interior are Antioch, Tarsus, and Aleppo, all bearing 
ancient names. These are now centers of industry, textiles lead- 
ing, and flour mills being in operation in all. At Aleppo work 
in embroideries was started by missionaries among the women 
and girls, and thousands of persons are now employed. Aleppo 
is the emporium of northern Syria and receives caravans from 
Diarbekr, Bagdad, and other places. It is joined to Beirut by 

Fig. 223. Routes and commercial centers of southwestern Asia 

rail, has 9000 looms, and its exports and imports are not far 
from $20,000,000 per year. At Urfa is a carpet industry, — a 
German charitable enterprise. Even in Palestine enterprise has 
grown up. A new harbor is under way at Haifa, and from this 
port oranges to the value of several hundred thousand dollars 
are exported. The making of mother-of-pearl ornaments is an 
industry of Bethlehem, and tanning is carried on at Hebron. 
Damascus, with 250,000 people, is on a plain made fertile by 
the streams of Anti-Lebanon, is connected by rail with Beirut, 

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and has an electric tramway in operation. Even Medina, far 
away in the Arabian peninsula, a center of Mohammedan pil- 
grimage, has waterworks and electric lights. 

Trebizond is the Black Sea port of Asiatic Turkey. The 
trade of its consular district is $28,000,000 per year. Nine 
lines of steamships call here, and it is the terminus of the cara- 
van route to Persia, — a country to which belongs about 30 per 
cent of the foreign trade of Trebizond. 

The Mesopotamian center is Bagdad. A railway will soon 
join it to Aleppo on the west, and it has a natural route by the 
Persian Gulf to India and the outside world. New steamers 
now ply the Tigris and the Euphrates. The foreign trade in 
1907, by sea alone, via the port of Bassora, was $15,000,000. 
Owing to a short crop in India, Mesopotamian wheat went 
thither, and also to Marseilles and London. There is a large 
import of cotton goods, the natives sending their own buyers 
to Manchester since they know what Arabian and Persian mar- 
kets require. India is now competing with the United King- 
dom in the cotton trade of the Bagdad region. The United 
States in 1907 imported goods to the value of $6,500,000 from 
Asiatic Turkey. 

311. Small commercial centers in Arabia. In the east, at 
the entrance to the Persian Gulf, is Oman, whose capital is 
Maskat. The United States is one of its best customers for its 
largest export, dates. There is a foreign trade of over $3,000,- 
000. In the south, at the entrance of the Red Sea, is Aden, 
a British possession, a large distributing point, and one of the 
chief coaling stations in the world. Farther north on the Red 
Sea is Yemen, which in ancient times was called Arabia Felix. 
Sana is its interior city and Hodeida and Mokha are its ports, 
the latter bestowing its name upon the coffee of the region. 

312. Persia. Here is one of the most isolated and backward 
countries, even of Asia. Its relations to the British Empire and 
to Russia, however, illustrate important principles in the devel- 
opment of commerce. The conceded British sphere of influence 
is in the south, the Russian sphere is in the north, and a 

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ASIA 389 

neutral zone lies between. The total foreign trade in 1907 was 
$70,000,000, of which Russia controlled 57 per cent and Great 
Britain and India more than half the remainder. Russian railways 
coming to the Persian frontier refuse, with the exception of tea, 
to carry goods from other countries. Petroleum from the Baku 
region and beet sugar are large imports from Russia. Persian cot- 
ton goes into Russia on one tenth of the usual duty. Russian 
goods sent to Persia are favored by rebates, and Russian banks 
in Persia give favorable terms to purchasers of Russian goods. 

Southern Persia is served by seven steamship lines, which 
reach the ports of the Persian Gulf. The chief export from 
Persia to the United States is in rugs and carpets of native 
manufacture. The Persian authorities endeavor to check the 
use of mineral dyes and thus preserve the quality of one of 
their typical products. 

313. India. India is primarily the central peninsula of 
southern Asia and includes the country lying northward to 
the Himalaya, northwest to the Sulaiman Mountains, and east- 
ward to the ranges of Burma. Here, however, Burma is included 
because it is organized as a part of British India. The popula- 
tion is nearly 300,000,000. It is important to study the courses 
of the Indus, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra rivers. Along 
these streams is the great plain of India. North of it are the 
highest of all mountains, and south of it, filling most of the 
peninsula, is the plateau known as the Dekkan. On the east 
the plain extends northeast into Assam, and it forms southward 
the delta of the Ganges. On the west it reaches north over the 
plains of the Indus in the country known as the Punjab, and 
south to the mouth of the Indus. 

Except in the Punjab the densely peopled parts of India are 
south of latitude 30 degrees, and hence are hot and unsuited to 
colonization and permanent residence by white men. Govern- 
ment officers and missionaries require long furloughs to restore 
their physical vigor. Here then is a remarkable example of 
industrial and commercial development, now in progress, for 
about one fifth of the world's population, under British direction. 

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This is well shown by the 30,000 miles of railway which India 
now has, — much more than all other Asiatic countries com- 
bined. These roads are specially developed on the northern 
plains, — from Karachi, an important seaport near the mouth 
of the Indus, to Lahore, a city of industry and the capital of the 
Punjab. Thence a branch runs to Peshawar, in the northwest 
mountain frontier. The main lines pass eastward into the valley 
of the Ganges and run on either side of the river to the plains 
of Bengal and to Calcutta. On the west coast a line runs south 
as far as Bombay. On the east a line reaches from Calcutta, 
near tfie shore, almost to the southern tip of the peninsula. 
The central plateau is less densely peopled, but is crossed by 
several railways. From Bombay on the west coast a line runs 
eastward to Calcutta, and others trend southeast to Hyderabad 
and to Madras. The coast line is little broken, and good har- 
bors and great marine cities are few. The latter are, however, the 
greatest cities of India, the first three being Calcutta (1,026,000), 
Bombay (776,000), and Madras (509,000). In 1907-1908 Cal- 
cutta was first in foreign trade, Bombay second, Karachi third, 
Rangoon fourth, and Madras fifth. 

Agriculture is the largest occupation, and irrigation is widely 
practiced. While the country is essentially tropical, the altitudes 
on the lower mountain slopes and in the Dekkan moderate the 
heat. Hence much wheat is grown in the Punjab and on the 
Dekkan plateau. The outlet for the former is Karachi, and for 
the latter Bombay (sect. 11). The climate and soil of the Dekkan 
make India a large producer of cotton and afford raw cotton 
both for export and for several millions of spindles (sect. 23). 
Bombay is also the port for cotton, and has both cotton and 
flour mills. Its situation on the west coast gave it great growth 
on the opening of the Suez Canal, which at once placed it on 
one of the trunk shipping routes of the world. Rice is the chief 
crop in the lower lands of the Ganges and Brahmaputra, — 
the vast and rich plains which form the hinterland of Calcutta. 
Rice and millet are largely the food of the natives. Rice is an 
important export, and tea also, whose special region is Assam, 

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39 2 

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in the region of the Brahmaputra. Jute and silk are also among 
the textile products and industries. 

Burma lies to the. east and is a part of the Indo-Chinese 
peninsula. Its chief city is Rangoon, its artery of traffic is the 
Irawadi River, and its prime product of the soil is rice, which 
is largely exported. Closely related to India is Ceylon, whose 
fields afford tea and whose great mineral product is graphite. 
India is now probably the most important commercial country 

Fig. 226. Harbor of Calcutta 

of Asia. China may have greater resources but is more back- 
ward, while Japan has much less natural wealth and its native 
population is far more progressive. As the people of India rise 
in standards of living they will require more at home, and their 
export trade may not see great growth. 

314. Indo-Chinese peninsula and the East Indian islands. 
The Indo-Chinese peninsula includes lower Burma, the French 
dependencies in this part of Asia (sect. 270), the kingdom of 
Siam, and the Malay Peninsula. Siam lies between Burma and 
the French possessions and has Bangkok as its capital. As in 
Burma, so in Siam, rice and teakwood are the noteworthy ex- 
ports. The ships that visit Bangkok rank, first, German ; second, 

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Norwegian ; third, British. The Malay Peninsula contains vari- 
ous protected states and British settlements. The most special 
product of world-wide importance is tin. Typical of a tropical 
land, though less important, are spices and gums. 

The entire Indo-Chinese peninsula has nothing else which 
compares — in its meaning for commercial geography — with 
the development and trade of Singapore. This city was founded 

Fig. 227. Singapore, Collyer Quay 

in 1 8 19 by an Englishman. It is near the south end of the 
peninsula, and all ships . that go east or west around the south- 
east coast of Asia must pass it. It is a free port, and as a place 
of distribution (entrepdt) and a coaling station is visited by the 
steamers of more than fifty lines. We may profitably associate 
Singapore with Hongkong, Aden, Malta, and Gibraltar in their 
relation to the British Empire. 

Of the great islands of the East Indies control is held by the 
nations of Europe, with the single exception of the Philippines. 

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ASIA 395 

These latter islands, having passed from centuries of control by 
a backward European nation to the keeping of a great commer- 
cial power, are now undergoing development in government, in 
education, and in natural resources. Thus they will represent, 
as India does to-day, the impress made by a northern race upon 
a dark people and a tropical land. The largest commercial de- 
velopment among the islands of the entire East Indian group has 
taken place under Dutch rule, particularly in Java (sect. 283). 

315. China. The Chinese Empire is larger than Europe 
and has an equal or greater population. Its foreign trade is 
somewhat less than that of Switzerland. Nevertheless China 
is of great interest to commerce for its present and especially 
for its future. It has every kind of surface and every grade of 
density of population. It has great seaports, also interior cen- 
ters of caravan trade, which are rarely visited by foreigners. 
China proper is in the southeast and is drained by the Yangtse 
and Hoangho rivers. Vast plains spread along their lower courses, 
and about their upper parts are hills and mountains, but nearly 
everywhere cultivation is intensive and population large. 

The winters are cold, especially in the interior, in the higher 
regions close to the lofty plateau of central Asia ; but the sum- 
mers are warm and moist because the country feels the effect 
of the monsoon winds. Subtropical products are therefore abun- 
dant in the south, while to the north the country runs far into 
temperate latitudes. In this respect the range resembles that 
of the United States. In other respects greater contrasts could 
scarcely be imagined, — dense population, great antiquity, the 
utmost conservatism, primitive methods of tillage and manufac- 
ture, and few railroads. 

Spheres of influence and concessions for trade and railway 
building have gradually been gained by western governments 
and capitalists, and this vast land is slowly opening to the world. 
Now the Chinese government maintains some hundreds of 
students in American and European schools for the purpose of 
assimilating western knowledge and practice. Silk, tea, cotton, 
and rice are the typical products of Chinese soil, and all of 

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these except rice are important in the export trade. The min- 
eral resources are known to be enormous, and the deposits of 
coal are more extended and perhaps offer a larger total of fuel 
than even the coal fields of the United States. The people are 
sturdy, industrious, and of large capacity when once awakened 

Fig. 228. Eastern Asia 

to effective use of their resources. These conditions open high 
possibilities for Chinese commerce, since a numerous people and 
a rich country must in time both produce much and require much. 
The internal commerce is checked by the lack of roads, while 
the coasting trade is much larger than the foreign commerce. 

Shanghai (651,000) is the greatest seaport of China in the 
volume of its commerce. It is near the mouth of the Yangtse 

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and has a hinterland almost without rival. Peking (700,000) 
and Tientsin (750,000) may be named together, — the former 
the capital, the latter its port, with a considerable foreign 
trade. Canton (900,000) in the south is perhaps the largest 
Chinese city, but its importance as a port is shared with the 
neighboring Hongkong, which belongs to Great Britain. The 
population of Hongkong, mainly Chinese, is over 300,000. 
Tonnage amounting to more than 1 1 ,000,000 enters and clears 
each year, making this one of the major seaports in the world. 

Fig. 229. Harbor of Hongkong 

Many other ports and interior cities of great size are little 
known in America. Of these, two may be named, — Hankau 
(778,000), a river port of large trade on the Yangtse, 600 
miles from the sea, and Chungking (702,000), far up the same 
river and a center for western Chinese trade. All population 
figures for Chinese cities are more or less doubtful. 

Of four provinces on the north and west, only one, Man- 
churia, with a temperate climate and wide areas of fertile soil, 
enters largely into the agriculture and commerce of to-day. The 
others, Mongolia, Chinese Turkestan, and Tibet, are remote, 
sparsely populated, with caravan trade and a few ancient centers 
of life such as Kashgar and Yarkand in Turkestan. 

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316. Japan. This island kingdom stretches far up and down 
the Asiatic coast, and was, until about fifty years ago, closed 
to foreign commerce. Gradually its ports have been opened, 
its people have awakened, and now, more than any other ori- 
ental race, it has entered into modern life and industry. It 
has been an earnest student and close imitator of western 
nations, sends its young men to British and American univer- 
sities, has American and European professors in its imperial 
university, and teaches its children the English language. Its 
people have shown themselves diligent, skillful, and courageous, 
and have quickly brought their country to the rank of the 
great powers. 

The islands are mountainous, the proportion of arable lands 
is small, and the population dense ; but the tillage is intensive, 
all waste matter is saved, and even the fish of the sea are 
gathered to give the fields fertility. The chief food products 
are rice, wheat, barley, and soy beans. Silk, tea, and camphor 
are typical products, and the chief minerals are iron, coal, and 
copper. These Japan is now competent to utilize by her own 
skill, and this is shown in the shipbuilding by which the em- 
pire has built up its powerful navy and large merchant marine. 
Other notable industries are represented by matches, paper, cot- 
ton, silk, earthenware, and lacquer ware. The largest trade is 
with the United States, the United Kingdom, China, Korea, 
British India, and Germany. Japan has virtual control over 
Korea and fully shares with Russia influence in Manchuria 
and eastern Asia in general. 

317. Oriental countries and American trade. China is already 
a considerable buyer of American products. This trade is in 
its first stages because the tastes and ideals of the people are 
only beginning to change, and because transportation is poor 
and the people are shut out from the modern world. Future 
development is based on resources of soil and mines, which 
are vast ; and on the numerous population, which is by nature 
strong in body, vigorous in mind, industrious, and given to 
punctual observance of business obligations. Thus the canceling 

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ASIA 399 

of contracts by a manufacturing company for reasons deemed 
sufficient in America is unfavorably regarded in China. 

It is natural to ask whether the application of so much latent 
energy, with the aid of education, machinery, and good trans- 
portation, will flood the world with cheap goods and swamp the 
industries of the white races. It is to be remembered that 
changes in China will be gradual, giving time for adjustment. 
Progress in industry also will bring with it higher standards of 
living, creating a large home market and requiring higher wages 
for the native worker. It is proper to consider the vast home 
market of the United States with less than 100,000,000 people, 
and the future home trade of China with 400,000,000 people. 

It has been sought, especially by the United States, to pre- 
serve the integrity of China and to give all nations equal commer- 
cial rights in that country. The United States has large trade 
in Manchuria, especially in tobacco, oil, flour, and cotton piece 
goods, and it is highly important to keep the " open-door " 
policy, which means that all the chief trading countries are, by 
treaty with China, entitled to the benefits of the " most-favored- 
nation " treatment. Following the Russo-Japanese war there 
appears to have been a strong effort by Japan to gain commer- 
cial monopoly in Manchuria. Among the measures used are 
the promotion of Japanese immigration, the control of the rail- 
ways and favorable rates for Japanese shippers, the abolition 
of certain taxes which are still collected on American imports, 
and free carriage or nominal charges on freight sent by ship. 

As a large part of American trade with China has been in 
Manchuria, these developments are important and have been 
investigated by agents of the Department of Commerce and 
Labor. Personal effort has been little used in Manchuria, 
American cottons selling by reason of their merit. It was re- 
ported in 1907 that but two American merchants were residing 
in Manchuria, a region whose trade with this country runs into 
the millions. At the same time a large Japanese corporation 
has many agents. Only one middleman comes between the 
Japanese producer and the Chinese market, as against six or 

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seven in the case of American goods, and the Japanese in addi- 
tion gives favorable credit conditions and uses every means of 
winning the favor of the Chinese merchant. 

Japan may be considered as a competing nation, not only in 
Manchuria but in other parts of the Orient and in all lands. It 
must be remembered that her natural resources are limited 
unless she extends control over large continental regions, — a 
policy which seems to be shown in her efforts in Manchuria and 
her incorporation of Korea into the empire. She is favored by 
her inventive capacity and skill in imitation, by energy, and by an 
almost fanatical patriotism. Japan's governmental organization 
of industry and commerce is so complete that she has been 
called a " national development company." 

As we send much cotton to European mills, which work it 
up and win the chief profits, so we are sending raw cotton to 
Japan, helping that country to supplant, in part, our cotton- 
goods trade in China, largely by putting goods of inferior grade 
on the market at lower prices, and by such means of discrimina- 
tion as have been described. It is stated 1 that American school- 
books have been printed in Japan, and that German bristles and 
bone from Chicago stockyards have been made into brushes in 
Japan, to undersell French goods in the shops of New York. 
These things do not point to Japanese supremacy, but they show 
the need of energy and wisdom on the part of the American 
manufacturer and trader. 

318. Asiatic Russia. Siberia stretches from the Pacific Ocean 
to the Ural Mountains and from the plateau of central Asia to 
the arctic seas. It has nearly 5,000,000 square miles and 
about 7,000,000 people, having been gradually acquired by 
Russia during the past three centuries. The southeast and east 
are mountainous, while the north and west form one of the few 
great plains of the world. The north is tundra, the next belt 
is forest, and in the south are soils and climate which will 
permit large agriculture of the temperate-latitude type. Vast 
rivers flow down to the arctic waters, where the frozen seas 
1 Bolce, New Internationalism, p. 177. 

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render them of little commercial value. The great route for 
commerce is the Trans-Siberian Railway, joining St. Petersburg 
and all Europe with Vladivostok and the Pacific Ocean. The 
mineral resources are known to be large. Thus with agriculture, 
forests, and minerals this great country awaits only the fuller 
application of intelligent industry and the achievement of more 
complete communication. 

Russian central Asia is the region inclosed by Siberia and 
Persia, the Caspian Sea, and Chinese Turkestan. It is a region 

Fig. 230. Vladivostok, harbor and terminus of the Siberian Railway 

of desert wastes and fertile oases and valleys, of ancient caravan 
routes and historic marts. Through this region Russia has put 
a railway, 1871 miles eastward to Merv, Bokhara, and beyond 
Samarkand ; and from Merv a spur reaches southward toward 
the Afghan and Persian frontiers. By the trunk line an impor- 
tant export of cotton is brought to the frontier, and the system 
aids the Russian government in extending its military power 
and its commerce into central and southern Asia. The Russian 
province of Caucasus has its chief centers of commercial interest 
in TifliS, a trading town of ancient renown, and in Baku, the 
place of the great petroleum field. 

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319. General statement. These and certain other lands in the 
South Pacific are sometimes included under the name Austral- 
asia, — a term which means southern Asia and expresses close 
physical relation to the Asiatic continent. Australia and New 
Zealand are the most important commercial regions in this part 
of the world, and are of special interest because they supply food 
and raw materials to older lands, and because they administer 
government in ways which are considered somewhat socialistic. 

320. Physical features of Australia. The length of this land 
is over 2000 miles and its breadth is above 1000 miles. It is 
therefore a continent rather than an island. The coast line is 
uniform and quite unlike that of Europe or North America. 
Its surface is more even than that of any other continent, its 
greatest elevation being about one half that of Mont Blanc. 
The chief mountains border the coast on the east and southeast, 
and the highest parts are often called the Australian Alps. 
Westward the surface descends to a vast low plateau, broken by 
occasional elevations in the interior and near the western coast. 

The east is reached by moist winds from a warm sea. Rising 
upon the cool uplands, they give abundant rains, but are shorn 
of moisture before reaching the interior, which is extremely dry. 
The rainfall varies on the east coast from 25 inches at Mel- 
bourne to 50 inches at Sydney and 80 inches on the tropical 
shores of Queensland. Much of the south and west coasts has 
less than 20 inches and most of the interior less than 10 inches. 

Most of the continent has no drainage that reaches the sea. 
The exception is found in many short rivers on the east slope 
of the mountains, and in the combined waters of the Darling 
and Murray rivers, which descend the west slope of the moun- 
tains and enter the sea on the south. 


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321. Commercial conditions. Chief among these is isolation. 
No other advanced country, except New Zealand, is so far from 
the main routes of travel and the great centers of commerce. 
The distances are so great that without modern methods of 
transportation and communication Australia could have little to 
do with the rest of the world. Either Canada or Argentina is 
much nearer to London, Hamburg, or Genoa than is Australia. 

Fig. 231. Annual rainfall of Australia 

Australia, like Canada and the United States, had but a small 
native population, and thus contrasts with India, Java, South 
Africa, or Brazil, offering a fresh field for European influence 
and colonists. Australia has a more homogeneous population 
than a land which, like the United States, has been in the 
track of emigration from the crowded nations of Europe. Her 
climate is tropical and warm-temperate, a condition favorable 
to agriculture and life in the open air. A peculiar condition 
is the vast proportion of arid land in the interior, leaving a 
habitable fringe along the sea and leading to a concentration 

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in seaboard cities which is remarkable when the small popula- 
tion and continental extent of the country are considered. 

In government Australia may be compared to Canada. The 
six states, Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, South 
Australia and West Australia, and the neighboring island of 
Tasmania, have been united since the first day of the century, 
January I, 1901, into the commonwealth of Australia, under 
the British crown. This union introduced free trade among 
the states and unity of administration in foreign commerce. 

322. Government activity and social conditions. The railways 
are chiefly built and administered by the several states, and the 
telegraph is conducted by the commonwealth as a part of the 
postal system. Public ownership was a necessity if the country 
was to have modern methods and not be retarded in develop- 
ment. Railways and telegraphs must run through uninhabited 
regions where private capital could get no returns. These util- 
ities were financed by British capital. But the large public debt 
thus incurred has behind it productive utilities and is not a 
useless burden, as are many national debts resulting from mili- 
tary expenditure. 

The paternal functions undertaken by the government make 
necessary a vast number of civil servants and cause at the same 
time widespread political interests among the people. Thus 
the labor movement is claimed to have " given Australia its 
distinctive place among the nations." The labor party has 
naturally had much to do with the -conditions of industry and 
commerce. It stands for such provisions as the eight-hour day, 
arbitration courts, indemnity for injuries, and for old-age and 
invalid pensions. Workingmen are independent and have full 
opportunity to rise in means and influence, in a land in which 
distinctions of money and class do not greatly count. 

Several states had adopted the policy of pensions for old age, 
and in 1909 this became the law of the commonwealth, with the 
qualifying age of sixty-five years and twenty years of residence. 
The commercial policy is protective, the average duties being 
about 1 s per cent. The native producer is in some cases further 

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protected by high rates of freight. The tariff is planned to 
prevent monopolistic control so far as possible, to prevent dump- 
ing by foreign trusts, and to protect the workingman. In this 
aspect the name " the new protection " is given to the present 
tariff system. A working feature is the laying of an excise on 
home manufactures equal to one half the duty on similar im- 
ports, the excise being remitted where conditions of labor are 
decided to be fair and reasonable. 

Another important factor in the commercial life is the de- 
termined policy of a " white Australia," due to the fears of 
depreciated labor and inferior society, should this open and 
attractive land be overrun by Asiatics, who live within a few 
days' sail. To this end the Kanaka laborers, imported to till 
the sugar plantations of Queensland, have all been deported, 
the industry being sustained during the change by bounties 
given on sugar grown by white labor. The industry still thrives, 
for as the cost of labor rises, improved methods of cultivation 
are adopted. Even though the tropical belt be developed more 
slowly, Australians are agreed in holding the country for the 
higher standards of the white race, seeing the opportunity to 
build a truly British nation in the southern hemisphere. It is 
sought to retain strong bonds with the empire by giving a pref- 
erential tariff on all British goods, and the problem of national 
defense is regarded as vital to future safety. 

323. Transportation and communication. Australia of neces- 
sity reaches the rest of the world by water, and is yet peculiarly 
dependent on ships for transit between her states. Eastern New 
South Wales, Victoria, and the adjacent part of South Australia 
offer the only network of railways in the commonwealth, and 
the chief cities are all by the sea. Unfortunately, also, the 
railways of the various states are not of uniform gauge. Short 
lines run inland as follows : from Port Darwin to Pine Creek 
in the north; from Fremantle and Perth to Kalgoorlie in 
the west ; from Port Augusta to Oodnadatta in the south ; 
and from Sydney, Brisbane, and other ports in the east. These 
inland spurs have been built for mining purposes, and in some 

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cases to move the flocks to unpastured ranges and save them 
from starvation in time of drought. 

It is proposed to build three transcontinental lines : (1) from 
Port Augusta in South Australia westward to Kalgoorlie, Perth, 
and Fremantle ; (2) from Oodnadatta northward to Pine Creek 
and Port Darwin ; (3) from Bourke in New South Wales north- 
west to Pine Creek and Port Darwin. 

The union of telegraph stations with post offices involves 
economy of management, and notwithstanding long distances 
and small population the rates are much cheaper than in the 
United States, and each inhabitant averages two to four tele- 
grams per year, as compared with one message in the United 
States. Ocean cables join Australia to other lands by way of 
Java, and a cable also extends from Vancouver to Queensland. 
Need of more ample cable service is felt, the cost now being 
so high that foreign news is much condensed, thereby giving 
a limited knowledge of markets and the affairs of the empire. 

Ocean steamship lines reach all Australian ports, joining them 
with Europe, Asia, America, South Africa, and New Zealand. 
The great highway to Europe is through the Suez Canal. Aus- 
tralia will feel the shifting of the streams of the world's com- 
merce on the opening of the Panama Canal, a route which will 
greatly shorten the voyage from London to Melbourne, Sydney, 
or Brisbane. 

324. Grazing industries. Like other new and sparsely settled 
lands, such as western America and Argentina, Australia has 
had large interests in sheep and cattle, and still keeps her rank 
as the first wool-growing country in the world. Australians be- 
lieve that their pastures are specially favorable to the quality of 
wool and that their supremacy will be permanent. In the early 
days of the colony pure merino sheep were, with much diffi- 
culty, obtained from Spain, and the foundation of future pros- 
perity was laid. 

Wool growing has largely influenced the life of Australia, 
not only in the solitary life of the ranges, but in the building of 
railroads and in the concentration of people in the seaports, 

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whence the wool product to the extent of 98 1 per cent is shipped 
to foreign lands. Australia had nearly 88,000,000 sheep at the 
end of 1907. 

At the same time there were over 10,000,000 cattle. Of the 
butter and cheese, the latter is used at home and the former is 
largely sent to the United Kingdom. Here, as in other things, 
there is much state aid and inspection. The government offers 
instruction in methods, imports blooded stock, and provides re- 
frigerating chambers in ships in connection with its mail contracts. 




Fig. 233. Number of sheep, in thousands, figures being given for all 
countries from which dates are obtainable 

325. Agriculture. Among direct products of the soil wheat 
is far in the lead, occupying one half of the cultivated lands. 
Though the commonwealth may not produce more than Kansas 
or Minnesota or Manitoba, its export of wheat is large, owing 
to the small population at home. Oats is the next crop, but is 
far less important than wheat. Maize is extensively raised, and 
shows again how far this North American cereal has migrated 
in modern times. Vine growing and wine making have grown 
to considerable proportions. Sugar is the chief product of north- 
ern or tropical plantations, but there seems to be no reason why 
cotton, rice, and tropical fruits may not become large industries. 

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326. Mineral industries. The total mineral product in 1907 
was about $140,000,000. Gold is the largest item, and in 1901 
the commonwealth produced more than one fourth of the world's 
supply. Soon after that the relative rank fell because of the 
great output of the Transvaal. Silver, copper, and tin are im- 
portant, and there are minor metals and gems, with vast fields 
remaining for exploration and probable large discoveries. 

Fig. 234. Harbor of Sydney 

Coal and iron, the minerals which are fundamental to great 
industrial development, are believed to be widespread and im- 
portant, but are imperfectly known and slightly developed, with 
the single exception of coal in the state of New South Wales. 

327. Cities and manufacturing. In 1907 the population of 
Sydney was estimated at 577,000; and Melbourne is nearly as 
large as Sydney. The advanced character of these great cen- 
ters is noted by all writers, and the two contain more than one 
fourth of the people of the commonwealth. In 1907 Adelaide, 
the capital of South Australia, had 178,000; and Brisbane, the 

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capital of Queensland, about 135,000. When it is remembered 
that the population of at least seven other towns ranges from 
25,000 to above 50,000, the concentration in cities is seen to 
be remarkable for a new country of small population. 

Manufacturing is in its early stages and has been compared 
to that of Canada fifty years ago or to that of Argentina to-day. 
Growth in this department is now fostered by the federal policy 
of protection. The simple preparation of primary products holds 
first place, as in other new lands ; examples are soap, brick, 
brewing, and wool scouring. There is progress and even some 
foreign trade in agricultural and mining machinery. 

328. Trade. There has been great expansion of internal 
commerce, owing to the removal of tariff barriers by the fed- 
eration of the several provinces. The total over-sea trade of 
Australia is not far from $150 per capita of the population, 
a remarkable showing for the productiveness of the country 
and the enterprise of the people. An English writer has not 
hesitated to call Australia "by far the richest of all the colo- 
nies." Much the largest export is wool, valued in 1907 above. 
$140,000,000. Gold specie and bullion are second, followed 
by wheat, copper, butter, skins and hides, mutton, tallow, and 
various metals. Much the greater trade is with the United 
Kingdom. Otherwise Australia imports chiefly from the United 
States and Germany, and exports to France, Belgium, Germany, 
and the United States. These European countries need her 
food and raw materials, and she offers to manufacturers in the 
United States a market for mining and farm machinery and for 
such American specialties as typewriters, phonographs, and 
sewing machines. Among the less elaborated products drawn 
from the United States are timber, tobacco, wheat, and petro- 
leum. It is believed that the new preferential tariff has arrested 
a tendency to decline in the trade of the commonwealth with 
other parts of the empire. 

329. New Zealand. The islands bearing this name ceased to 
be a crown colony and became the Dominion of New Zealand 
in 1907. There are two chief islands, having an area of a little 

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more than 100,000 square miles and a population slightly above 
1,000,000, mostly European. The surface of the land consists 
of lofty mountains, wooded slopes, and fertile plains. Agricul- 
ture, grazing, and timber cutting prevail, and meat freezing, 
tanning, sawing, and butter and cheese making are the principal 
processes of manufacture. Wool, frozen meat, butter and cheese, 
and gold are the chief exports. After the United Kingdom and 
Australia the United States has the most important place in 
the foreign trade of the dominion. New Zealand is seeking to 
solve the problem of popular government through the same 
types of progressive legislation which prevail in Australia. 

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330. Conditions affecting production and trade. These may 
be analyzed as follows : 

i . The close relation to Asia and Europe, Africa being joined 
to the former by an isthmus and separated from the latter by a 
narrow sea. The ancient life and commerce of the Mediter- 
ranean was shared by North Africa, but did not reach far into 
the continent, perhaps on account of the Sahara. With such a 
history we may contrast the growth of great nations in a few 
centuries in America. 

2. Configuration. Africa has almost unbroken shore lines 
and few harbors. Its coastal lowlands are narrow and its broad 
interior is a plateau. The rivers go down by rapids and falls 
and soon reach the sea, putting a great check on navigation 
between the coast and the interior. There are few mountain 
ranges of great length or height, to stop the winds, condense 
the moisture, and diversify the surface and climate. 

3. Climate. Much of Africa is too dry for a good cover of 
forest or crops, and much is absolute desert. It is the most 
thoroughly tropical of all the continents, South Africa and some 
of the higher lands alone being temperate. The prevalence of 
tropical diseases is the greatest obstacle to the industrial and 
commercial progress of central Africa. 

4. The character of the native people. Fanaticism and in- 
tolerance have prevailed in the north, and dark and ignorant 
savagery in the center and south, until far into the nineteenth 
century. Such conditions pass slowly ; and without intelligence, 
industry, and security for property and life, production is 
checked and commerce is dangerous and profitless. 

5. The overcrowded commercial nations of Europe have 
sought outlets here, seeking to widen their trade, to increase 


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national prestige, and, in South Africa at least, to provide homes 
for surplus population. This is the force which has given to 
Africa the beginnings of commercial life. 

331. European dependencies in Africa. The political map of 
Africa is a patchwork. Regions are here reviewed by nations. 

1. Great Britain. Egypt has been subject to Turkey, but 
is now under British policy, as is the eastern Sudan. On the 
Indian Ocean is British East Africa, whose capital is Mombasa. 
These lands give practical British control of the Nile. In West 
Africa are Gambia, Sierra Leone, Gold Coast, and the highly 
important Nigeria, occupying the lower Niger basin. British 
South Africa extends far north between German and Portuguese 
lands to the sources of the Kongo and to Lake Tanganyika. 
With a single break in German East Africa, the British can 
finish the Cape-to-Cairo Railway in lands which they control. 

2. France has Algeria, including Tunis, the western and 
central Sahara and the Libyan Desert to the border of the Nile 
basin, the central and west Sudan, and the French Kongo. By 
active exploration and improvements the French in the last fifty 
years have mastered most of North Africa. They also hold a 
small piece of the Somali coast at the opening of the Red Sea, 
and the great island of Madagascar. In square miles, France is 
at the front in Africa, but British lands are superior in value. 

3. The German Empire has four dependencies : Togo, on 
the Gulf of Guinea ; Kamerun, a rich province between Nigeria 
and the French Kongo ; German Southwest Africa ; and Ger- 
man East Africa. Southwest Africa is largely desert, because 
the winds from the Indian Ocean have parted with their mois- 
ture in passing the eastern highlands. East Africa is of greater 
value, reaching from Lakes Victoria Nyanza, Tanganyika, and 
Nyassa to the coast opposite the British island of Zanzibar. 

4. Italy controls the Somali coast for several hundred miles 
south of Cape Guardafui, and the province of Eritrea on the 
southwest shore, after passing within the Red Sea. 

5 . Portugal has three areas : Portuguese Guinea on the west 
coast ; Angola on the west coast south of the Belgian Kongo ; 

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and Portuguese East Africa, with a long coast line and including 
an important region, the lower basin of the Zambesi. 

6. Other dependencies and nations. Turkey retains control 
of Tripoli, Belgium has the greater part of the Kongo basin, 
Spain has a region adjoining Morocco on the Atlantic, and a 
small tract on the Gulf of Guinea between Kamerun and the 
French Kongo. There are three independent nations, all of 
small importance at present : they are Morocco, Abyssinia, and 
the republic of Liberia. 

This definite partition of Africa dates from the Berlin con- 
ference of 1885 and subsequent treaties between various Euro- 
pean nations. Asia has a few great sovereignties, — either 
native, as China and Japan ; or colonial, as India and Russia 
in Asia. South America, with slight exception, is composed of 
independent republics. Australia belongs solidly to the British 
empire. Africa is the one continent which is minutely divided 
among European powers, which thus take responsibility for its 
development in civilization and commerce ; Great Britain, France, 
and Germany are accomplishing the most for the progress of 
the " dark continent." 

332. Africa viewed in belts of latitude. The continent can 
be much better understood if analyzed in broad regions than 
if studied in its broken political divisions. Here it is natural 
to take, — 

1. The Mediterranean border, including Egypt, Tripoli, 
Algeria, and Morocco, under British, Turkish, French, and 
independent rule. Tripoli is little more than a desert, but the 
city is the terminus of a route of caravan trade across the Sahara. 
Morocco will have commercial importance when misgovernment 
and semi-savagery give way to security, when its natural wealth 
in minerals and soils can be developed by modern processes 
and its products carried to market by other than animal portage. 

Egypt, the seat of one of the oldest civilizations, is one of 
the chief commercial countries of Africa, and is of growing im- 
portance. Nominally it has 400,000 square miles, but its popu- 
lation of more than 1 1,000,000 really occupies a cultivated and 

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Longitude 60 East from 60 Greenwich 

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settled area of about 12,000 square miles, which makes the 
density much greater than that of even Belgium or England. 
Nearly two thirds of the people engage in agriculture. The 
winter crops are cereals and the summer crops are cotton, rice, 
and sugar. By controlling the river, and particularly by the 

Photograph, copyright 1903, Wm. H. Rau, Philadelphia 

Fig. 235. Nile dam at Assuan 

great dam at Assuan, waters are stored and perennial irriga- 
tion is extended over large areas. This will increase the prod- 
ucts, and in consequence there will be greater population, more 
workers, and more exports. Cairo is the capital and the chief 
city not only of Egypt but of Africa (654,000 in 1907), and Alex- 
andria is the chief port, with over 300,000 people. Over 2000 

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steamships, with tonnage of 3,500,000, arrive and clear each 
year at Alexandria, marking the growth of Mediterranean trade. 
The Suez Canal, dug by De Lesseps and purchased in 1875 
by Great Britain, was opened in 1869. Including 21 miles of 
lake navigation, this waterway from the Mediterranean to the 

Fig. 236. Port Said and the entrance to the Suez Canal 

Red Sea is 87 miles long and is traversed annually by over 
4000 vessels of tonnage of over 20,000,000. Nearly two thirds 
of both vessels and tonnage are British. 

2. The Sahara, the second latitude belt, extends from the 
Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea, and from the Mediterranean 
countries to the Sudan, or from 18 to 30 degrees north latitude. 
In parts it is a waste of sand, in parts a desert of rocks, and 
contains 3,500,000 square miles, approaching Europe in size. 
It may be considered as continuing through Arabia, Persia, 
and Turkestan to Mongolia, thus almost crossing the great- 
est land mass of the globe. The desert reaches the Atlantic 
because the winds are offshore rather than on-shore. They are 

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the northeast trade winds crossing the Mediterranean to Africa, 
but they gather little moisture from this narrow sea, and are 
moving into a warmer region and hence have greater capacity 
to hold their load of moisture. The commercial value of the 
Sahara is in its oases, its routes of caravan trade, the possibility 
of irrigation where water can be found, and the discovery of 
useful minerals. 

3. Sudan. This third belt is south of the Sahara, and is itself 
bordered on the south by the Gulf of Guinea and the northern 
rim of the Kongo basin. Its latitude is from 4 to 18 degrees 
north. It contains many political divisions but belongs largely 
to the French and the English. The term is sometimes used to 
include Abyssinia and thus is carried from the Atlantic Ocean 
to the Red Sea. From the desert conditions of the Sahara there 
is a gradual increase southward of rainfall and vegetation, and 
the capacity for agriculture and ultimate trade is large. In 
Nigeria and other parts bordering the Gulf of Guinea rainfall 
is heavy and conditions of tropical luxuriance prevail. The 
problem is to train the laborer and to secure conditions of safe 
living for the Europeans, who, for a long time to come, must 
direct in government and industry. In the central Sudan is 
Lake Chad, which receives the drainage of a closed basin and 
thus shows the insufficient rainfall of that part of Sudan. 
Anglo- Egyptian Sudan covers nearly 1,000,000 square miles. 
It has much land along the Blue Nile that might bear cotton 
and wheat, and there are valuable forests on both the Blue and 
the White Nile. These contain rubber, bamboo, ebony, and 
fiber and tanning materials. Khartum is the capital, and here 
is Gordon College, named for the British general who reduced 
the region to order ; it is significant for commercial and social 
growth that this school has in its shops nearly 200 boys under 
training in industrial work. A railway has now been extended 
to Khartum from Cairo. 

4. The heart of equatorial Africa is the Kongo basin, which 
is larger than that of the Mississippi. It has a hot climate, is 
well watered, and is densely forested. It is largely occupied by 

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the so-called Kongo Free State, which, however, was placed 
under the direction of the late Belgian king, whose administra- 
tion aroused serious criticism. In 1907 the state was annexed 
by Belgium, an act which in 1909 had been recognized only 
by Germany. This division has over 900,000 square miles. It 
produces rubber, palm nuts, palm oil, and white copal; and 
tobacco, cocoa, and coffee are readily grown. The total foreign 
trade is about $20,000,000, rubber being much the largest 
item. Cottons form the chief import. 

The Kongo is navigable 100 miles from the sea. Then fol- 
low rapids, 200 miles to Leopoldville, and above are 1200 miles 
of navigable water to Stanley Falls, besides much navigation on 
tributaries. A railway extends 250 miles around the rapids, 
and 900 miles now building will join the Kongo River to Lake 
Tanganyika and Lake Albert Nyanza. These lines will connect 
the Kongo country with the Cape-to-Cairo Railway. 

5. South Africa. This region may be said to begin with the 
Kongo-Zambesi divide. Portugal, Germany, and Great Britain 
are the ruling powers. Except on the lower Zambesi the coastal 
plain is narrow and the interior mainly an elevated plateau, arid 
in the central and western parts. The British regions of Cape 
Colony, Natal, Orange River Colony, and the Transvaal, and 
Portuguese East Africa are the most productive parts ; British 
South Africa, in its eastern half, has the most extensive network 
of railways on the continent, the nearest rival in development 
being under French direction in northern Algeria. 

333. Agricultural resources of Africa. Dry as much of Africa 
is, the continent is so large and the climate so warm that the 
capacity for crops is vast. The problems of development have 
already been stated, namely, to discipline the* native to labor 
and industry; to acclimate the European who must be the or- 
ganizing head ; to evolve stable conditions of government and 
security of life and property; and to develop transportation. 
Temperate-latitude products, as wheat, mingle with tropical 
harvests in North Africa ; every conceivable tropical growth 
flourishes or may be developed in central Africa, while wheat 

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and other temperate-latitude crops are grown in South Africa. 
Already a considerable export of maize from Natal is sold in 
London. More than 1,500,000 pounds of tea were grown in 
South Africa in a recent year. Here animal industry is empha- 
sized, as in the production both of wool and of ostrich feathers. 

r ^h 


^fst 1 

jV,s jP 

1 Hm * ; HW^ 

Fig. 237. Sorting diamond gravels, Kimberley 

334. Mineral resources. General exploration tells much about 
soils and capacity for crops, but close search is often necessary 
to find the useful minerals. Hence the mineral wealth of Africa 
is little known. 

The diamonds and gold of South Africa form the best known 
and most profitable mineral industries of the continent. Dia- 
monds are found along the Vaal and Orange rivers. They were 
discovered in 1867 through a stone picked up by the child of 
a Boer farmer. They occur in river deposits and in what are 
known as " dry diggings " in the " plugs " or filled pipes of 
ancient volcanoes. The chief place in the diamond industry is 
Kimberley, in Cape Colony. South Africa now furnishes almost 

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the entire supply of these gems for the markets of the world. 
They are cut by the craftsmen of Belgium and Holland, and the 
greatest ultimate market is in the United States. The company 
controlling the mines limits the output in order to maintain prices. 

British South Africa is one of the chief gold-producing 
regions. The Transvaal in 1907 exported gold to the value of 
$136,000,000. Johannesburg in the Transvaal is the center of 
the gold interests and is the largest city of South Africa. In 
various parts of British South and Central Africa are also found 
important deposits of iron, copper, and coal, affording, with gold, 
gems, agriculture, grazing, and a temperate climate, the basis 
of commercial development. 

The British dependency, Gold Coast, on the Gulf of Guinea, 
is also productive in gold. Algeria has mines of importance for 
coal, iron, zinc, lead, copper, mercury, and silver. Gold mining 
is a considerable industry in Madagascar, and other metals are 
found there. 

335. Transjtortation and centers of trade. The growing frame- 
work of transportation may best be understood by reference to 
the Cape-to-Cairo Railway, which is now completed from Cape 
Town to Bulawayo in Rhodesia, and from Cairo to Khartum. 
The intermediate section of about 2500 miles will follow the 
Nile and the west shore of Victoria Nyanza, and pass, on the 
east, the south end of Lake Tanganyika. Between these lakes 
it will traverse German territory. From Bulawayo a line is now 
continuous to Beira, a port in Portuguese East Africa. North- 
ward from Bulawayo several hundred miles of new road reach 
the Zambesi at Victoria Falls, cross it by a great bridge, and 
reach mining territory nearly 400 miles north of the river. 
A road is projected in German East Africa from the Indian 
Ocean to the great trunk line. In British East Africa the 
Mombasa- Victoria Railway is 584 miles long and joins the port 
of Mombasa with Victoria Nyanza. Projected Kongo connec- 
tions with the trunk line have already been noticed. On the 
Nile delta railways branch to Alexandria, Rosetta, Damietta, 
and Port Said. 

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In Algeria the main line extends from Tunis westward at 
some distance from the Mediterranean and sends off many short 
spurs north and south. From Algiers a road is projected south- 
ward across the Sahara to the northern bend of the Niger River. 
A short line runs in from the coast in Portuguese West Africa, 
and similar roads are projected from the Gulf of Aden, in Gold 
Coast, and in German Southwest Africa. In Senegal a line 
is proposed from the Atlantic coast to the upper Niger. Thus 
the Cape-to-Cairo line, the lines that join it to the east and 
west coasts now or in the future, with the four master rivers, 
will in due time open to profitable commerce every important 
part of a continent so recently not only unused but unknown. 

Algeria, Tunis, Tripoli, and the ports of Egypt are the chief 
centers of trade on the Mediterranean. On the east coast are 
Mombasa and the British city of Zanzibar, the latter on an island 
off the coast of German East Africa. Far south on Delagoa 
Bay, Louren^o Marquez, a Portuguese city, is said to have the 
best harbor on the coast of Africa. It is joined by rail to Pretoria 
in the Transvaal. Continuing south, we find the British ports 
Durban, East London, Port Elizabeth, and finally Cape Town, 
all having railway connection with the interior. The ports of 
West Africa are as yet of minor commercial importance. Tim- 
buktu is a small but ancient city near the Niger in its northern 
bend, and is the center of the caravan trade of the western Sahara. 

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336. General view. The studies in this book, after dealing 
with the home country somewhat fully, passed to Canada, with 
which relations are close ; then to the countries of Europe, the 
most important commercial region ; then to the other continents 
of the Old World ; and now they return to that part of the New 
World which lies south of the United States. Here are included 
South America, the West Indian islands, Central America, and 
Mexico. The last country, like Canada, adjoins the United 
States and is united to it by close ties of trade. 

These lands were mainly discovered and colonized by Spain, 
Portugal, and France, and the languages of these countries still 
prevail. As these nations are in part of Latin origin, the term 
Latin America is a suitable general name. Most of the Amer- 
ican nations concerned have, during the past century, thrown 
off their allegiance to European powers and have formed re- 
publican governments. The ties of language, of kinship, and 
of prolonged commercial exchange are, however, strong, and in 
many respects South and Central American peoples are more 
closely related to Europe than to the United States. 

Recent events indicate growing bonds among all nations in 
the western hemisphere. Through the Spanish War of 1898 
the United States gained new influence in tropical America. 
The construction of the Panama Canal gives this country a new 
foothold in the south, not only opening a ready channel of com- 
merce with the Andean countries, but setting an example of skill 
in mechanical operations, and of thorough sanitation, the influence 
of which is already fruitful among the Latin-American peoples. 

South America, like North America, has its principal slopes 
and its great commercial rivers on the Atlantic side. This 


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Fig. 238. Intercontinental railway 

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condition favors commerce with Europe. South America is chiefly 
east of the longitude of New York, a condition which also helps 
its relation to Europe. Added to this is the fact, unfortunate 
for American trade, that the merchant marine, in foreign com- 
merce, is chiefly in the hands of European nations. Thus even 

Fig. 239. Building of the Pan- American Union, Washington, D. C. 

Italy has a worthy share in the carrying trade to South America, 
stimulated by the presence, particularly in the Argentine Republic, 
of many Italian settlers and laborers. 

337. Brazil. Brazil is the largest and the most populous of 
the Latin republics. With 20,000,000 people it has about two 
fifths of the population of South America. In its foreign trade 
it is, however, exceeded by the Argentine Republic. Brazil is 
an agricultural country, and coffee provides much the largest of 
all field products, the export amounting to $115,000,000 in 
a recent year. The great field is in the southern provinces, 
where four fifths of the world's crop is produced. Europe takes 

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Digitized by CjOOQ IC 

n : 



. and is mainly 
region. Cocoa 

c»t maw" ban 5^ • 
« fed fe 

iSb&x tie pap? 
it k iwcrcr. a>- 

The total for- 
shows the un- 
of the United 
ites,with trade 
> than that of 
ie minor Eu- 
an countries, 
ic aid, how- 
, bounties be- 
offered on 
at, and duties 
ng remitted on 
ertain importa- 
tions of agricul- 
tural machinery, 
fertilizers, and in- 
sect destroyers. 
being most impor- 
Bd a new road is now 

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Fig. 240. Average annual production of coffee in thousands of pounds, 
1 904-1 905 to 1 908-1 909 inclusive 

f~~~] Chief coffee 
' •■' • '■* regions 

FH Chief rubber 

ULK)«TO CO , w.r. 

Fig. 241. Principal coffee and rubber regions of South America 

57 per cent of the coffee, though some of this is reexported. 
The United States takes the remainder, and of this, two thirds 
goes to the port of New York. The state of Sao Paulo, the city 
of the same name, and its port, Santos, form the special centers 
of coffee production and shipment. 

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Rubber is the second item of the foreign trade, and is mainly 
produced in the tropical forests of the Amazon region. Cocoa 

United States . . $123,817,298 

United Kingdom 49,832,180 

Germany .... 48,130,450 

France 26,514,120 

Holland .... 14,390,172 

Austria- Hungary 10,261,295 

Argentina . . . 10,229,459 

Belgium .... 6,492,082 

Uruguay 5*203,043 

Italy 2,651,878 

Spain 1,062,270 

Portugal 905,968 

Other countries . . 8,841,614 

Fig. 242. Exports of Brazil, 1909, by countries of destination 

and brazilwood also have a considerable place. The total for- 
eign trade is about $400,000,000, which again shows the un- 
developed state of a country having about the size of the United 

United Kingdom $48,24 i,287^mmhmhb States, with trade 

1 less than that of 

some minor Eu- 
ropean countries. 
Development has 

Germany . . 
United States 
France . , 
Italy . . 
Holland . 
Spain . . 
Norway . 
Canada . . 
Other countries 













public aid, how- 
ever, bounties be- 
ing offered on 
wheat, and duties 
being remitted on 
certain importa- 
tions of agricul- 
tural machinery, 
fertilizers, and in- 
sect destroyers. 

Fig. 243. Imports of Brazil, 1909, by countries of origin Manufacturing 
is only in its beginnings, the cotton industry being most impor- 
tant. There are 12,000 miles of railway, and a new road is now 

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" y^ — ~i £5 — : — — 

Fig. 244. Rainfall belts, railways, and wheat region of Argentina 


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building around the falls of the Madeira, opening a trade route 
from Bolivia to the Atlantic, by the Madeira and Amazon rivers. 
Manaos is a considerable port on the Amazon, 1000 miles from 
its mouth, and modern ships ply between it and Rio de Janeiro. 
There are 10,000 miles of river navigation for ocean vessels, and 
20,000 miles additional, suited to light craft. A German com- 
pany has a concession for a cable from Europe by way of Teneriffe. 
The United States imports heavily from Brazil, but makes small 
returns. Great Britain and other European nations take far less 
and yet supply the bulk of Brazilian imports. This is attributed 
partly to the poorer shipping communications with the United 
States and partly to American ignorance of the Portuguese lan- 
guage and the historic kinship of Brazilians with the people of 

Rio de Janeiro is the capital and commercial center, being 
the second city in South America. It is 23 days from New 
York, while swift and modern vessels reach England in from 
14 to 16 days. 

338. River Plata countries. The chief of these is the Argen- 
tine Republic, third in size of American republics and having 
a population of a little over 6,000,000. It embraces 34 degrees 
of latitude, reaching into the torrid zone on the north, and in- 
cluding, on the south, the eastern part of Tierra del Fuego. It 
resembles the United States in affording products both of tem- 
perate and tropical climates. In surface also it may be likened 
to the prairies and plains of the Mississippi Valley. These 
stretch northward along the River Plata and its great tributaries 
and southward through Patagonia, and extend out from the 
eastern slopes of the Andes. 

The centenary of the country's independence was celebrated 
in 19 10, and was marked by an exposition of national industries, 
especially of methods of transportation, thus touching a funda- 
mental condition of commerce. The republic is almost wholly 
agricultural. As both coal and water power appear to be small 
in amount, this condition will probably be permanent. The flat- 
ness of the country makes the rivers navigable and favors the 

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building of railways. Barely one tenth of the arable land has 
yet been used. Even with present development the annual 
foreign trade is more than $600 000,000, thus exceeding that of 
Brazil with its greater size and its tropical luxuriance. Argen- 
tina took the first rank in export of corn from the United States 
in 1908, although still the third country in the production of 
that cereal. Owing to small population, it has a greater sur- 
plus, as Canada has of wheat. It is fifth in wheat growing, 
second in shipments of wool, and first in exports of frozen 

Great Britain . . $213,750,319 
Belgium .... 35,778,188 
Germany. . . . 34»75 I »994 

France 28,913,730 

Brazil i5>°95>578 

United States . 13,023,238 

Italy 7»907357 

Netherlands . . . 5,299,670 

Spain 2,599,6031 

Canada 1,806,661 

Chile i»537»5°7f 

Austria-Hungary . 1,071,1341 

Uruguay 774*454 

Bolivia 593,7 261 

Paraguay 213,666 

Other countries . . 2,788,0161 

Fig. 245. Exports of Argentina, 1908, by countries of destination 

meat. These facts show that animal industry and temperate- 
latitude cereals have the chief place. The area under cultivation 
increased over 200 per cent between 1895 and 1908, and large 
immigration and improvement in methods indicate continued 
growth, as in Canada, whose productive areas and population 
are similar in extent and numbers. A recent annual output of 
wine to the value of $1 2,000, 000 points to diversified agricul- 
ture, as does the presence of more than 11,000,000 mulberry 
trees for silk culture. The animal industry is moving west and 
south toward the drier plains, while tillage is claiming the prov- 
inces nearer the river Plata. The forests are chiefly in the 
warmer regions of the north. 

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The railways show a mileage of over 1 5,000. There is a net- 
work along the Plata, from Buenos Aires to Rosario, Santa Fe, 
and northward. From Rosario a road runs far north to Jujuy, 
connecting with a road now building to the capital of Bolivia. 
This line opens the grain country and also reaches the center 
of a considerable sugar industry. Westward a line extends to 
Mendoza, and now connects, across the Andes, with Valparaiso 
and the Pacific coast. An important group of roads occupies 
the plains southward, from Buenos Aires to Bahia Blanca. 

Great Britain. . $93,371,396 

Germany .... 37,847,076 

United States . 35,597,004 

France 26,476,917 

Italy 24,913,248 

Belgium .... 12,913,248 

Spain 8,618,110 

Brazil 7,285,94 

Austria-Hungary . 3,293,500 

Uruguay 2,207,038 

Netherlands . . . 2,038,030 

Paraguay i»5°9>955 

Chile 726,9891 

Bolivia 1 56,062 

Other countries . 16,131,218 

Fig. 246. Imports of Argentina, 1908, by countries of origin 

Buenos Aires, with 1,200,000 people, is not only the chief 
port, but is the largest city in the southern hemisphere. Five 
lines ply between Buenos Aires and the United States, but 
faster ships, and in greater number, carry on traffic with Liver- 
pool, Bremen, Hamburg, Bordeaux, Barcelona, Marseilles, and 
Genoa. Ocean connection with Italy has grown rapidly because 
of large Italian immigration and the resulting desire for Ital- 
ian merchandise. Much of the Atlantic voyaging is triangular. 
This is true both of Argentina and Brazil. Buenos Aires, 
Santos, or Rio Janeiro may be the southern terminus, New 
York the western, while the eastern terminus is some port of 
western Europe, 

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With its ample territory, progressive spirit, and European 
steamship connections, Argentina is an important rival of the 
United States in the agricultural products of temperate latitudes 
and a strong competitor in the world's markets. 

Uruguay and Paraguay are the remaining Plata countries. 
They are far smaller, are rich in commercial possibilities, and at 

the present time but little 

339. Countries of the west 
coast. These are Chile, Peru, 
Ecuador, and Colombia. The 
last borders also the Caribbean 
Sea, and since its greater for- 
eign trade is there, it will be 
considered with the northern 
coast. Chile is chiefly on the 
narrow west slope of the An- 
des, while Peru and Ecuador 
hold important territory in 
the upper Amazon basin. In 
all these countries both agri- 
cultural and mineral resources 
are large. In South America, 
as in North America, the 
western mountains are pro- 
ductive in minerals. Peru has, among other minerals, silver 
and copper, while Chile is rich in nitrates and copper. Chilean 
nitrates are used in many lands as fertilizers, the annual output 
amounting to about $80,000,000. The west coast needs iron 
and steel, and also textiles and the food products of temperate 
latitudes. For the tropical growths of this belt there is a mar- 
ket in the United States, and for this trade the Panama Canal 
will open the way. Already there is a considerable exchange, 
and American trade is better established here than on the Atlan- 
tic slope of South America. Tools, machinery, and railway mate- 
rial are largely imported from the United States. 













Li mi. 











jenoe Aires 


square mile 








Fig. 247. Distribution of population in 
South America 

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The sanitary influence of the United States is extending from 
Panama down the west coast, and is making residence safe, 
obviating delay by long quarantines, and thus introducing a 
necessary condition of trade. Much American capital has been 
invested in mining, and American influence is growing. As in 
almost all parts of the world, the trade of the United States is 

Brazil . 
Cuba . . 
Mexico . 
Chile . 
Peru . . 
Bolivia . . 
Colombia . 
Ecuador . 
Haiti. . . 
Dominican Rep. 
Costa Rica 
Salvador . 
Paraguay . 
Panama . 

*397>35<>»5 2 8 

"5^ 550'309 
i5»S I 3»346 

. 8,176,267 
6,401,349 i 
3,600,000 1 
1,990,601 1 
. 1,502,4751 

Fig. 248. Exports of Latin America, 1909 

here also hindered by the predominance of foreign shipping. 
The opening of the Panama Canal will naturally lessen the traf- 
fic around the cape and increase the trade from the north. Rail- 
way development is greatest in Chile, the lines reaching out along 
the coast, parallel to the Andes, and, as already stated, across 
the range to Buenos Aires on the Atlantic coast. Valparaiso and 
Santiago, both in Chile, are the chief centers of the Pacific 
slope, while Callao is the port of Lima in Peru, and Guayaquil 
is the chief sea town of Ecuador. These countries are not of 
trifling size, and they have great variety in altitude, climate, 
and resources. Even Ecuador is nearly as large as the United 

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Kingdom ; while Chile is more than twice as large, and Peru is 
nearly four times as large, as this European country whose com- 
mercial importance is so vast. 

340. Bolivia. This and Paraguay are the only countries of 
the continent which do not reach the sea. Bolivia consists in 
part of a lofty plateau and in part of broad slopes and plains 

Brazil . 
Chile . 
Cuba. . 
Peru . . 
Bolivia . 
Ecuador . 
Panama . 
Costa Rica 
Haiti. . . 
Salvador . 
Paraguay . 

$3 02 »75 6 >°95 













S>*S l >3*7 
Rep. . 4>645>378 

3,500,000 1 
2 >58i,553> 

Fig. 249. Imports of Latin America, 1909 

drained by the Madeira, the great southern branch of the Ama- 
zon. It has large wealth in copper, tin, and silver. The range 
of altitude introduces agriculture of both temperate and tropical 
types. Among routes for foreign trade, three are here named : 
(1) from Arica on the Peruvian coast to La Paz, the capital, a 
rail line being under construction ; (2) the Amazon route, en- 
tirely by river navigation, to the port of Pard in Brazil ; (3) to 
Buenos Aires by river, or by mule train to the Argentine frontier, 
and thence by rail. 

341. Northern countries. These are Colombia, Venezuela, 
and British, Dutch, and French Guiana. Colombia lies chiefly, 

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and the others entirely, north of the equator, amid typical trop- 
ical conditions. Colombia is also on the west coast, but the chief 
port is Barranquilla on the Caribbean Sea. Both Colombia and 
Venezuela are in somewhat close trade relations with the United 
States. Together they occupy more than 1,000,000 square miles ; 
and this great area has a population of about 7,000,000, equal 
to that of London and its environs. With diversity of surface, 
mountain, valley and plain, and with great mineral and agricul- 
tural resources, these countries await development. They have 
not progressed in orderly government, in facilities of transporta- 
tion, and in modern industry, as have Chile and the Argentine 
Republic. There has been, however, in recent years much im- 
provement in these fundamental conditions of commerce. The 
total foreign trade of the two countries is somewhat over $50,- 
000,000, in which the United States has a larger share than in 
the trade of most South American countries. Venezuela alone 
has 2000 miles of coast line and many harbors. One port is on 
the Orinoco, 373 miles from the sea. Ocean vessels enter Lake 
Maracaibo by a broad strait, 34 miles long. 

Venezuela has been in a disturbed state, but is now fulfilling 
her financial obligations to various European powers, and is 
developing in harbor facilities, in railways, in telegraphs, and 
in education. Several steamship lines maintain regular service 
between Venezuelan ports and New York. All the usual trop- 
ical products are or may be raised, and the uplands and moun- 
tain slopes offer conditions suited to the cereals, roots, and fruits 
of the temperate zones. British, Dutch, and French Guiana, 
with an aggregate territory considerably greater than the United 
Kingdom, is the only South American region under European 
rule, contains but few people, and is but slightly developed. 
This, like other luxuriant tropical lands, will be capable of vast 
production when subdued and utilized by progressive people. 

342. West Indies. Greatest and richest of these is Cuba, 
now an independent republic in somewhat close relations with 
the United States. The foreign trade amounts to about 
$200,000,000, of which two thirds is with the United States. 

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Nearly #150,000,000 of American capital are here invested, 
mainly in railways, sugar and tobacco plantations, real estate, 
and banking. Sugar and tobacco are the chief exports. The 
Bethlehem Steel Company of the United States now has the 
ownership of deposits of iron ore near Santiago, which are 
estimated to contain 75,000,000 tons. 

Haiti occupies the western part of the island of that name, 
and trades in coffee, cocoa, and logwood, chiefly with the United 
States. There are cables to Cuba and South America, and steam- 
ships running regularly to New York. The Dominican Republic 
is in the eastern half of the island. The foreign trade amounts 
to $1 5,000,000, and about half is with the United States. Prod- 
ucts and resources are in cocoa, tobacco, coffee, bananas, and 
in forests of cabinet woods and of yellow pine. Irrigation, 
mining, highways, education, and sanitation are undertaken, 
and the sloth and turbulence of former days are giving way to 
peaceful arts and productive industry. 1 

The Danish, Dutch, and French West Indies are small, have 
small trade, and illustrate no new principles of commerce. 
Jamaica, one of the greater islands, is a British colony of long 
standing, showing in a recent year imports of #25,000,000, due 
in part to rebuilding Kingston, the capital, following disaster. 
Fruit exports, mainly bananas, amount to $6,000,000, nearly all 
taken by the United States. 

The Bahamas are perhaps the only British colony having no 
direct connection with the home country. The Bermudas do 
not belong to the West Indies, but may be mentioned here as a 
British possession whose trade with the United States is several 
times greater than with the United Kingdom. The most north- 
erly of coral islands, they have a warm climate, furnish vege- 
tables and bulbs for the markets of New York, and share in an 
important way in tourist traffic. The cable communication is 
with Halifax. 

343. Panama and Central America. Panama in 1903 became 
independent of Colombia and ceded to the United States a 

1 For Porto Rico, see sect. 226. 

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strip across the Isthmus known as the Canal Zone. The area 
is 32,580 square miles, about two thirds the size of the state of 
New York. The foreign trade is about $10,000,000, not in- 
cluding importations for canal construction. Bananas — about 
4,000,000 bunches — are the largest export. The railway, 47 
miles long from Colon to Panama, is used for canal construction, 
also for commerce with Andean countries and Central America. 

Fig. 250. Drying coffee, Costa Rica 

Much merchandise passes between New York and San Fran- 
cisco. The Isthmus offers a link in cable communication be- 
tween Buenos Aires, Valparaiso, and the west coast in the 
south, and the United States and Europe in the north. 

Central America includes the five small republics, Guatemala, 
Honduras, Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, and also 
British Honduras. All the republics except Salvador border 
both the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Passage by rail 
from sea to sea will soon be possible in these four countries, 
and in time the Pan-American Railway will join them all along 

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the great trunk line through North and South America. Social 
and political conditions and the natural resources are similar to 
those of Colombia and Venezuela. Good water, sewage, and the 
clearing of the jungle would make these lands as safe as the 
Canal Zone now is. There is a typical group of products : coffee, 
bananas, rubber, cocoa, dyewoods, cabinet woods, rice, sugar, 
indigo, and tobacco. Of the total foreign trade of the five re- 
publics ($56,000,000), the United States has about half. The 
largest center is Guatemala City, with about 100,000 people. 

344. Mexico. Of the Latin-American republics Mexico is 
third in area and in volume of foreign trade and second in 
population. Having freed itself from Spanish rule nearly one 
hundred years ago, and having passed through various troubled 
conditions, the republic has, notwithstanding some vicissitudes, 
shown what a tropical land can do under a settled government. 
Laws have been so shaped as to make property safe, and for- 
eign capital has flowed in to promote the various enterprises. 
Americans alone are said to have placed nearly or quite 
$800,000,000 in Mexico. 

Mining interests are large, for the mineral resources are ex- 
tensive. Thus Alaska and the Yukon, British Columbia, the 
Cordilleras of the United States and Mexico, and the Andes, 
all parts of the Pacific mountains of the American continents, 
are mineral territory. Mexico is one of the leading silver coun- 
tries, the product of a recent year being $42,000,000. Gold 
and copper occupy the second and third rank, and the output 
of coal, lead, and petroleum is important. Foreign capital to 
the extent of $350,000,000 is invested in Mexican mines. 

Here, as in the tropical Andean countries, the highlands offer 
conditions for products of temperate climates, while the lowlands 
are throughly tropical. The chief agricultural exports are, how- 
ever, of tropical kinds : cocoa, coffee, sugar, vanilla, and hene- 
quen, the latter a fiber product. Crops of corn and wheat are 
considerable. The forests include pine, oak, tropical cabinet 
woods, and dyewoods. The foreign trade for the fiscal year 
1 907- 1 908 was $232,000,000, much the largest exchange 
being with the United States. 

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The government has undertaken irrigation works, and many 
water powers are being developed for manufacturing. A single 
reservoir in the Federal District of Mexico gathers the waters 
of a dozen streams and will provide for 236,000 horse power. 

The railway system is growing rapidly and now includes 
about 15,000 miles. The greater part of the railways is under 
the virtual control of the government. Systematic development 
is planned so as to join the interior areas of production with the 

Corn . . 
Silver . . 
Gold. . . 
Cotton. . 
Wheat. . 
Sugar . . 
Spirits . . 
Coffee . . 
Beans . . 
Woods . 
Coal . . . 
Lead . . 
Other minerals 
Mineral oil . 
Zinc .... 








1 2,400,000 








1,000,000 1 

450,000 1 

Fig. 252. Plant and mineral production of Mexico in an average year 

various seaports. The Tehuantepec railway is important for 
traffic in merchandise from the United States. This road was 
opened in 1907, and in the following year its traffic rose to 

Mexico has 1600 miles of coast line on the Gulf of Mexico 
and 2800 miles on the Pacific Ocean. Fifty-five places are 
counted as ports. Of these Vera Cruz is the chief, Tampico 
being the other leading Gulf port. On the Pacific, Mazatlan, 
Manzanillo, and Acapulco may be named. Manzanillo is as yet 
a small town, although ancient as a port. Important harbor 
works are under construction, and the breakwater is said to be 
one of the largest on any shore, exceeding those at Plymouth, 

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England, and Cherbourg, France. Posts and telegraphs are 
well advanced, and several wireless stations have been established. 
Mexico well merits the name which has been given to all Latin 
America, — the land of opportunity. 

Note. The following, reproduced in abbreviated form from a publica- 
tion of the Pan-American Union, states some of the measures that would 
aid in extending the trade of the United States in Latin-American countries : 

1. The appointment of men of culture, tact, and energy as ministers and 


2. The sending of business representatives who are gentlemen, and who 

speak Spanish, Portuguese, or French. 

3. The manufacture of articles to suit the local Latin-American demand. 

4. The giving of credit to reliable purchasers, as is done by European 


5. The use of greater care in packing goods for the long distance to be 

traveled and for the severe changes of climate. 

6. The opening of North American banks in the principal cities of South 


7. The inducing of young Latin-Americans to come to our technical and 

professional schools instead of going to those of Europe. 

8. The popularizing, in our schools and colleges, of the study of the Latin 

languages, history, and institutions. 

9. The early building of Pan-American railway connections. 

10. The investment of North American capital in South America. 

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345. Oriental period. At the dawn of history the more ad- 
vanced peoples were in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, India, and 
China. Population and industry were gathered along the Nile, 
the Euphrates and Tigris, the Ganges and Indus, the Yangtse 
and Hoangho. Because the life of man was found so largely 
on rivers, the civilizations have sometimes been called fluvial, 
or potamic, from the Latin and Greek words for river. Primi- 
tive commerce was carried on within and among these countries 
by land routes, and the pack animal and caravan were the means 
of transportation. Paths led then, as they lead to-day, from China 
through Chinese Turkestan, by Kashgar and Yarkand, to Persia, 
Mesopotamia, and the Mediterranean. Another route extended 
from the plains of India over the high passes to Persia and 
the west. Exchanges were carried on between Mesopotamian 
countries and Egypt ; and as the Syrian coast of the Mediter- 
ranean developed, it also came into caravan communication with 
the Euphrates and Tigris. 

346. Mediterranean period. This period also has its dim 
traditional beginnings and thus runs parallel to the oriental 
trade already described. By iooo b.c. the greater commerce 
of the world no doubt was to be found along the shores and on 
the waters of the Mediterranean. The Mediterranean period 
covers at least 2500 years, — from 1000 b.c. to 1500 a.d. It 
includes the trade of the Phoenicians, the Greeks and their 
colonies, the Roman people and Carthage, and closes with the 
enterprises of Pisa, Genoa, and Venice. 

As people increased in numbers, and civilization grew in 
Europe, the silks, spices, and gems of the Far East were sought, 
and the traders of the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Persian 


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f: ^-i 6 

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Gulf, and of the connecting land routes, found profit in making 
exchanges between continents. Thus the international barter 
of Asia passed into the intercontinental commerce of Asia and 
Europe, ships took largely the place of animals, the East and 
West were joined, and the world's trade was expanding. The 
fringe of trade was on the shores of the Pacific and Indian 
oceans in the east and touched the Atlantic border on the west. 
Phoenicia occupied a narrow coast strip at the western base 
of Lebanon, 4000 square miles in area. It had ample harbors 
for small vessels and drew its shipbuilding supplies from the 
forests of the mountains. Its waters abounded in certain " shell- 
fish," or mollusks, which afforded the finest purple dyes. Phoe- 
nicia lay between the east and west, with Mesopotamia behind, 
and looking out upon Egypt, Greece, Italy, and Spain. A 
caravan route led from Mesopotamia by way of Damascus to 
Tyre, " a merchant of the people for many isles " (Ezekiel 
xxvii, 3). As early as the twelfth century B.C., according to 
Rawlinson, 1 Phoenicia held most of the world's carrying trade. 
Following the same author, their earliest trade by water was with 
Egypt, Cilicia, and Cyprus. They bought the merchandise of 
Egypt and sold it in Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy. Apparently 
Egyptian traders in their turn went far into the interior of Africa, 
for the traffic included ivory, ostrich feathers, gums, papyrus, 
fabrics, and glass. In Cyprus were found gems, and mines of 
copper, silver, and gold. Traders sailed to Rhodes and the 
islands of the ^Egean, and from 11 00 to 800 b.c. the coast of 
North Africa was occupied. Here arose Utica and Carthage. 
Some points in Sicily were settled, notably about the harbor of 
what is now Palermo. Other colonies were planted in Spain, 
as Gades (the present Cadiz), outside of Gibraltar. Mariners 
sped past Biscayan waters and found the Scilly Islands, and are 
believed to have worked and smelted the tin and lead of Corn- 
wall, selling these metals in Greece and in Asia. The men and 
women of Tyre and Sidon were skilled workers in textiles, metal- 
lurgy, and glass ; and the carpenters, masons, and decorators, who 

1 Phoenicia, in Story of the Nations Series. 

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aided Solomon in building the temple at Jerusalem, point to 
the same industrial ability. Thus the fundamental things in 
commerce find example in this ancient people. The picture is 
more complete if it be remembered that the agricultural Hebrews 
sent to Tyre, in return, wheat, barley, wine, and oil. 

The Greeks also became active colonizers and traders, and 
planted their settlements at many points in southern Italy and 
Sicily, where splendid temples and other ruins still bear witness 
to their presence and their enterprise. From the Greek cities 
of Sicily oil and wine were sold in Africa, and breadstuff's were 
sent back to the parent land. About 600 b.c. Greek navigators 
went into the western Mediterranean and soon founded Massilia, 
the present Marseilles. This was an act of peculiar commercial 
importance, because the place was near the mouth of the Rhone 
and opened the historic route northward, up the Rhone and 
Sadne, and across to the Seine and the English Channel. The 
Greeks thus traded with the merchants of Gaul, buying tin, which 
had been brought from Britain, and carrying it to Mediterranean 

The Romans were not typically a trading people, but the sup- 
ply of Rome itself called for much commerce, as is seen in the 
" corn " ships that brought the produce of the fields of the 
Nile to the imperial city. And in her great efficiency as a road 
builder, Rome made her contribution to the commercial opera- 
tions of the world. 

It remained for certain other Italian cities in medieval and 
early modern days to establish trade and to bring the Mediter- 
ranean period to its culmination. Among these were Amalfi, 
now a relic of the past, visited by the tourist ; Pisa, now sepa- 
rated from the sea by the growth of the delta of the Arno, and 
superseded by Leghorn ; Genoa, powerful centuries ago, eclipsed 
by its Adriatic rival, but now risen to be first of Italian ports ; 
and Venice, whose " glory and decline " form one of the great 
chapters in human history. 

Venice, founded in the fifth century a.d., began about 
1000 a.d. to trade with the Mohammedans. She took part in 

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the Crusades and extended her power in the East, establishing 
her ports not only on the eastern Mediterranean, but in the 
Black Sea regions. Her power was greatest in the fifteenth 
century, when she had more than 3000 ships and was the 
sea power of the world (see map opposite). Like Phoenicia, but 
on a larger scale, Venice interchanged the merchandise of Asia 
and Europe ; and her decline began and moved swiftly, when 
the Portuguese navigator, Vasco da Gama, found a way to India 
around the Cape of Good Hope. Venice then found herself 
aside from the new trunk route of the world's trade. 

347. Atlantic period. The finding of an all-water route to 
India, and the growth of power and enterprise in Spain, Portu- 
gal, Great Britain, France, and Holland, transferred the seats 
of commerce to the neighborhood of the English Channel and 
the North and Baltic seas. As early as the thirteenth century, 
however, several towns of North Germany founded what has be- 
come known as the Hanseatic League, for the protection and fos- 
tering of commerce. Among these towns were Lubeck, Cologne, 
and Hamburg, and the League at one time included nearly 100 
towns on or near the North and Baltic seas, mastering these 
waters and having important " factories " or trading establish- 
ments in Bruges, London, Bergen, and Novgorod. They built 
roads, fostered civilization, vied with great nations in power, 
and came to their decline in the sixteenth century. 

The great discoveries of this period soon resulted in many 
colonies in the New World, and the British, Dutch, Spanish, and 
Portuguese became the commercial nations. As transatlantic 
settlements grew, the coasting trade became of less relative im- 
portance, and a truly oceanic trade was ushered in. Europe was 
long to remain the primary center, as indeed it is to-day, in the 
volume of its commerce. But the western world, under the 
leadership of the United States, has largely equalized manufac- 
tures and trade as between the Old World and the New. 

The construction of the Suez Canal has given new impor- 
tance to Mediterranean trade, and the revival is especially felt 
in such ports as Genoa and Marseilles. This revival is due in 

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Longitude Eaftt 

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part to the canal, but arises also from the new industrial prog- 
ress of France, Italy, Austria, Egypt, and the Levant. The 
ascendancy, however, will not pass from the Atlantic to the old 
home of commerce. Should the Atlantic lose the primacy, it 
will move not eastward, but westward. 

348. Pacific period. Every part of the Pacific shore line is 
now seeing a new development. About 1850, soon after the 
United States gained a firm foothold on the western ocean, 
growth began, and is now rapid, not only in the three coast 
states but in Alaska. Since the Canadian Pacific Railway 
reached the Pacific, development has gone on by leaps and 
bounds on the western border of Canada. Ten Latin-Ameri- 
can republics with their new life border the Pacific. On the 
south and west the story is the same, as shown by New Zea- 
land, Australia, the East Indian islands, and Japan ; and on 
the continental border of Asia, where China is struggling up 
into industrial and commercial strength, and where Russia, 
with various vicissitudes, has established herself. 

Into this circuit of nations the Isthmian Canal will open a 
way for the ships of Europe and eastern America. Such lands 
as the western United States, Canada, all the Latin-American 
republics, and Australia will increase in population, while 
western Europe is approaching its limit. Should China arise to 
commercial activity, it would mean the entrance into trade of a 
people as numerous as the entire population of Europe, sup- 
ported by equal or greater natural resources. It may, however, 
be considered as unsafe to predict at this stage whether the 
' Pacific Ocean will take the place of the Atlantic as the theater 
of the world's greatest trade. 

349. Types of commercial expansion. We observe (1) the 
expansion of manufacture and trade among the progressive 
nations of Europe, the United Kingdom, Germany, Belgium, 
France, Switzerland, and Austria-Hungary ; (2) the revival of 
trade and the entrance of modern ideas into lands of former 
commercial greatness, such as Italy, Spain, Greece, and Egypt ; 
(3) the development of vast new countries of small aboriginal 

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populations : such are the United States, Canada, Argentina, 
Australia, and New Zealand ; (4) the opening of populous and 
backward old lands, of which India, China, and Japan are ex- 
amples ; (5) the conquest of the tropics, offering new problems, 
such as the safe living of white men in hot regions and the 
training of the natives to work and trade. There will always be 
great differences between tropical and temperate products, and 
hence exchanges will be large and trade will be enduring. 
(6) Finally, may be noted national ambition and the desire for 
exploration, seeking to know and use all regions, as is shown 
in the partition of Africa. Eager science also finds new mate- 
rials and new uses of old things, and brings them within the 
grasp of all. 

350. Social and moral effects of commerce. The reaction of 
industry and trade modifies the habits, judgments, and policies 
of men and nations. Abundant examples are at hand, but the 
influence is so powerful and so general that coming years will 
make the results far more evident than they now are. Hints 
of such changes will now be given. 

1. Order and security. Several years after the war with 
Spain disorder arose in Cuba, and property was destroyed by 
lawless hands. The holders of American and European invest- 
ments in that island at once strongly pressed the United States 
to intervene and protect property interests. This was done, and 
American soldiers and a provisional governor took possession 
until order was restored. According to Chisholm the wealth 
derived from the tin mines of the Malay Peninsula " has been 
the chief means of converting a proud and lawless people into 
a submissive and orderly community." The Isthmus is an 
important example in the New World. 

2. Financial integrity. Venezuela is an undeveloped country, 
with an unstable people. For years they tolerated a grasping 
and dishonest dictator as the head of their government. Just 
debts owed to European nations were withheld or repudiated. 
The pressure brought by these nations has given new security, 
the corrupt ruler was returned to private life, and the turbulent 

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public has learned, in part at least, the lesson of common honesty. 
Nations must keep their credit good in order to negotiate needed 
loans in the money markets of the world. 

3. Education. Modern manufacture, transportation, and trade 
involve the use of technical appliances, which, being applica- 
tions of modern science, require an advanced degree of educa- 
tion. The chemist, the electrician, the mining geologist, the civil 
engineer, the economist, the consular representative, and the 
agricultural expert must lay their foundations of knowledge in 
the schools. The rapid rise of Germany is attributed in part 
to the number and thoroughness of the technical schools and 
to the advanced condition of the German universities. 

4. Economy. This is found in the division of labor which 
transportation makes possible ; in large aggregations of capital 
and labor under one capable management; in the best and 
most exact and scientific use of resources, including the use 
of waste materials for by-products ; in equalizing charges and 
making a common world market for products ; and in intelligent 
use of materials and merchandise to meet those higher stand- 
ards of living which cultivated people now find necessary to 
their comfort and success. 

5. Development of sympathy. This arises in part through 
modern communication, which makes the world instantly ac- 
quainted with conditions of famine, disaster, or persecution. 
When the news came of disaster in San Francisco and Mes- 
sina, the sympathies of the world were given instant oppor- 
tunity for action. Oppression in Armenia, or cruelty to natives 
in the Kongo, arouses the feeling and elicits the protest of the 
world, and thus develops the common feeling of the human 
race in a degree unknown before the days of modern commerce. 

6. Unified public sentiment. This is akin to development of 
sympathy, and, like it, is possible through instantaneous com- 
munication. The world sits in judgment, over every morning's 
paper, upon what men and nations do. Thus unity arises which 
becomes crystallized in international arrangements. Postal unions, 
the Hague tribunal, temporary courts of arbitration, international 

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law, submarine cables, and swift ships are the instruments of unity 
for the world. Isolation has been called the mother of barbarism, 
while communication and trade bring nations and men together, 
often put evil to shame, and, by the light of publicity, establish 
better things and promote the higher life of man. 

7. Prevention of war. Industry requires peace and freedom 
from the hazards of war. Strife among nations is wasteful of 
wealth, and a modern war seems likely to become too costly to 
be tolerated. The loss is in time, in valuable lives, in money 
spent, in productive industry interrupted, in property destroyed, 
in debts assumed, and in burdens laid on posterity. Thus eco- 
nomic motives tend to banish war, and the growth of neighborly 
intercourse establishes peaceful ways of settling differences. It 
is also possible that modern technical science will make war 
so much more destructive of life than it now is, as to banish 
it altogether from the experience of nations. 

8. The problem of the future. Commerce is not altogether 
peaceful or benevolent, and it must be admitted that modern 
invention has put vast power into the hands of able and selfish 
promoters of business. Thus advantages and difficulties come 
together, as must be expected. But if the telegraph and railway 
give advantage to the monopolist, they also make possible rational 
protection of interests by the laborer and artisan, and they lend 
equal aid to the citizen seeking to establish just regulation and 
government. It remains for the future to show whether interna- 
tional trade warfare will give way to cooperation and adjustment, 
and whether, in the end, each man and each country may be per- 
mitted to do what each can do best, for. the greater good of all. 

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Aberdeen, 310, 316 

Abrasives, 173 

Abyssinia, 414 

Acapulco, 438 

Adelaide, 409 

Aden, 388 

Adirondacks, 114; iron ores in, 61 

Adjustment, illustrations of geo- 
graphic, 215 

Africa, 412-421 ; agriculture, 418, 419; 
climate, 412 ; coal, 88 ; countries by 
latitude belts, 414-418; European 
dependencies, 413; mineral re- 
sources, 419, 420; partition, 414; 
people, 412; physical features, 412; 
position, 412; productions and trade, 
41 2, 413; transportation and centers, 
420, 421 

Agricultural explorers, 3 

Agriculture, Africa, 418, 419; Argen- 
tina, 428 ; Australia, 408 ; Canada, 
292-294; distribution of products, 
United States, 121 ; England, 305, 
306; experiment stations, 266 (map), 
267 ; France, 322, 323 ; Germany, 
337> 338; Hungary, 374, 375; im- 
plements used in, 214, 215; India, 
391 ; Italy, 359, 361 ; Mexico, 437 ; 
Netherlands, 347 ; population en- 
gaged in, United States, 103 ; Rus- 
sia, 379» 3 8l J Scotland, 314, 315; 
United States (see wheat, cotton, 
plant products) 

Alabama, coal, 82, 83 ; iron ores, 61 

Alaska, gold, 175; grains, 267 ; na- 
tional forests, 143; salmon, 151; 
seal fishing, 1 56 ; telegraph service, 
254; trade, 276; wheat, 4 

Albert Nyanza, 418 

Alberta, wheat in, 293 

Aleppo, 387, 388 

Alexandretta, 386 

Alexandria, 415, 416, 420 

Alfalfa, for cattle, 43 ; for swine, 147 

Algeria, 332, 413, 414, 420, 421 

Algiers, 421 ; wheat, 5, 19 

Allegheny uplands, in Pennsylvania, 

Almeria, 365 

Alps, 321; Austrian, 37 1 ; routes from 
Italy, 358 

Amalfi, 443 ; drying macaroni at, 358 

Amazon River, 427 

Amsterdam, Holland, 348; New York, 
knit goods at, 207, 208 

Andalusia, 364 

Angola, 413 

Animal industries, United States, 
145-159; bees and products, 154, 
155; feathers, 156; fisheries, 150- 
1 53 ; furnishing motive power, 1 57 ; 
furs, 156; hogs, 146, 147; leather, 
155, 156; organization, 157, 158; 
poultry and eggs, 148 ; raw mate- 
rials, 97; sheep, 145, 146; silk, 
157 ; various, 159; wild game, 148- 
150; wool, 155 

Anthropogeography defined, 92 

Antioch, 385, 387 

Antwerp, 328, 334, 356; Canadian 
Pacific Railway piers, 301 ; view of 
harbor, 333 

Appalachian region, coal fields, 82, 
83 ; description of physical features, 
113, 114; forests, 139, 143; petro- 
leum, 161, 162 ; plateau, 114; relief 
map, 112; routes of trade, 224, 230 ; 
water power, 193 

Apples, in United States, 127 

Arabia, 385, 388 ; Arabia Felix, 388 

Arbitration, courts of, 447 

Archangel, as wheat port, 18 

Ardennes, the, 321, 333 

Argentina, 426-430 ; agriculture, 428 ; 
cattle, 48 ; exports, 428 ; imports, 
429 ; physical features, 427 ; rail- 
ways, 429 ; trade with United States, 
279; wheat, 3, 19, 426 

Arica, 432 

Arizona, copper, 176, 177 ; gold, 175; 
silver, 176; subtropical fruits, 126 

Arkansas, coal, 83 ; thermal waters, 201 


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Arkwright, 307 

Artesian wells, 183, 184 

Ashland, iron port, 65; lumber, 140 

Ashokan Reservoir, 189 

Ashtabula, 65 

Asia, 384-401 ; Arabia, 388 ; China, 
395-397; East Indies, 394"395J 
India, 389-393 (392, map) ; Indo- 
China, 393, 394; Japan, 398; ori- 
ental trade with America, 398-400 ; 
Persia, 388, 389 ; physical features, 
384 ; Russia in Asia, 400, 401 ; 
Turkey in Asia, 385-387 (map, 387) ; 
types of commercial development, 

384, 385 

Asphaltites, 164, 165 

Assam, 389; tea in, 391 

Assuan dam, 415 

Astoria, 151 

Astrakhan, 381 

Athens, 367 

Atlanta, cotton mill at, 30 

Atlantic Ocean, cables, 2 52, 2 53 ; coast, 
lights of, 263 ; fisheries, 151; physi- 
cal features, 113; ports, in United 
States, 223 ; trade, 275 ; trunk route 
of, 245 

Atlantic period of commerce, 444, 445 

Auburn, New York, agricultural im- 
plements in, 214 

Audubon societies, 150 

Australia, 402-410; agriculture, 408; 
beef, 49; cable to, 253; cheese, 56; 
cities, 409, 4 10; coal, 88; commercial 
conditions, 403, 404 ; government, 
404 ; grazing, 407, 408 ; manufac- 
tures, 410; market for United States, 
410; minerals, 409; physical fea- 
tures, 402 ; population, 403 ; rain- 
fall, 402, 403 ; sheep, 408 ; social 
conditions, 404, 405; telegraph lines, 
407; trade, 410; transportation, 
405-407; wheat, 19; "white Aus- 
tralia," 405; wool, 407 

Austria-Hungary, 369-376 ; Danube 
and, 369-371 ; foreign trade, 283, 
376, 382 ; map of water routes and 
industries, 370 

Automobile, effect in securing roads, 
241 ; as farm vehicle, 241, 242 

Azores, 366 

Bagdad, 387, 388 
Bahamas, 434 
Bahia Blanca, 429 

Baku, petroleum of, 164, 378 

Balance of trade, 275 

Balkan region, 382, 383 

Baltic lowland, 335 

Baltimore, conditions of growth, 223 ; 

foreign trade, 275; position, 1 13, 1 14 
Baltimore and Ohio Railway, 223, 

224, 231 
Bananas, 279, 434, 435 
Bangkok, 393 
Banking, 259, 260 
Banks of Newfoundland, 325 
Barcelona, 364,429; coaling station, 87 
Barge Canal, of New York, 225, 236, 


Barley, 123, 124; in England, 306; 
for malt liquors, 124; yield per 
acre, 121 

Barmen, 343 

Barranquilla, 433 

Barre, Vermont, granites of, 169 

Barrows, H. H., map from, 115 

Basel, 355, 356 

Bavarian highland, 335 

Bay City, lumber market, 140 

Bedford limestone, 170 

Beef. (See cattle industries) 

Bees, 154, 155 

Beet sugar, central Europe, 339 ; 
compared with cane, 341; France, 
323 ; Germany, 338 ; production, in 
all countries, 340 

Beira, 420 

Beirut, 386, 387 

Belfast, 316 

Belfort, 321 

Belgium, 333, 334; commerce, 334; 
diamond cutting, 334; language, 
333 ; minerals, 333 ; population, 333 

Belle Fourche (irrigation) project, 197 

Berea grit, 173 ; sandstone, 169 

Bergen, 351, 444 

Berlin, 336, 356; conference on parti- 
tion of Africa, 414; railway center, 
340, 342, 343 

Bermuda, 320 

Bern, office of Postal Union, 251 ; of 
Telegraphic Bureau, 255 

Bessemer, Sir Henry, 69 

Bethlehem, 387 

Bethlehem Steel Company, in Cuba, 

Beverage plants, 133-135 
Bicycle, effect on roads, 241 
Bilboa, 363 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Biological survey, 261 

Birds, reservations for, 1 50 

Birkenhead, 312 

Birmingham, Alabama, iron center, 6 1 , 

67 ; position, 114 
Birmingham, England, coal, 85, 87 ; 

iron, 74, 75 
Bitumens, 164, 165; uses of, 165 
Blackburn, 306 
Black Hills, relation to water supply, 

Black Sea, 371,388 
Blast furnaces, iron, 67, 68 
Blue Ridge, the, 114 
Bohemia, 372, 373 
Bokhara, 401 
Bolivia, 432 
Boll weevil, 24 
Bologna, 358 
Bolton, 306 
Bombay, view of harbor, 390, 391 ; 

wheat port, 19 
Boots and shoes, 211, 212 
Bordeaux, 321, 323, 325, 327, 329, 429 ; 

view of, 331 
Bosporus, the, 383 
Boston, fishing center, 151; foreign 

trade, 275 ; growth, 223 ; industries, 

223 ; milk supply, 52 ; wool market, 

Boston and Albany Railroad, 223 
Boulogne, 330 
Bradford, 305, 308, 309 
Brahmaputra River, 389, 391, 393 
Brakes, automatic, 262 
Brazil, 423-427 ; coffee, 423, 424 ; 

cotton, 27 ; exports, 425 ; imports, 

425 ; rubber, 424, 425 ; trade with 

United States, 279, 280 
Brazilwood, 425 

Breakfast cereals, at Minneapolis, 10 
Bremen, 342, 429 ; cotton port, 33 
Brenner Pass, 371 
Breslau, 336, 343 
Breton Island, 150 

Brick making, on Atlantic coast, 172 
Brieg, and Simplon Tunnel, 357 
Brisbane, 405, 409, 410 
Bristles, 47 
Bristol, England, 312 
British coal fields, 87 
British Columbia, 288, 294 ; coal, 292 ; 

fisheries, 291 ; forests, 290 ; gold, 

292 ; iron, 292, 294 ; water power, 


British Empire, 319, 320 

British Isles. (See United Kingdom) 

British sphere in Persia, 388 

Brockton, Massachusetts, shoe manu- 
facturing in, 212 

Bruges, 444 

Brussels, 334, 356 

Bucharest, 376 

Buckwheat, 124 

Budapest, capital of Hungary, 375; 
flour milling, 9 

Buenos Aires, 429, 432, 435 ; freezing- 
plants, 49 

Buffalo, iron center, 65, 225 ; iron 
port, 65 

Building stones, 167-170 

Bukowina, 373 

Bulawayo, 420 

Bulgaria, 382 

Burbank, Luther, breeding of new 
fruits, 2 

Burgundy wines, 323 

Burma, 389, 393 

Burnley, 306 

Butter, Danish product, 349. (See cat- 
tle industries) 

Buttons, 47 

By-products, coal, 89, 90; dairying, 
55; meat packing, 47 

Cables, ocean telegraph, 252, 253 

Cadiz, 365, 441 

Cairo, 415, 417, 420 

Calais, 312, 330 

Calcutta, 391 

California, beet sugar, 132; bitumen, 
165; coal, 84; forests, 139; gold, 
174; mercury, 178; petroleum, 119, 
162, salt, 165; subtropical fruits, 
126, 127; valley of, 118; water 
power, 193 ; wheat, 7 

Callao, 431 

Calumet and Hecla copper, 177 

Camden, New Jersey, artesian waters 
at, 189 

Canada, 287-302 ; agriculture, 292- 
294 ; cattle industries, 41, 42 ; cheese 
industry, 56; cities, 296-300; cli- 
mate, 287, 293 ; coal, 88 ; fisheries, 
290, 291 ; five regions of, 287, 288; 
foreign trade, 302 ; forests, 288- 
290; furs, 156, 290; manufactures, 
294, 295; minerals, 291, 292; posi- 
tion, 287; railways, 297, 299, 301, 
302, 445 ; United States trade with, 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



277, 278; waterways, 300, 301; 
wheat, 3, 5, 6 

Canadian Northern Railway, 299, 302 

Canadian Pacific Railway, 297, 299, 
445; extent, 301; snowsheds, 301 

Canals, the great, 227-239 ; England, 
312; France, 327, 328 (map, 328); 
Germany, 341, 342, 344 (map); Ire- 
land, 317 

Canning of fruits and vegetables, 130 

Canton, 397 

Cape Breton Isla'nd, coal in, 292 

Cape Cod, cranberries on, 128 

Cape Colony, 418 

Cape of Good Hope route, 444 

Cape-to-Cairo Railway, 413, 418, 420, 

Cape Town, 420, 421 

Carbondale, Pennsylvania, 80 

Cardiff, 310; coal supply, 88; export 
of coal, 88 

Carlsbad. (See Karlsbad) 

Carnegie, Andrew, on iron reserves, 
7 1 ; quoted, 90 

Carpathian Mountains, 371, 373, 374, 

Cars, mail, of steel, 248, 249 

Carthage, 441 

Cascade Range, 118 

Catskills, the, 114 

Cattle industries, 40-57 ; alfalfa, 43 ; 
Argentina, 48 ; Australia, 49, 408 ; 
beef exports, 47 ; branding, 42 ; 
Buenos Aires, 49; butter, 52-55; 
by-products, 47, 55 ; Canada, 41, 42, 
48, 49 ; cattle (all countries, 48 ; on 
government reserves, 43 ; by states, 
41); cheese, 55 (Canada, 56; chief 
states, 56); corn,4i,43; dairy (Iowa, 
54; Norway, 57; processes, 52, 53; 
products, Paris Exposition, 56) ; de- 
creased death rate from improved 
milk, 55 ; Denmark, 49, 57 ; dis- 
tribution in United States, 40 ; 
Europe, 49 ; exports, 47 ; Great 
Plains, 42 ; history of, in United 
States, 40; ice making, 46; in- 
spection, 47, 48; Kafir corn, 43; 
milk routes in New York, 51 ; milk 
supply, 49 (Boston, 52; New York, 
51, 52) ; millet, 43 ; Mississippi Val- 
ley, 41 ; New Zealand, 49; packing 
centers, 45; preservation of meats, 
46, 47 ; products of Illinois, 45 ; 
ranges of the West, 42; sanitation 

of milk, 51, 53; stockyards of 
Chicago, 44, 45 ; Texas, 42 ; trans- 
portation, 46 (of milk, 51) 

Caucasus, 401 

Cements, 171, 172 

Census, Bureau of the, 260 

Centers of general industry, 216-228; 
Atlantic ports, 223; Chicago, 219- 
221 ; conditions of growth, 221, 222; 
Great Lakes, 225, 226; industrial 
districts, 227, 228 ; New York, 216- 
219 ; Pacific coast, 223, 225 ; rivers, 
226, 227 ; St. Louis, 221 

Central America, 435,436; products, 
436 ; trade with United States, 279 

Central Pacific Railway, 232 

Cereals, center in United States, 
121, 122; general view, 121; of 
temperate regions, 122-124 

Cevennes, the, 321 

Ceylon, 393; graphite, 173 

Chad, Lake, 417 

Champagne wines, 323 

Charcoal, fuel for iron, 59 

Charleston, South Carolina, 275 

Chattanooga, iron center, 67 ; posi- 
tion, 114 

Chautauqua, grape belt of, 127 

Chemicals, imported, 274; industry 
in Germany, 339 ; at Stassfurt, 337 

Chemnitz, 343 

Cherbourg, 330 

Chesapeake Bay, 1 13 ; fishing in, 1 52, 

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 231 
Chester, Massachusetts, corundum 

at, 173 

Chicago, 219-221 ; advantages, 219, 
220 ; agricultural implements, 214 ; 
Board of Trade, 1 5 ; coal supply, 
83; drainage canal, 184, 194, 237, 
238 ; glove industry, 211; iron port, 
65; lumber market, 140; manufac- 
tures, 220, 221 ; map of region, 221 ; 
packing center, 45 ; pork packing, 
147; position, 219; rail connec- 
tions, 219; stockyards, 44; water 
supply, 184 ; M wheat pit," 14 

Child labor, restricted, 261 

Chile, 43°~43 2 

China, 385, 395-397, 440 ; coal fields, 
88,89; cotton, 26; lowlands, 116; 
as market, 100 

Chinese, exclusion of, 262 

" Chinook " winds, 293 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Chisholm, G. G., referred to, 303, 309 

Christiania, 351 

Chungking, 397 

Cincinnati, 226; pork packing, 147 

Clays, 172, 173 

Cleveland, 225 ; electric railway cen- 
ter, 239 ; iron center, 65 ; iron port, 
65; water supply, 184 

Clyde, the, 75, 315, 316 

Coal, 79-91 ; anthracite, 79, 80; Appa- 
lachian field, 82, 83 ; Australia, 88, 
409 ; bituminous, 81 ; breaker, 80, 
81; British coal fields, 87-89; by- 
products, 89, 90 ; Canada, 88, 291 ; 
Chicago, supply of, 83 ; China, 88, 
89, 396 ; coaling stations, 86, 87 ; 
conservation, 90, 91 ; Cretaceous, 
84; foundation of industry, 84; 
France, 88, 325; Germany, 88; 
India, 88; interior fields, 83, 84; 
Japan, 88 ; lignites, 84, 90 ; mar- 
kets, 81, 82, 83 ; New York, supply 
of, 81; New Zealand, 88; Penn- 
sylvania, 79-82 ; Pittsburg, 81, 85, 
86, 91 ; production in United States 
(i846-i907),89; river carriage, 234; 
Russia, 378; South Africa, 88; 
Spain, 88, 363 ; storage, 82 ; trans- 
portation affected by, 85 ; Triassic, 
84; varieties, 89 ; Wales, 310 

Coast Range, of California, 118 

Coast routes, 243, 244 

Coast Survey, United States, 262 

Coastal plain, Atlantic, 113 

Coasting trade, limited to ships of 
United States, 264 

Cocoa, 425 

Codfish, 151 

Coffee, Brazil, 423, 424; drying, in 
Costa Rica, 435; imports, United 
States, 273 

Cohoes, New York, knit goods in, 
207, 208 

Coke, 90 

Cold storage, 131 

Collars and cuffs, 208 

Cologne, 336, 340, 343, 444; Han- 
seatic town, 444 

Colombia, 430, 432, 433 

Colombo, coaling station, 87 

Colon, 435 ; cable to, 252 

Colonies, British, 319, 320; French, 
33 1 * 33 2 5 German, 345; and ter- 
ritories of United States, trade with, 
276, 277 

Colorado, beet sugar, 132 ; coal, 84 ; 
gold, 174; irrigation, 195; petro- 
leum, 162; potatoes, 129, 130; sil- 
ver, 176 

Colorado plateaus, 117 

Columbia River, plateaus of, 117; 
salmon of, 151 

Columbia, South Carolina, on fall line, 


Commerce, development of, 92 ; geo- 
graphical nature of, 92 ; government 
and, 256-270; historical summary, 
440 ; interstate commissions, 265 ; 
of United Kingdom, 317-319 

Commerce and Labor, Department 
of, 256-263 

Commercial geography defined, 92 

Commissions, Interstate Commerce, 
265 ; Public Service, 265 

Communication, 247-255; advantages 
of swift, 247, 248; Alaskan and 
insular telegraphs, 254; classifica- 
tion of mail matter, 249; early 
methods, 247 ; "franking," 250; In- 
ternational Postal Union, 251 ; land 
telegraph, 251, 252 ; money orders, 
250 ; railway-mail service, 248, 249 ; 
registration, 2 50; rural free delivery, 
250, 251 ; special delivery, 250 ; sub- 
marine telegraph, 252, 253 ; tele- 
phone, 254, 255; wireless telegraph, 
2 53> 254 

Concentration of industries, 202-21 5 ; 
agricultural implements, 214, 215; 
boots and shoes, 211, 212; causes 
of, 206; center of manufactures, 
215; collars and cuffs, 208 ; cotton, 
203, 204 ; flour milling, 203 ; glass, 
212, 213; gloves, 209-211; iron, 
206; knit goods, 206-208; pottery, 
213 ; silk, 212 

Conneaut, iron port, 65 

Connecticut River, pollution of, 187, 

Connecticut valley, tobacco in, 136 

Conservation, aquatic foods, 153, 154 ; 
carried on by government, 109, 1 10 ; 
favored by waterways, 234 ; forests, 
142, 143; game, 149, 150; water, 

Constantinople, 383 ; market for hides 
and skins, 1 56 ; route from western 
Europe, 371 

Constitution, American, quoted, 256 

Consular service, 269, 270 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Copenhagen, 349 
Copper, 176, 177, 292 
Copyright, 267 

Cordilleran highlands, 117, 118; for- 
ests, 139 
Corinthian Canal, 237, 368 ; view, 


Corn, 122, 123; in Canada, 293; 
compared with wheat, 13 ; for dis- 
tillation, 133 ; for forage, 137 ; pro- 
duction by states, 1 23 ; range, in 
Europe, 123 

Cornell University, hydraulic labora- 
tory of, 191 

Cornwall, tin and lead of, 441 

Corporations, regulation of, 265 

Costa Rica, 435 

Cotton, 22-39; affected by the Civil 
War, 27 ; Atlanta, mill at, 30 ; bolls, 
22 ; Brazil, 27 ; Bremen, 33 ; British 
association for growing, 28 ; capac- 
ity for growing, United States, 54 ; 
China, 26 ; climate, 23 ; compared 
with wool and flax, 38 ; consumption 
of, by countries, 34 ; cottonseed oil, 
35> 36; culture, 29; distribution, 
2 35 Egyptian, 22, 26; exports, 33 ; 
fibers, 23, 26; future, 38; Galves- 
ton as cotton port, 33 ; ginning, 29, 
30; history, 25 (in United States, 
28); imports, 33; in India, 25, 26, 
391 ; Italy, manufacture in, 363 ; 
Lancashire mill, 32 ; levee, New 
Orleans, 31 ; Liverpool, 33 ; manu- 
facture (Great Britain, 33, 34 ; New 
England, 30, 203 ; United States, 
30-33) ; mill supply by countries, 
27 ; mills in the South, 31 ; New 
Orleans as cotton port, 31, 33; 
oil cake, 35 ; percentage by states, 
25; Peruvian, 23, 27; pests, 24; 
picking, 29 ; the plant, 22 ; produc- 
tion (United States, in 1899-1908, 
24, in 1790-1909, 35; world, 26); 
sea-island, 22, 28 (map) ; seed prod- 
ucts, 35, 36; spindles in leading 
countries, 34; Transcaucasia, 26; 
Turkestan, 26; uses of plant, 36, 
37 ; varieties, 22 ; West Indies, 27 ; 
Whitney and the cotton gin, 29 . 

Cracow, 373 

Cranberry, 128 

Cretaceous coal, 84 

Cripple Creek, Colorado, gold at, 174 

Croatia, 375 

Croton waters, 189 

Cuba, 433, 434 ; foreign trade of, 278 

Cuffs and collars, 208 

Cumberland coal basin, 87 

Cumberland Gap, 230 

Cumberland plateau, 114; valley, 114 

Cyprus, 441 

Dairying processes, 53 

Dakota, South, artesian waters, 183, 

184; gold, 175 
Dakotas, the, coal in, 84 
Damascus, 385, 387, 441 
Damietta, 420 

Danube River, 335, 369-371 
Danzig, 336, 342 
Darton, N. H., quoted, 183 
Date Line, International, 257, 258 
Dates, of Oman, 388; in United 

States, 126, 127 
Death rate decreased by pure milk, 


Dekkan, the, 389, 391 

Delagoa Bay, 421 

Delaware, peaches in, 128 

Delaware Bay, 113; fishing in, 152 

Delaware and Hudson Company, coal 
storage, 82 

Delaware, Lackawanna and Western 
Railroad, milk route, 51 

De Lesseps, 416 

Denmark, 349 ; cattle, 49 ; dairy prod- 
ucts at Paris Exposition, 56; trade 
with United States, 283 

Denver, center of industry, 227 

Department of Agriculture, 266, 267 ; 
animal diseases checked, 109 ; bees 
introduced, 1 54 ; Bureau of Animal 
Industry, 157, 158; cheese, 55; 
cotton experiments in Arizona and 
California, 28 ; cotton pests checked, 
24 ; dairy work, 54 ; Forest Serv- 
ice, 142 ; poultry investigations, 
148; silk experiments, 157; tea- 
growing experiments, 135 ; Weather 
Bureau, 262, 263 ; wheats (new), 3 

Department of Commerce and Labor, 

Derby, 305, 310 

Detroit, 226; lumber market, 140; 
water supply, 189 

" De Witt Clinton train," 231 

Diamonds, cutting, in Belgium, 334; 
imports, 274; South Africa, 419, 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Diarbekr, 387 

Dieppe, 330 

District of Columbia, pure-milk law, 55 

Dnieper River, 381 

Domestic trade, United States, 271 

Don River, 381 

Dondlinger, quoted, 12, 13 

Donets River, iron region of, 378 

Douglas fir, 139, 144; British Colum- 
bia, 289 

Douro, basin of the, 364 

Dover, England, 312; and Calais, 
first ocean cable, 253 

Drainage Canal of Chicago, 184, 187, 
194, 237, 238 

Drainage of marshes, 199, 200 

Dresden, 336, 343 ; communication 
with Prague, 373 

w Drowned " river courses, 113 

Drugs, pure, 261 

Dublin, 316, 317 

Dudley, 305 

Duluth, iron port, 65 

Diina River, 381 

Dundee, 316 

Dunkirk, France, 330 

Durban, 421 

Dusseldorf, 336, 343 

Duties on imports, 268 

Dvina River, 381 

Earth roads, 240-242 ; in early days, 

East Indies, 385, 394, 395 ; Dutch, 

East Liverpool, Ohio, pottery center, 

East London, Africa, 421 
East St. Louis, packing center, 45 
Eastport, Maine, fisheries of, 290 
Ebro River, 364 
Economic conditions, as affecting 

commerce, no 
Economy promoted by commerce, 


Ecuador, 430, 431 

Eddystone Lighthouse, 304 

Edinburgh, 316 

Edmonton, 300, 301 

Education, in Germany, 346; pro- 
moted by commerce, 447 

Eggs, in United States, 148 

Egypt, 413, 414-416; cotton, 22, 26, 
27, 28 ; metric system, 257 ; wheat, 3 

Eisenerz, iron ore, 371 

Elbe River, 335, 336, 342, 343 

Elberfeld, 343 

Electric railways, about Cleveland, 

239; in Indiana, 240 
Elevators for wheat, 11, 12; at Port 

Arthur and Fort William, 302; in 

western Canada, 302 
Embroideries, Swiss, 355 
Emilian Way, the, 358 
England, agriculture, 305, 306 ; indus- 
trial, 304, 305 ; metropolitan, 3c ' 

(See United Kingdom) 
Ensilage, 137 
Erie, iron port, 65 
Erie Canal, 218, 225, 231 
Erie Railroad, milk route, 51 
Eritrea, 413 

Escanaba, iron port, 65 
Essen, iron, 76, 343 
Euphrates River, 440 ; steamships on, 

Europe, cattle in, 49 ; coast line, 101 ; 

market for United States, 284; 

relief of, 114, 115; wheat growing, 

Experiment stations, government, 266, 

Experimental farms, in Canada, 293, 

Exports, of German Empire, 345 ; of 

United Kingdom, 317, 318; of 

United States (beef, 47 ; chief, 

272, 273; forest products, 144; iron 

and steel, 72, 73; wheat, 19, 20). 

(See foreign commerce) 
Expositions, 267 ; Swedish, 352 
Express business, United States, 242 

(in relation to mail service, 250) 

Falkland Islands, 320 

Fall line, 113 

Fall River, Massachusetts, cotton 

mills, 30, 204 
Feathers, 156 
Felt, 47 
Fertilizer, 47 ; animal, 1 59 ; mineral, 

167 ; nitrates, 430 
Fibers, imports, United States, 273 
Fiji Islands, 320; cable to, 253 
Fiord coast, of Atlantic region, 113 
Fire protection, for forests, 144 
Fish Commission, United States, 153, 

Fisheries, Atlantic coast, 151 ; British, 
310; Canadian, 290, 291; French, 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



325; Great Lakes, 152; Pacific 
coast, 151; United States, 150- 
153. {See Norway) 

Fishguard, 312 

Fiume, 375 

Flax, fiber, all countries, 378 ; com- 
pared with cotton, 38 ; Russia, 379 ; 
seed, all countries, 379; United 
States, 137 

Floods, 199 

Florence, 361 

Florida, Pelican Island, 150; phos- 
phates, 167; subtropical fruits, 126 

Flour milling, 8, 9 ; centers of, 9 

Folkestone, 312 

Food, pure, 261 

Foot and mouth disease, 109 

Forage products, 136, 137 

Forbes Road, 230 

Foreign commerce, France, 330, 331 ; 
Germany, 345; United Kingdom, 

Foreign commerce of the United 
States, 271-286 (Austria- Hungary, 
283 ; balance of trade, 275 ; Canada, 
277, 278; Central America, 279; 
commerce with territories and colo- 
nies, 276, 277 ; commercial ports, 
274, 275; Cuba, 278; Denmark, 
283 ; exports, character of, 272, 
273 ; foreign and home trade, 271 ; 
France, 282; Germany, 281, 282; 
growth, 271, 272; imports, char- 
acter of, 273, 274 ; imports for 
1900 and 1909, 285, 286 ; Italy, 282 ; 
Mexico, 278, 279 ; the Netherlands, 
283; rank of United States, 271, 
272; self-sufficiency of United 
States, 284-286; South America, 
279-281 ; Spain, 282 ; specialism of 
countries, 284 ; Switzerland, 283 ; 
United Kingdom, 281) 

Forests, of Canada, 288-290 ; forestry 
in Canada, 290 ; forests and forestry 
in Germany, 336 

Forests and forest products in United 
States, 138-144; Appalachian, 114, 
x 39> I 43> conservation, 142, 143; 
Cordilleran, 139; foreign trade, 144; 
forest distribution, 139; forest serv- 
ice, 142; hardwood, 138, 139, 143; 
Illinois forests, 115; national for- 
ests, 143, 144; pine, 139; primitive 
forests, 138; 

Fort Simpson, wheat at, 4 

Fort William, 299, 301, 302 

France, 321-332; agriculture, 322, 
323; coal, 88; colonies, 331, 332, 
413 ; cotton spindles, 34 ; fisheries, 
325; foreign trade, 330, 331 ; iron, 
76, 77 ; latitude, 322 ; manufactures, 
325-327 ; minerals, 325 ; Paris, 328, 
329; physical features, 321, 322; 
seaports, 329, 330 ; trade with United 
States, 282 ; transportation, 326- 
328; wine, 134 

Frankfurt am Main, 343 

" Franking " of mail matter, 250 

Fraser River, salmon of, 151 

Free trade in United Kingdom, 318 

Fremantle, 405 

French Guiana, 332 

Fruits, preservation, 130; subtropical 

1 26, 127; of temperate latitudes, 

127, 128; transportation, 130, 131 
Furs, 156; Canada, 290; market for, 

at Leipzig, 343 
Galicia, 373 
Galveston, foreign trade, 275 ; harbor, 

2 7S 

Gambia, 413 

Game, 148-150 

Ganges River, 389, 391, 440 

Garonne River, 322, 323, 329 

Gary, iron port, 65 

Gas, illuminating, 90 

" Genesee country," flour in, 9 ; wheat 
in, 5 

Genesee Road, 230 

Geneva, 321, 327, 355, 357 

Genoa, 358, 360, 361, 363, 429, 443, 
444 ; coaling station, 87 

Geographical surveys, 261 

Geography, commercial, 92 ; physical, 

Geological surveys, 261 ; mineral in- 
vestigation by, 179; water investi- 
gation by, 201 

Georgia, water power of, 194 

Georgian Bay-Ottawa River Canal, 

237> 30 1 
German Empire, 335-347 ; agricul- 
ture, 337, 338 ; army service, 346 ; 
beet sugar, 2, 131 ; coal fields, 88; 
colonies, 345, 413 ; cotton spindles, 
34 ; education, 346 ; Essen, iron 
center, 76 ; exports, 282 ; forests 
and forestry, 336 ; imports, 283 ; 
iron, 75, 76; manufactures, 338- 
340 ; minerals and mining, 336, 337 ; 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



physical features, 115, 335, 336; 
population, 346; position, 335; 
trade (centers of, 342, 343 ; foreign, 
282, 283, 345 ; routes, 340-342 ; total, 
281 ; with United States, 281, 282, 

347) J wheat > l6 
Ghent, 334 

Gibraltar, 320 ; coaling station, 86 
Glasgow, 315, 316; shipbuilding, 75 
Glass, 173, 174, 212, 213 ; in England, 

Glens Falls, collars and cuffs, 208 

Gloucester, fishing center, 151 

Glovers villc, New York, 209, 210 

Gloves, 209-211 

Glue, 47 

Glycerin, 47 

Gogebic iron ores, 61 

Gold, 174-176; Australia, 409, 410; 
Canada, 292; South Africa, 419, 

Gold Coast, 413, 420 

Good Hope route, 246 

Gordon College, 417 

Goteborg, 352 

Gould lines, 233 

Government and commerce, 107, 
109, no, 256-270; aids to produc- 
tion, 266-268 ; aids to transporta- 
tion, 264 ; Census, Bureau of the, 
260 ; consular service, 269, 270 ; 
duties and internal revenue, 268 ; 
geological and geographical sur- 
veys, 261 ; International Date Line, 
257, 258; money, banking, and in- 
surance, 259, 260 ; protection of 
health and life, 261, 262 ; regulation 
of trade, 265, 266 ; standard time, 
257, 258 ; weights and measures, 256 

Government ownership, Germany, 347 

Grade crossings, abolition of, 262 

Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, 298, 302 

Granite, 168, 169 

Grapes, in United States, 127, 128 

Graphite, 173 

Great Basin, 117, 118 

Great Britain. {See United Kingdom) 

Great Lakes, 116, 117; Canadian re- 
gion of, 289 ; fisheries, 1 52 ; lights, 
263 ; routes, 244, 245 ; survey of, 
262 ; use of waters, 184 

Great Plains, 116; cattle on, 42 

Great Salt Lake, salt from, 165 

Greece, 367, 368 ; ancient colonies of, 

Greeley, Colorado, irrigation, 195; 

potatoes, 129, 130 
Greenland, Danish colony, 349 
Greenwich, meridian of, 258 
Grimsby, 305, 310, 311 
Guadalquivir River, 364 
Guam, cable to, 252 
Guatemala, 435 ; city, 437 
Guayaquil, 431 
Guiana, British, Dutch, and French, 

332, 432, 433 
Gulf region, 116, 117 ; lights of, 263 ; 

trade of, 275 
Gypsum, 167 
Gypsy moth in Massachusetts, 109 

Hagerstown, 114 

Hague tribunal, 447 

Haifa, 386, 387 

Haiti, 434 

Halifax, England, 305, 308 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, 295 ; cable to 

Bermuda, 434 
Hamburg, 336, 429 ; Hanseatic town, 

444 ; harbor, 342 ; railways, 340 
Hamburg-American Line, 342 
Hamilton, Ontario, 299 
Hand labor, 104, 105 
Hankau, 397 
Hanseatic League, 444 
Harbors, of Europe, 10 1 ; of North 

America, 101 ; of Pacific coast, 118 
Harriman lines, 233 
Harrisburg, 114 
Hartlepool, 87 
Harwich, 312 
Havana, cable to, 252 ; sanitation at, 

Haverhill, Massachusetts, shoes in, 

Havre, 327, 329 ; view, 332 
Hawaii, cable to, 252; sugar, 131; 

trade of, 276 
Hay, 136 

Hazleton, Pennsylvania, 80 
Health, protection of, 261, 262 
Hebron, 387 

Hemp, 137, 138; in Russia, 379 
Herring, 151, 290, 291 
Hides and skins, 155, 156; European 

narkcts of, 156 
Hill lines, 233 
Hinterland of cities, 222 
Hoangho River, 395, 440 
Hcdeida, 388 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Hogs, in United States, 146, 147 (by 
states, 1 899- 1 908, 147) 

Holland, a lowland, 1 1 5 

Holyhead, 312 

Honduras, 435 

Honey, 154, 155 

Hongkong, 394, 397 

Honolulu, coaling station, 87 

Hoosac Tunnel route, 223 

Hops, 134 

Horses, in United States, 157 (by 
states, 1 899- 1 908, 158) 

Huddersfield, 305, 308 

Hudson, highlands, 1 14 ; river (do- 
mestic use of waters, 185; ice, 187, 
190; navigable, 218); valley, 114 

Hudson-Mohawk waterway, 229 

Huelva, 365 

Hull, 305, 311 ; coal supply, 87 

Hungary, agriculture, 374, 375 ; flour 
milling, 9, 10; industries, 375; physi- 
cal features, 374; wheat, 17 

Huron, iron port, 65 

Hyderabad, 391 

Hydraulic laboratory, 191 

Hydrographic Office, United States, 

Ice, 46, 190 ; map showing regions of 
manufacture, 190 

Iceland, Danish colony, 349 

Idaho, gold in, 175; irrigation, 198; 
phosphates, 167; silver, 176 

Illinois, corn, 123; glass, 174; pack- 
ing products, 45; poultry, 148 

Immigration, regulation of, 262 

Imports, of Germany, 343 ; of United 
Kingdom, 317; of United States 
(chief, 273, 274; forest products, 
144). (See foreign commerce) 

Improved land, percentage in states, 

India, 319, 385, 389-393, 440; cotton, 
25, 26, 27; wheat, 5, 19 

Indiana, glass, 174, 212, 213; natural 
gas, 164; petroleum, 162 

Indianapolis, center of electric rail- 
ways, 240 ; state capital, 222 

Indo-China, French colonies, 332 

Indus River, 389, 440 

Industrial districts, 227, 228 

Industries, concentration of, 202-215 ; 
specialization in, 202 

Inside waterway, Atlantic coast, 243, 

Insurance, 260 

Interlaken, 355 

Internal revenue, 268 

International Bureau of Weights and 
Measures, 256 

International Date Line, 257, 258 

International Postal Union, 251 

Interstate Commerce Commission, 

Invention, protection of, 267 

Iowa, coal, 83; corn, 123; dairy, 54; 
drainage operations, 200; gypsum, 
167 ; poultry, 148 

Ireland, 316, 317 

Iron, 58-78 ; Adirondacks, 61 ; Ala- 
bama, 61 ; amount, per capita, 59 ; 
Ashland, 65 ; Ashtabula, 65 ; Bes- 
semer, Sir Henry, 69 ; Birmingham, 
Alabama, 61 ; blast furnace, 67, 68 ; 
Buffalo, 65; Canada, 291, 292; 
Carnegie, Andrew, quoted, 71 ; 
Chattanooga, 67 ; Chicago, 65 ; 
Cleveland, 65 ; Conneaut, 65 ; Cuba, 
434 ; distribution, mode of, 95 ; 
docks, Lake Superior, 64 ; Duluth, 
65 ; Erie, 65 ; Escanaba, 65 ; ex- 
ports, 72, 73; France, 76, 77, 325; 
Gary, 65; Germany, 75, 76, 339; 
Gogebic range, 61 ; Great Britain, 
73—75 ; history in United States, 
59-61 ; Huron, 65 ; Iron Mountain, 
Missouri, 72 ; Knoxville, 67 ; Lacka- 
wanna Steel Company, 69, 71 ; Lake 
Erie ports, 63 ; about Lake Superior, 
61-63; Lorain, 65; Marquette, 65; 
Marquette range, 61 ; measure of 
progress, 59 ; Menominee range, 61 ; 
Mesabi range, 61, 62 ; Michigan, 61 ; 
Middlesbrough,87; miningmethods, 
62 ; Minnesota,6i ; ores, 58 (in United 
States, 61-63) ; Pennsylvania, 61 ; 
pig iron, 68 ; Pittsburg, 60, 65, 206 ; 
production (1870-1899), 73; products 
(in 1905), 72; reserves, in United 
States, 71, 72; Russia, 378; Shef- 
field, 68 ; Spain, 77, 363 ; steel, 68 ; 
Toledo, 65; transportation, 63-66; 
Two Harbors, 65 ; uses, 58, 59 ; Ver- 
milion range, 61 

Iron Gate (Danube), 371, 374, 376 

Irrigation, 195-199; Italy, 361; rice, 
125; United States projects, 196, 

Iselle, Simplon Tunnel at, 357 

Isotherms, Canada, 293 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Jtaly, 357-3 6 3 J agriculture, 359, 361 ; 
cities, 361 ; foreign trade, 361 (with 
South America, 423, 429; with 
United States, 282); map, 356; 
merchant marine, 363 ; minerals, 
359; physical features, 357, 358; 
possessions in Africa, 413; railway 
routes, 358 ; resources, 359 

Jamaica, 434 ; trade of, 279 

Japan, 385, 398, 400 ; coal, 88 ; metric 

system, 257 
Java, 349; cable from Australia, 407 
Johannesburg, 420 
Johnson, Sir William, 210 
Johnstown, New York, 209, 210 
Johnstown, Pennsylvania, iron, 206 
Joliet, Illinois, iron, 206 
Jujuy, 429 
Jura Mountains, 321, 357 

Kafir corn, 1 26 ; for cattle, 43 ; climate 

for, 123; for forage, 137 
Kaiser Wilhelm Canal, 341, 342 
Kalgoorlie, 405 
Kamerun, 413 
Kansas, coal, 83 ; gypsum, 167 ; Kafir 

corn, 126; natural gas, 164; petro- 
leum, 162, 163; salt, 165 
Kansas City, center of industry, 227 ; 

horse market, 1 57 ; packing center, 

45 ; pork packing, 147 
Kaolin, 172 
Karachi, 391 
Karlsbad, 373 
Kashgar, 397, 440 
Keltie, J. S., quoted, 319 
Kentucky, bituminous rocks, 165; 

coal, 82 ; hemp, 137 ; iron, 63 ; 

tobacco, 135 
Key West, 275 
Kharkov, 378 
Khartum, 417, 420 
Kiel Canal, 237, 238, 341 
Kimberley, 419 
Kingston, Jamaica, 434 
Kingston, Ontario, 298 
Klamath Mountains, 118 
Klondike, gold in, 292 
Knit goods, 206-208 
Knoxville, iron center, 67 ; position, 

Kongo Free State, 418 
Kongo French colony, 332 
Kongo River, 413, 414, 417, 418 

Korea, 398, 400 
Krefeld, 343 

Labor by hand and machine com- 
pared, 104, 105, 107 
Labrador, forests of, 289 
Lackawanna Steel Company, 69, 70 
Lahore, 391 
Lake Erie, cities of, 225 ; iron ports, 


Lake Superior region, iron ores in, 

61-63; transportation from, 63, 66, 

Lake Survey, United States, 262 
Lakes, sources of water, 184 
Lancashire, coal field, 87 ; cotton 

mill, 32 
Land grants to railways, 264 
La Paz, 432 
Lard, 147 
Latin America, 422-439; exports, 431 ; 

general notice, 422, 423 ; imports, 

432 ; opportunity for trade, 439 ; 

trade with United States, 279 
Latitude, range of plant products, 

Lava plateaus, 1 1 7 
Lead, 177, 309 
Leather, 155, 156 
Lebanon range of mountains, 441 
Le Creuzot, iron center, 325 
Leeds, 305, 308, 309 ; coal supply, 87 
Leghorn, 361, 443 
Lehigh Valley Railroad, milk route, 

5 1 
Leicester, 309 

Leipzig, 343 ; fur market, 1 56 
Leith, 316 

Lemons in United States, 126 
Leopoldville, 418 
Lewiston, Maine, 204 
Liberia, 414 
Libyan Desert, 413 
Liege, 334 

Life-saving service, 263 
Lighthouse Board, 263 
Lignite, 84, 90 ; in Canada, 292 
Lille, iron center, 325 
Lima, 431 

Limestones, 169, 170 
Limoges, 325 
Linen, 137 
Linseed oil, 137 
Liquor, revenue tax on, 268 
Liquor traffic, regulation of, 266 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Lisbon, 367 

Little Falls, knit goods in, 208 

Liverpool, 31 1, 312, 429 ; coal supply, 

87 ; cotton port, 33 
Lobsters, 153 

Localization of industries, 202-215 
Lodz, 382 

Loetschburg Tunnel, 357 
Loire River, 322, 329 
London, 388, 444 ; coal supply, 87 ; 

fur market, 1 56 ; seaport, 3 1 1 
Lorain, iron port, 65 
Los Angeles, center of industry, 227 
Louisiana, rice, 125; salt, 165; sugar 

cane, 131 
Louisville, 226 
Lourenco Marquez, 421 
Lowell, Massachusetts, cotton mills, 

30; power, 203 
Lowestoft, 310 

Lubeck, Hanseatic town, 444 
Lucerne, 355, 356 
Ludwigs-Kanal, 371 
Lumber, centers, 140; production (of 

ten states, in 1880 and 1907, 142 ; in 

all states, in 1907, 143) 
Luxemburg, duchy of, iron, 76 
Lynn, Massachusetts, boots and shoes 

in, 212 
Lyons, 321, 324-328, 343 

Macaroni drying, at Amalfi, 358 

Machine labor, 104, 105 

Mackenzie River, basin of, 115; 
wheat on, 4 

Mackerel, 151 

Mackinder, H. J., quoted, 74 

Madagascar, 413, 420; French col- 
ony, 332 

Madeira Island, 366 

Madeira River, 427, 432 

Madras, 391 

Mahogany, imports of, 144 

Mails, "franking" privilege, 250 ; mat- 
ter classified, 249 ; railway facilities, 
248, 249; registration, 250; special 
delivery, 250 

Maine, water power of, 194 

Maize. (See corn) 

Malay Peninsula, 393, 394; tin, 177 

Malt liquors, barley for, 1 24 

Malta, 320 

Manaos, 427 

Manchester, England, 305, 306; coal 
supply, 87 ; cotton center, 99, 100 ; 

machinery, 309; Ship Canal, 237. 
238, 306, 314 

Manchester, New Hampshire, cotton, 
204 ; power at, 203 

Manchester Ship Canal, 237, 238, 
306, 314 

Manchuria, 398, 399, 400 

Manila, coaling station, 87 

Manitoba, fisheries, 291 ; plowing foi 
wheat, 2; wheat, 293 

Manufactures, 97, 99; center of, in 
United States, 215; France, 325- 
327 ; Germany, 338-340 ; growth of, 
in United States, 272 ; migration of 
center, 102. (See United Kingdom) 

Manzanillo, 438 

Maracaibo, Lake, 433 

Marble, 170; Pentelic, 368 

Marienbad, 373 

Maritime provinces, 288, 289; ag- 
riculture in, 292, 293 

Markets, 99, 100; conditions of, 106; 
for Pennsylvania coal, 81, 82 

Marl, 167 

Marquette, iron ores, 61 ; iron port, 

Marseilles, 321, 322, 327, 329, 330, 

388, 443, 444 ; market for hides and 

skins, 156 
"Maryland, coal in, 82 
Maskat, 388 
Massachusetts, boots and shoes, 211; 

cotton industry, rank in, 204 ; gypsy 

moth, 109 
Massilia, ancient Marseilles, 443 
Mauretania, the, 230 
Mauritius, 319 
Mazatlan, 438 

McKeesport, Pennsylvania, iron, 206 
Measures, weights and, 256, 257 
Meat packing, 45 
Medina, 388 
Mediterranean period of commerce, 

Mediterranean trunk route, 245, 246 
Medoc wines, 323 
Melbourne, 409 
Memphis, lumber market, 140 
Mendoza, 429 
Menominee, iron ores, 61 
Mercury, in United States, 178 
Merv, 401 

Mesabi, iron ores, 61 
Mesopotamia, 385, 388, 440, 441 
Messina, earthquake of, 248 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Metric system, 257 

Meuse River, 322 

Mexico, 436-439; agriculture, 437; 
forests, 437 ; mining, 437 ; prod- 
ucts, 436, 438; silver, 176; trade 
with United States, 278, 279 

Michigan, coal, 85; copper, 176, 177; 
gypsum, 167 ; iron ores, 61 ; 
peaches, 128; Portland cement, 
172; salt, 165; sugar beet, 132, 
133 ; wood pulp, 141 

Middlesbrough, 87 

Midland coal basin, 87 

Milan, on plains of the Po, 357, 361 ; 
routes from north, 356, 357 

Military service in Germany, 346 

Milk supply of cities, 49 

Mill, H. R., quoted, 85 

Millet, for cattle, 43 ; in India, 391 

Milwaukee, 226; lumber market, 140 

Mineral industries of the United 
States, 160-179; abrasives, 173; bi- 
tumens, 164, 165; building stones, 
167-170; cements, 170-172 ; clays, 
172, 173; copper, 176, 177; dis- 
tribution of minerals, 160; exhaus- 
tible minerals, 161 ; fertilizers, 167 ; 
glass, 173, 174; gold, 174-176; 
graphite, 173; lead, 177; mercury, 
178; metallic and nonmetallic min- 
erals, 174; natural gas, 164; pe- 
troleum, 1 61-164; precedence of 
United States, 178, 179; salt, 165, 
166; silver, 176; surveys, 179; tin, 
177; uses of minerals, table, 178; 
zinc, 177. (See coal and iron) 

Mineral raw materials, 95 

Mineral waters, 200, 201 

Minerals, of Canada, 291, 292; of 
Germany, 336 

Mines, Bureau of, 261 

Minneapolis, flour milling, 9; flour 
milling localized, 203 ; lumber, 140 ; 
mills at, 10 

Minnesota, flax, 137; iron ores, 61- 
63 ; wheat breeding, 2 

Mississippi basin, 114-116; rainfall 
of, 116 

Mississippi delta, map, 274 

Mississippi River, traffic on, 231, 232 

Mississippi River Commission, 262 

Missouri, coal, 83 ; corn, 1 23 ; lead, 
177; poultry, 148; zinc, 177 

Missouri River Commission, 262 

Mobile, 275 

Mohawk River, canalized, 239 

Mokha, 388 

Mombasa, 413, 420, 421 

Money, 259 

Mongolia, 397 

Monongahela River, canalized, 239 

Montana, coal, 84; copper, 176, 177 ; 
gold, 175; sheep, 146; silver, 176 

Mont Blanc, 353 

Mont Cenis Tunnel, 321, 358 

Montenegro, 382 

Montreal, 296, 297, 299, 300, 301, 330 

Montreux, 354 

Moravia, 373 

Mormons, irrigation by, 195 ; settle- 
ments of, 118 

Morocco, 414 

Moscow, 381, 382 

Moselle River, 322, 325 

Mulberry trees, 323 ; in Italy, 361 

Muncie, Indiana, glass center, 213 

Munich, 340, 343, 356 

Museums, 267 

Nantes, 321, 327, 328, 329 

Nanticoke, Pennsylvania, 80 

Naples, 361, 363 ; coaling station, 87 ; 
market for hides and skins, 1 56 

Natal, 418 

National forests, 143, 144 

National Road, the, 230, 231 ; built 
by government, 264 

Natural gas, 164 

Nebraska, coal, 83; corn, 123 

Nelson River, basin of, 115 

Netherlands, the, 347-349; agricul- 
ture, 348 ; colonies, 349 ; exports, 
348 ; resources, 348 ; trade with 
United States, 283 

Nevada, gold, 175; silver, 176 

New Bedford, Massachusetts, 204 

New Brunswick, agriculture in, 293 

Newcastle, coal, 85 ; coal field, 87 ; 
iron, 75 

Newell, F. H., quoted, 196 

New England, coastal lowland of , 1 1 3 ; 
cotton manufacture, 30; railways, 
233; wood pulp, 141 

Newfoundland fishing banks, 151, 290, 


New Haven, England, 312 

New Jersey, cities of northern, 227, 
228; cranberries, 128; glass, 174, 
212; peaches, 128; Portland ce- 
ment, 172 ; pottery, 213 ; waters, 194 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



New Mexico, coal, 84 ; sheep, 146 

New Orleans, 227 ; cotton levee, 31 ; 
foreign trade, 27 5 ; map, 274 

Newport News, 27 5 

Newspaper service, 247 

New York Central Railway, 231 ; 
mails on, 249; milk route, 51 

New York City, 216-219; foreign 
trade, 275; harbor, 216; industrial 
district, 227, 228 ; manufactures, 
219; milk supply, 50, 51 ; position, 
114; silk industry, 212; water 
supply, 188, 189 

New York state, apples, 127 ; collars 
and cuffs, 208; grapes, 127, 128; 
graphite, 173; gypsum, 167; hops, 
134 ; knit goods, 206-208 ; natural 
gas, 164; peaches, 128; petroleum, 
162; Portland cement, 172; Public 
Service commissions, 265; salt, 165; 
water power, 191, 192, 194; wood 
pulp, 141 

New Zealand, 402, 403, 406, 410, 411 ; 
beef, 49 ; cable to, 253 ; cheese, 56 

Niagara, power at, 192, 193, 194, 225 

Niagara County, grapes in, 128 

Nicaragua, 435 

Niger basin, 413, 421 

Nigeria, 413, 417 

Nile River, 440; Blue and White, 417; 
British control of, 413; dam at 
Assuan, 415 

Nitrates in Chile, 430 

Nizhni Novgorod, 382 

North America, harbors of, 10 1 ; re- 
lief of, 114, 115 

North Carolina, coal, 84 ; tobacco, 

North German Lloyd Line, 342 
North Platte (irrigation) project, 197 
North Sea fisheries, 325 
Norway, 350, 351 ; dairy, 57 ; fisheries, 

350; shipping, 350, 351; wheat, 5; 

wood products, 350 
Nottingham, 307 ; coal supply, 87 
Nova Scotia, agriculture in, 292, 293 ; 

coal in, 292 ; iron in, 292 
Novgorod, 444 
Nuts in France, 323 
Nyassa, Lake, 413 

Oats, Canada, 292 ; England, 306 ; 

United States, 123 (yield per acre, 

Ocean cables, 252, 253 

Oder River, 335, 336 

Odessa, 38 1 ; view of harbor, 380 ; 

wheat port, 18 
Ohio, apples, 127 ; coal, 82, 83 ; glass, 

174, 212 ; iron, 63 ; natural gas, 164 ; 

petroleum, 162, 163; Portland ce- 
ment, 172; poultry, 148; salt, 165; 

sheep, 146 
Ohio River, falls, 226; traffic, 231, 

232 ; waterway, 229, 230 
Oil, cottonseed, 35, 36; linseed, 137 ; 

neat's-foot, 47; olive (Italy), 359; 

petroleum, 161 -164 
Oil cake, 35 
Oklahoma, bitumen, 165; coal, 83; 

Kafir corn, 126; petroleum, 162; 

Wichita preserve in, 150 
Old-age pensions in Australia, 404 
Oldham, 306 
Olives, California, 126; France, 323; 

Italy, 359 
Olympic Range, 118 
Omaha, 227 ; horse market, 1 57 ; pork 

packing, 147 
Oman, 388 
Ontario, southern, 288 ; agriculture 

in, 293 
Ontario and Western Railway, milk 

route, 51 
Oodnadatta, 405 

Oporto, 367 ; view of wharves, 365 
Orange River Colony, 418 
Oranges, Italy, 356 (map)»3 59; Spain, 

364; United States, 126 
Oregon, coal, 84 ; gold, 175; hops, 1 34 
Ores of iron, 58 

Oriental period of commerce, 440 
Oriental trade with United States, 

Orsova, 371 
Ostend, 312, 334 

Ostrich farming, United States, 1 56 
Ottawa, 299 ; wheat breeding at, 2 
Oysters, 153 ; on French coast, 325 

Pacific coast, 118; centers, 223, 225; 
fisheries, 151; lights, 263 ; trade, 275 

Pacific Ocean, cables of, 252 

Pacific period of commerce, 445 

Packing centers, pork, 147 

Palermo, 361, 441 

Palestine, 385 

Panama, republic of, 434, 435 ; sani- 
tation in Canal Zone, 262 

Panama Canal, 227, 237, 239, 246, 280, 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



422, 430, 431, 435» 445 5 for Aus- 
tralia, 407; for Gulf regions, 116; 
for Mississippi basin, 116 

Panama city, 435 

Panama Railway, 435 

Pan-American Railway, 435, 439 

Pan-American Union, building of, 423 

Para, 432 

Paraguay, 430, 432 

Paris, 321, 328, 329, 357; Bureau of 
Weights and Measures in, 256; 
latitude of, 322 

Paris Exposition, United States dairy 
products at, 56 

Parma, 358 

Patagonia, 427 

Patent Office, United States, 267 

Paterson, New Jersey, silk center, 
212; water power, 192 

Peace promoted by commerce, 448 

Peaches in United States, 1 28 

Peking, 397 

Pennine Range, 87, 305 ; pastures of, 

Pennsylvania, apples, 127 ; glass, 174, 
212, 213; iron ores, 61; natural 
gas, 164; petroleum, 161, 162; 
Portland cement, 172 

Pennsylvania Railway system, 223, 
224, 231, 232, 233; mails on, 249 

Pensacola, 275 

Persia, 388, 389, 440 

Persian Gulf, shipping of, 389 

Perth, Australia, 405 

Peru, 430-432 ; cotton, 27 

Peruvian cotton, 23 
* Peshawar, 391 

Petroleum, 161-164; Appalachian re- 
gion, 161, 162; California, 119; de- 
cline of, in New York and Pennsyl- 
vania, 162; Pennsylvania, 161, 162; 
pipe lines, 163; production (United 
States, in 1859-1907, 163; in the 
West, 162,163); products, 164; re- 
fineries, 164; Russia, 164, 378; 
transportation, 163, 164 

Philadelphia, conditions of growth, 
223; cotton in, 204; on fall line, 
113; foreign trade, 275 ; knit goods, 
207; position, 114; water supply, 


Philippine Islands, 394, 395; cable to, 
252 ; resources, 277 ; telegraphs, 
254 ; trade, 277 

Phoenicians, trade of, 440-443 

Phosphates, 167 

Physical geography defined, 92 

Pine in United States, 139; con- 
servation of, 143 

Pine Creek, Australia, 405 

Pineapples in Florida, 126 

Pipe lines, 163 

Piracy, protection against, 264 

Piraeus, 367 ; coaling station, 87 ; 
view of harbor, 366 

Pisa, 361, 443 

Pittsburg, coal at, 81, 85, 86; com- 
pared with Cincinnati, 226; glass, 
213 ; iron center, 60, 65, 66, 67, 99 

Pittston, Pennsylvania, 80 

Placers, 175, 176 

Plant products of United States, 1 20- 
144 ; apples, 127 ; barley, 123, 124 ; 
beverage plants, 133-135; buck- 
wheat, 1 24 ; cereals (general view, 

121, 122; of subtropical regions, 
124-126; of temperate regions, 
122-124); c °ld storage, 131; con- 
servation of forests, 142, 143 ; corn, 

122, 123 (for distillation, 133); cran- 
berries, 128; fiber plants, 137, 138; 
forage products, 136, 137; foreign 
trade in forest products, 1 44 ; 
forests and forest products, 138- 
144; fruits of temperate latitudes, 
127, 128; general range, 120, 121 ; 
grapes, 127, 128; latitude range, 
120; lumber centers, 140; national 
forests, 143, 144; oats, 123; peaches, 
128; potatoes, 128, 129; preserva- 
tion of fruits and vegetables, 130; 
refrigerator cars, 131 ; rice, 124, 
125; rye, 124; strawberries, 128; 
subtropical fruits, 126, 127; sugar 
plants, 131-133; tobacco, 135, 136; 
transportation of fruits and vege- 
tables, 130, 131 ; turpentine, rosin, 
and tar, 141, 142; uses of wood, 
140; vegetables, 128; wood pulp, 
140, 141 

Plata River, countries of, 426-430 

Platinum, Russia, 378 

Plymouth, England, 312 

Po River, plain of, 357 ; railways on, 

Pollution of rivers, 185-189 
Population in United States, in 1790, 

93; in 1850,94; in 1900, 96; in 1910, 

98; in agricultural pursuits, 103; 

migration of centers of, 102 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Pork, 147 

Port Arthur, 299, 301, 302 

Port Darwin, 405 

Port Elizabeth, 421 

Portland, Maine, 275 

Portland, Oregon, 118, 223, 225, 275 

Portland cement plants in United 

States, 170; account of, 171, 172; 

production (1890-1908), 171 
Porto Rico, national forests in, 143; 

telegraphs, 254; trade, 277 
Port Said, 416, 420; coaling station, 


Ports of United States, 274, 275 
Portugal, 366, 367 ; possessions in 

Africa, 413, 414 
Postal Telegraph Company, 252 
Postal Union, International, 251 
Post-office orders, 250 
Potatoes, Germany, 338 ; Russia, 379, 

381 ; United States, 128, 129 
Potomac, valley, 114; waterway, 229 
Pottery, 213; in England, 310 
Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 80 
Poultry in United States, 148 
Power, animals used for, 1 57 
Prague, 372 
Prairies of Illinois, 115 
Preservation of fruits and vegetables, 


Preston, 306 

Pretoria, 421 

Prince Edward Island, 292 

Prince Rupert, 298, 302 

Principles of commercial geography, 
92-110 (complex results of com- 
mercial processes, 103 ; develop- 
ment of commerce, 92 ; economic 
conditions, 1 10 ; government func- 
tions, 107, 109, 1 10 ; human factors, 
103, 106; localization of manu- 
facture, 97, 99 ; manufacture, 97 ; 
markets, 99, 100 ; political divisions, 
107; raw materials, 95, 96; skill, 
degrees of, 106; social conditions, 
no; stages of occupation, 107; 
standards of living, 106; transpor- 
tation, 101-102) 

Proctor, Vermont, marble of, 170 

Production, government aid to, 266- 

Protective tariffs, 268 

Puget Sound, 1 18 

Punjab, the, 389 

Pyrenees, 321 ; as barrier, 363 

Quarantine, 262 

Quebec, city of, 295, 296 

Quebec, southern, 288 ; agriculture in, 

293 ; water power in, 294 
Queensland, cattle in, 49 
Queenstown, 312 
Quincy, Massachusetts, granites of, 


Racine, Wisconsin, agricultural im- 
plements in, 214 

Railways, electric, near Cleveland, 
239 ; in Indiana, 240 

Railways, England, 312 ; France, 326, 
327; Russia, 381; Sweden, 352; 
United States (early history, 231, 
232 ; growth in 1832-1908, 234 ; 
land grants, 264; net, map of, 
233 ; principal groups, 233 ; regula- 
tion, 265) 

Rainfall, Australia, 403 ; Mississippi 
basin, 116; United States, 120, 
181, 182 (maps) 

Raleigh, on fall line, 113 

Rangoon, 391, 393 

Raw materials, 95, 97 

Rawlinson, quoted, 441 

Reading, 114 

Reclamation Act, 196 

Red River valley, 1 1 7 

Red Sea, 416 

Refineries, petroleum, 164 * 

Refrigeration, meats, 46 

Refrigerator cars, 46, 131 

Registered mail, 250 

Regulation, of liquor traffic, 266; of 
railways, 265 ; of trade, 265, 266 

Republic, wireless telegraph and the 
steamship, 253, 254 

Rheims, wine center, 323 

Rhine River, 321, 328, 335, 336 ; com- 
pared with Danube, 371 ; route of 
trade, 340 ; territory on, 345, 347 

Rhode Island, rank in cotton manu- 
facture, 204 

Rhodesia, 420 

Rhone River, 321, 324, 327, 328; 
ancient route, 443 

Rice, 124, 125; Burma, 393; climate, 
123; harvesting, 125; India, 391 ; 
Italy, 359; production, United 
States, in 1869 and in 1904- 1908, 
1 24 ; Siam, 393 

Rideau Canal, 299 

Riga, 381 

Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



Rio de Janeiro, 427, 429 

Rio Grande (irrigation) project, 197 

Rivers, as sources of water, 1S5— 

Riviera, the, French, 321 ; railway 

along, 358 
Roads, earth, 240-242 
Rochester, flour center, 9 
Rockport, Massachusetts, granites of, 


Rocky Mountains, 117 ; coal in, 84 

Rome, 361 ; trade of ancient, 443 

Rosario, 429 

Rosetta, 420 

Rosin, 141, 142 

Rotterdam, 328, 336, 340, 348, 356 

Rouen, 328, 330 

Roumania, 376, 377 

Rubber, in Brazil, 424, 425 ; imports, 
in United States, 273 

Rugs, Persian export, 389 

Ruhr, coal field, 88 

Rural free delivery, 250, 251 

Russia, 377-382, 400, 401 ; agricul- 
ture, 379, 381; Asiatic, 385, 400, 
401; "black soil," 17; cities and 
routes, 377, 381, 382 ; cotton 
spindles in, 34 ; dairy products at 
Paris Exposition, 56; fairs, 382; 
foreign trade, 382 ; furs, 1 56 ; in- 
ternal navigation, 381; map, 377; 
metric system in, 257 ; minerals, 
378, 379 ; physical features, 378 ; 
plains, 115, 116; railways, 381; 
sphere of, in Persia, 388; trade 
with United States, 283, 284 ; wheat, 

Rutland, Vermont, marble of, 170 
Rye, 124; for distillation, 133; Ger- 
many, 337, 338; production, all 
countries, 337 ; Russia, 379 ; yield 
of, per acre, in United States, 121 

Sahara, the, 414, 416, 417, 421 ; 

French colony, 332 
Saint-Etienne, 325 
St. Anthony, falls of, 9 
St. Gothard Railway route, 356, 358; 

main tunnel, 340, 356; spiral 

tunnels, 355 
St. Helena, 320 
St. John, New Brunswick, 295 
St. Joseph, packing center, 45 
St. Lawrence, navigation of, 300, 301 
St Louis, center of industry, 221 ; 

coal supply, 83 ; fur depot, 221 ; 
hinterland of, 221 ; lumber market, 
140; railway center, 221; steam- 
boat traffic, 221 

St. Marys Canal, 237 

St. Paul, packing center, 45 

St Petersburg, 382 

Salford, 306 

Salmon fisheries, 151 

Salonica, market for hides and skins, 
i S 6 

Salt, 165, 166; distribution, 165; Ga- 
licia, 373 ; Germany, 337 ; proc- 
esses, 165, 166; Russia, 379; uses, 

Salt River (irrigation) project, 197 

Salvador, 435 

Samarkand, 401 

Sana, 388 

Sandstones, 169 

San Francisco, 223, 225; cable from, 
252 ; coaling station, 87 ; earth- 
quake, 248 ; foreign trade, 27 5 ; 
map of bay, 280 

Sanitation of milk, 51, 53 

Santiago, Chile, 431 

Santiago, Cuba, 434 

Santos, 424, 429 

Saone River, 322, 324, 327 ; ancient 
route, 443 

S&o Paulo, 424 

Saratoga, mineral waters of, 201 

Sardines, 291 

Saskatchewan, wheat in, 293 

Sault St. Marie Canal, 301 

Savannah, 275 

Saxony, cities of, 343 

Scilly Islands, 441 

Scotland, 314-316; agriculture, 314; 
coal, 88; industries, 315; seaports, 

Scranton, Pennsylvania, 80 
Sea-island cotton, 22 ; map, 28 
Sealing fleet in Victoria harbor, 298 
Seals in Alaska, 1 56 
Seattle, 223, 225, 275; cable from* 

254; position of, 118 
Seine River, 322, 329, 330, 332 
Semmering Pass, 372 
Senegal, 421 
Sequoia, 139 
Servia, 382 
Sevres, 325 

Shamokin, Pennsylvania, 80 
Shanghai, 396 

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Sheep, 145, 146; Australia, 408; all 
countries, 408 ; United States, by 
states (1899-1908), 146 

Sheffield, 305 ; coal supply, 87 ; steel, 
68, 74, 76 

Shipbuilding, on the Clyde, 75; in 
Germany, 76 

Shoes, boots and, 211, 212 

Shoshone (irrigation) project, 197 

Siam, 393 

Siberia, 385, 400, 401 

Sicily, ancient trade, 443 ; sulphur, 359 

Sidon, 441 

Sierra Leone, 413 

Sierras of California, 118 

Signal Corps, United States army, 
telegraphs used by, 252, 254 

Silesia, 373 

Silk, 212 ; Argentina, 428 ; Italy, 361 ; 
Lyons as center, 327 ; production 
of raw, all countries, 359; silk- 
worms, 323 ; United States, 157 

Silver, 176 

Simplon Tunnel, 357; map, 356; 
route, 358; view, 357 

Singapore, 394 ; coaling station, 87 

Sioux City, packing center, 45 

Site of cities, 221, 222 

Sitka, cable to, 2 54 ; grains grown at, 
267 ; wheat, 4 

Slate, 169; in Wales, 310 

Slavonia, 375 

Smith, J. Russell, quoted, 243, 245 

Smyrna, 385, 386 

Snake River plateaus, 117 

Soap, 47 

Social conditions as affecting com- 
merce, no 

Social and moral effects of com- 
merce, 446-448 

Soil survey, 261 

Somali coast, 413 

Sorghum, 131, 137 

South America, 422-433; Andean 
countries, 430-432 ; Brazil, 423-427 ; 
northern countries, 432-433 ; pop- 
ulation, 430 ; River Plata countries 
trade with United States, 279 

Southampton, 312 

South Bend, agricultural implements 
in, 215 

South Carolina, cotton manufacture, 
rank in, 204; phosphates, 167; 
tea, 134, 135; water power, 194 

South Wales, coal field, 88 

Southern Railway system, 233 

Spain, 362-366 ; agriculture, 364 ; area 
and population, 365 ; coal fields, 88 ; 
industry and trade, 365, 366 ; iron, 
77 ; map, 362 ; minerals, 363, 365 ; 
physical features, 363 ; progress, 
366; sheep, 145 ; trade with United 
States, 282 

Special delivery of mails, 250 

Specialism of countries, 284 

Sponge fisheries, 159 

Springfield, Ohio, agricultural imple- 
ments in, 214 

Springs, 183 

Stafford, 305 

Staffordshire, 310 

Standard time, 257, 258 

Standards of weight and measure, 256 

Stanley Falls, 418 

Stassfurt, salt deposits of, 337 

State Department, Consular Bureau 
of, 269 

Staunton, 114 

Steel, making of, 68. (See iron) 

Stettin, 336, 342 

Steyr, iron center, 371 

Stockholm, 352 

Stockyards, Chicago, 44 

Straits Settlements, tin, 309 

Strassburg, 328, 336, 340, 343 

Strawberries, 128, 131 

Sturgeon, 152 

Submarine telegraph, 252, 253 

Sudan, 413, 417 

Suez Canal, 237, 238, 391, 416; Aus- 
tralian route, 407 ; effect on Med- 
iterranean trade, 444, 445; wheat 
route, 19 

Sugar, beet and cane compared, 34 1 ; 
Cuba, 434 ; Hawaii, 277 ; imports, 
in United States, 273, 278. (See 
beet sugar, cane, sorghum, sugar 
beet, sugar plants) 

Sugar beet, in Germany, 338, 339; 
map of industry of, central Europe, 

Sugar plants, 1 31-133 (beets, 131- 

133; cane, 131; sorghum, 131) 
Sulphur in Italy, 359 
Sunderland, 87 
Surveys, geological, geographical, 

soil, biological; 261 ; railway, by 

government, 109 
Susquehanna, valley, 114; waterway, 


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Swamps, drainage of, 199, 200 

Swansea, 310 

Sweden, 351, 3 52 ; manufactures, 352 ; 

map, 351 ; size and population, 351 ; 

trade, 352 
Switzerland, 353-357 5 Alps of, 353 ; 

commercial prosperity, 354, 355 ; 

manufactures, 355; routes, 356; 

trade with United States, 283 
Sydney, 405, 409 
Syracuse, New York, salt at, 166 

Tacoma, 275; position, 118 

Taganrog, 381 ; wheat port, 18 

Tampa, 275 

Tampico, 438 

Tanganyika, Lake, 413, 418, 420 

Tanning, 155 

Tar, 141, 142 

Tariffs, 268 ; Australia, 405 ; Zollverein 

of German states, 345, 346 
Tarsus, 385, 387 
Tea in United States, experiments in 

growing, 134, 135; imports, 273 
Teakwood, 393 
Tehuantepec Railway, 438 
Telegraph, land, 251, 252 ; submarine, 

252, 253 ; of the world, 255 
Telephone, 254, 255 
Tennessee, coal, 83; copper, 177; 

iron, 61 ; petroleum, 162 ; phos- 
phates, 167 ; valley of East, 114 
Tennessee River, navigation of, 232 
Texas, cattle, 42 ; coal, 83 ; figs, 126 ; 

petroleum, 162 ; rice, 125 ; salt, 165 ; 

tea experiments, 135 
Textiles, France, 326 ; Germany, 339 ; 

imports, 274; Scotland, 315. {See 

United Kingdom) 
Thermal waters, 201 
Tibet, 397 
Tientsin, 397 
Tierra del Fuego, 427 
Tiflis, 401 

Tigris River, 440 ; steamships on, 388 
Timbuktu, 421 
Time, standard, in United States, 

2 57, 258 
Tin, 177; England, 309; imports, 274 ; 

Malay Peninsula, 394 
Tobacco, distribution of production, 

135; revenue tax, 268; in United 

States, 135, 136 
Togo, 413 
Toledo, iron port, 65 

Tonawanda, lumber market, 140 
Tonnage, all vessels, United States, 
245; coasting vessels, United States, 


Toronto, 298, 299, 302 ; coal supply, 

Toulouse, 323, 327 

Tourist traffic in Italy, 361, 363 

Tours, 328 

Trade, regulation of, 265, 266 

Train dispatching, 252 

Trans-Siberian Railway, 401 

Transit trade, Belgian, 334 

Transportation, 229-246 ; aids to, 264 *, 
by canals, 101 ; cattle and meat, 46; 
cities affected by, 222 ; eoal as an 
influence on, 85-87 ; coast routes, 
243-244 ; dependent on invention, 
102 ; early roads, 229 ; earth roads, 
240-242 ; electric railways, 239, 240 ; 
express business, 242 ; fruits and 
vegetables, 130; fundamental, 229; 
Germany, 340-342 ; government 
ownership, 347 ; Gulf stream and, 
102; iron, 63-66; milk, 51; by 
ocean, 101, 102; ocean routes, 
245, 246; petroleum, 163, 164; 
principle of commercial geography, 
100-102 ; promoted by government, 
109 ; rail and river traffic before 
Civil War, 231, 232 ; railway exten- 
sion after Civil War, 232 ; by rivers 
and lakes, 10 1 ; safety in, 262-264 ; 
turnpikes and canals, 230, 231; 
valley routes, 100, 101 ; waterways, 
new era, 234-239; wheat, 21 

Transvaal, 418, 420, 421 ; gold, 175 

Trebizond, 388 

Trenton, New Jersey, pottery center, 

Triassic coal, 84 

Trieste, coaling station, 87 ; port of 
Vienna, 372 ; route from Italy, 358 ; 
trade, 372 
Trinidad, asphalt from, 165 
Tripoli, 414 

Trondhjem, 352 ; wheat at, 5 
Troy, collars and cuffs in, 208 
Truckee Canal, diversion dam, 195 
Trusts, control of, in Germany, 347 
Tunis, 413, 421 ; French colony, 332 
Tunnels, Alpine, 371 
Turin, 358, 361 

Turkestan, Chinese, 397, 440; Rus- 
sian, 401 

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Turkey, Asiatic, 384, 385 ; European, 
382; metric system in, 257; pos- 
sessions in Africa, 414 

Turnpikes (1800-1850), 230, 231 

Turpentine, 141, 142 

Two Harbors, iron port, 65 

Typhoid fever, table of death rates, 
186; water as cause of, 185-186 

Tyre, 441, 443 

Tyrol, 371 

Uncompahgre (irrigation) project, 197 

Union Pacific Railway, 232 

United Kingdom, 303-320 ; African 
possessions, 413; basis of great- 
ness, 303, 304 ; Birmingham (iron), 
74» 3°5 5 British Empire, 319-320; 
canals, 312; coalfields, 87-89; com- 
merce, 317-319; cotton industry, 
33» 34> 3 06 ' 3°7> 3 d8 ' 3°9 5 English 
agriculture, 305, 306 ; exports, 282 ; 
fisheries, 310; foreign trade, 281 ; 
forests, 306 ; free-trade nation, 268 ; 
Glasgow, 75; grants to steamship 
lines, 264 ; imports, 283 ; industrial 
England, 305; Ireland, 316, 317; 
iron, 73-75; metropolitan England, 
304; Middlesbrough, 75; mineral 
industry, 309, 310; Newcastle, 75, 
305, 311 ; ocean cables belonging 
to, 252, 253; railways, 312; Scot- 
land, 314-316; seaports, 311,312; 
Sheffield (steel), 74; trade with 
United States, 281; Wales, 310; 
wheat, 16; woolen industry, 308, 309 

United States, Appalachian region, 
1 1 2-1 14; Atlantic region, 113; 
Cordilleran highlands, 117, 118; 
Great Lakes region, 116, 117; Gulf 
region, 116; latitude, 11 1; Mis- 
sissippi basin t 114-116; Pacific 
coast region, 118; physical fea- 
tures, in; position, in, 113 

Unity of nations promoted by com- 
merce, 447, 448 

Urfa, 387 

Uruguay, 430 

Utah, asphaltite, 165 ; coal, 84 ; phos- 
phates, 167; salt, 165; silver, 176; 
sugar beets, 132 

Utica, ancient, 441 

Utica, New York, knit goods in, 208 

Valencia, 364 
Valladolid, 364 

Valparaiso, 429, 431, 435 

Vancouver, 297, 298; cables from, 
253, 407 

Vancouver Island, coal in, 292 

Vanderbilt lines, 232 

Vegetables, 128; preservation, 130; 
transportation, 130, 131 

Venezuela, 432, 433 

Venice, 361 ; commercial history, 443, 
444 ; shipping in harbor, 442 

Vera Cruz, 438 

Vermilion, iron ores, 61 

Victoria, British Columbia, 298 

Victoria Falls, 420 

Victoria Nyanza, 413, 420 

Vienna, Danube at, 371 ; notice of, 
374 ; viewpoint for Austria, 371-373 

Vineyards, Lake Geneva, 354 

Virginia, coal, 82, 84 ; iron, 61 ; 
tobacco, 136 ; valley of, 1 14 ; water- 
ways, 229 

Vistula River, 335, 336 

Vladivostok, 401 

Volga River, 381 

Vosges Mountains, 321, 357 

Wales, 310; coal fields, 88; roofing 

slates, 310 
Warsaw, 382 

Warwick, Rhode Island, 204 
Wasatch Mountains, 117, 118 
Washington, 222 
Washington state, coal, 84; water 

power, 193, 194 
Water power, 190-194; Canada, 292, 

2 94 

Water resources of the United States, 
180-201; artesian wells, 183, 184; 
conservation, 181-183; drainage, 
199, 200; floods, 199; ice, 190; irri- 
gation, 195-199; lakes, 184; mineral 
waters, 200, 201 ; navigation, 190; 
new view of water, 181 ; rivers, 
185-189; sources of water, 180; 
springs, 183 ; water power, 190- 
194; wells, 183 

Water table, the, 180 

Waterford, Ireland, 317 

Waterways, Canada, 300, 301 ; com- 
mission on, in United States, 201 ; in 
early days, 229 ; in Germany, 340- 
342, 344 ; map of interior, in United 
States, 235 ; new era, 234-239. {See 
water resources of the United States) 

Wax of bees, 1 54 

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Weather Bureau, 247, 262, 263; use 
of telegraph by, 247, 252 

Weights and measures, 256, 257 ; In- 
ternational Bureau of, 256 

Welland Canal, 237, 238, 301 

Wells, 183 

Westerly, Rhode Island, granites of, 

Western Union Telegraph Company, 

West Indies, 433, 434 ; cotton, 27 ; 
products, 436 

West Riding coal field, 87 

West Virginia, coal, 82, 83 ; iron, 61 ; 
natural gas, 164; petroleum, 162, 


" Whaleback" steamers, 11, 12 

Whaling, 159 

Wheat, 1 -21 ; Algiers, 5; Argentina, 
19; Australia, 19; "bonanza" 
farms, 7 ; breeding, 2 ; Canada, 
293; China, 19; consumption, 21; 
crop, United States, in 1866 and 
1906,6; distribution, 1,2; domes- 
tic trade in, 10; Dondlinger, quoted, 
12; Egyptian, 3; elevators, 11, 
12; Europe, 15-19; experiment 
station, Sitka, 4; export crop, 13; 
exports of United States, 19, 
20; financial importance, 12, 13; 
Fort Simpson, 4; France, 322; 
" Genesee country," 5 ; harvest, 5, 
6; history, 1 ; Hungary, 17 ; India, 
5, 19; Italy, 359; Latin countries, 
17; latitude range, 4, 5; leading 
states, 5, 6; manufacture, 20; 
methods on farm, 6, 7 ; Mexico, 4 ; 
milling centers, 9, 203 ; milling 
processes, 8, 9 ; movement of cen- 
ter, United States, 5 ; North Africa, 
19 ; North America, 5, 6 ; Norway, 
5; Odessa, 18; price, 1870-1908, 13; 
production, 20 (all countries, 1904- 
1908, 16; United States, 1899-1908, 
3, 1870-1909, 13); Russia, 17*379 5 
search for new kinds, 3 ; in the 
shock, 7 ; Siberian, 18, 19 ; Slav 
countries, 17; soil for, 3; Spain, 
364; temperature, 3, 4; Teutonic 
countries, 1 5 ; threshing, 8 ; trans- 
portation, 21 ; United Kingdom, 
16, 306; varieties, 2; "wheat pit," 

Chicago, 14; world market, 15; 

yield of, per acre, 121 
White, I. C, quoted, 90 
White Mountains, 114 
White Star Line, 312 
Wieliczka, salt beds of, 373 
Wilderness Road, 230 
Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, 80 
Willamette valley, 1 18 
Wineindustry,Argentina,428; France, 

323; Italy, 359, 361 ; United States, 

I33» 134 

Winnipeg, 299, 300; manufactures, 
295; transportation, 301 

Wireless telegraphy, 248, 253, 254 

Wisconsin, cranberries in, 128 

Wolverhampton, 305 

Wood pulp, in United States, 140, 
141 ; imports of, 144 

Woodwork in Germany, 340 

Wool, Australia, 407, 408, 410 ; indus- 
try in England, 308, 309; United 
States, 155; use of, compared with 
cotton, 38 

Worcester, England, 310 

World's commerce, 440-448; Atlan- 
tic period, 444, 445 ; Mediterranean 
period, 440-444; oriental period, 
440 ; Pacific period, 445 ; social and 
moral effect* of commerce, 446- 
448; types of commercial expan- 
sion, 445, 446 

Wyoming, petroleum, 162; phos- 
phates, 167 ; sheep, 146 

Yakima valley (irrigation) project, 198 

Yangtse River, 395, 397, 440 

Yarkand, 397, 440 

Yarmoutn, 310 

Yemen, 388 

Yokohama, coaling station, 87 

Yorkshire, 308 

Youngstown, Ohio, iron, 206 

Yukon region, gold in, 292 

Yuma (irrigation) project, 197 

Zambezi River, 418, 420 ; basin, 414 

Zanzibar, 413, 421 

Zinc, 177, 309 

Zollverein, 345 

Zurich, 355 _ 

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